Vol. 20 No. 2-text

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Journal of the
Vol. 20, No. 2 April 1986

ISSN 0311-8150

Registered by Australia Post Publication No. NBH0790THE N.S.W. FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS CLUB
PATRON A.R. McGill, O.A.M.
D. Turner
The object of the Club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and the
habitats they occupy.
Annual subscription rates of the Club (due 1st July each year) are’
Adult Member $15.00
Junior Member (up to 17 yrs) S 5.00
All members receive a quarterly newsletter and a copy of the quarterly journal “Australian
Birds”. The price of the journal is $3.50 plus postage per issue to non-members. Club badges
are available to club members at $1.40 or S1.70 if posted. The Club holds a meeting and a field
excursion each month.
All correspondence should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary and all. membership fees should
be sent to the Hon. Treasurer at: P.O. Box C436, Clarence Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 2000.
Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at: Dept. of Ornithology, Australian Museum, 6-8
College Street, Sydney 2000.MD&
Volume 20, No. 2 April 1986
Bird densities may change through time as the result of either natural or human -related factors. Monitoring is
necessary to understand the nature and causes of these changes and for the development of sound programmes
of management of bird populations. For these reasons the NSW Field Ornithologists’ Club (NSWFOC) began
in 1978 to organize regular counts of birds around Sydney. My aim in the present paper is to present a preliminary
analysis of data from these bird counts, to consider the potential of these counts for monitoring changes in bird
density, and to discuss ways in which any changes might be compared with other factors.
The NSWFOC bird counts are carried out on a day near the end of May and a day near the beginning of
November of each year within a region bounded by the Pacific Ocean and a circle of radius 80 km centred at
the GPO, Sydney. This region is subdivided into ten areas (Fig.1), within each of which a separate count is
organized. These counts are made by varying sized groups of people, each member of which records the
following: (i) duration of count; (ii) distance travelled during the count; (iii) numbers of each bird species seen
or heard during the count. Counts are sometimes spread over a number of different localities, are carried out
in urban parkland or bushland and are spread over the whole day. At the end of the day the data collected by34 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
Sjfdhey. 19.

  1. 6. 8. Royal
    West National
    Camden Park
    Figure 1: Geographical regions for NSW Field Ornithologists Club bird counts.APRIL 1986 35
    all the people in each area are combined. These data along with the number of people counting birds in each
    area are subsequently published in the NSWFOC Newsletter.
    The census methods, which apparently have not been previously recorded, are as follows (J. Dixon, pers.
    comm.). Birds are detected, using sight and sound, by observers travelling either on foot or in a vehicle. The
    total distance recorded is the cumulative distance without regard to the method of transport of the observers.
    Observers count the numbers of any identified birds that are detected. There are no restrictions on the distance
    between observer and bird. However, if a route is re -tracked birds and distances are not recorded unless
    something new is detected. Observers tend to visit the same areas each year but this is not a requirement.
    My analyses are based on the data presented in NSWFOC Newsletters starting with November 1979. have
    been unable to locate earlier data and data for May 1980.
    The numbers of birds recorded for an area should increase with increases in “sampling effort” where
    sampling effort is measured by the total duration of counts made in the area, or the total distance travelled during
    these counts, or the number of people involved. There would appear to be no a priori basis for choosing one
    of these measures over another and so shall consider all three below.
    Unfortunately, data are available for too few years to justify statistical analyses. There are, however, some
    patterns in the data that are consistent over the limited number of years. present these patterns below, not
    as proven patterns, but as examples of potential patterns to evaluate in the future.
    A. Temporal changes in each area.
    The number of birds counted per person varied greatly from one time to another for each area and between
    areas (Figs. 2 & 3). The same was true for the numbers of birds counted per km and per hour. The magnitude
    of the fluctuations makes it difficult to discern average seasonal patterns for each area (eg Figs. 2 & 3).
    B. Temporal changes in the entire region.
    If the data from all areas are combined the year-to-year fluctuations are reduced and there appears to be a
    tendency for bird numbers per unit sampling effort to be higher in May than in November (Fig. 4).
    The three measures of sampling effort appear to yield similar results in terms of seasonal pattern and relative
    magnitude of fluctuations (Fig. 4). Consequently one measure is obviously not more useful than the others. In
    the analysis below I shall, however, use the total number of people as the measure of sampling effort and exclude
    Area 7, since this procedure provides the most complete information on temporal fluctuations.36 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    C. Seasonal patterns of abundance of different families of birds.
    Among the most common families several seasonal patterns occurred during 1979 to 1984. Honeyeaters
    (Meliphagidae) and gulls and terns (Laridae) showed higher numbers per person in May than in November (Fig.
    5); waders (Haematopodidae and Charadriidae) showed the reverse pattern (Fig. 5); swans and ducks (Anatidae),
    lorikeets, cockatoos and parrots (Psittacidae) fluctated widely but showed no consistent seasonal pattern (Fig.
    6); warblers, thornbills etc (Acanthizidae) and robins, fantails and flycatchers (Muscicapidae and Monarchidae)
    showed relatively consistent numbers per person and no apparent seasonal pattern (Fig. 6).
    D. Seasonal patterns of abundance for different species.
    A variety of temporal patterns was shown by the common species. For example, higher numbers per person
    were counted in May than in November for the Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae, Domestic Pigeon Columba
    livia, Starling Sturnus vulgaris, Indian Myna Acridotheres tristis, Coot Fulica atra, Yellow -faced Honeyeater
    Meliphaga chrysops and New Holland Honeyeater Philidonyris novaehollandiae, while the House Sparrow Passer
    domesticus, Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena, Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala and Superb Blue Wren
    Ma/urus cyaneus showed no consistent seasonal pattern.
    The NSWFOC Bird Counts, when expressed in terms of numbers of birds observed per unit sampling effort,
    appear to show seasonal patterns which vary from one group or species to another. Consequently these counts
    may be sensitive to seasonal changes in either the abundances or behaviours of the birds. At one time of year
    certain birds might be either more numerous or more easily detected than at another. The magnitude of some
    of the seasonal variation in numbers of birds observed would seem to be too great to be due to changes in
    detectability of birds. The seasonal patterns are therefore likely to reflect changes in abundance in addition,
    possibly, to changes in detectability.
    The magnitude of seasonal and yearly fluctuations in the numbers of birds observed (per unit effort) and
    the small number of years for which data are available make it impossible to reliably detect any long term changes
    in abundance that may have occurred. However, the apparent sensitivity of the counts to seasonal variation
    in abundance indicates that in the future these counts may enable such changes to be detected.
    One measure of sampling effort is not obviously better than another. It is therefore desirable that all three
    measures be recorded in the future. It is also desirable, however, that written guidelines be adopted for the
    counting procedure as this should ensure that the procedure does not change over the years. Any such change
    would render the counts useless in terms of detecting changes in abundance of birds. The counts might also
    benefit from separately recording those birds detected while travelling in an automobile and those detected
    while on foot as well as the times, distances and numbers of people involved. Enhancement of the information
    obtained would result from separately recording those birds detected in certain reference areas that are visited
    every year.APRIL 1986 37
    2000 Area
    Figure 4: Numbers of birds recorded per unit sampling effort (per hour, per person and per km) for each
    acount for all areas combined and for all areas except area 7:
    gulls and terns
    Nov May Nov May Nov Moy Nov May Nov May Nov
    79 80 81 82 83 84
    DAT E
    Figure 5: Numbers of birds recorded per person for each count for all areas except area 7:APRIL 1986 39
    Nov May Nov May Nov May Nov May Nov May Nov
    79 80 81 82 83 84
    DAT E
    Figure 6: Numbers of birds recorded per person for each count for all areas except area 7:
    Many possible factors could produce long-term changes in abundances of birds. It will therefore be difficult
    to relate any such changes that are detected in the future to one factor or another. One possible way to overcome
    this problem would be to establish the most likely factors of importance, to choose reference areas that are similar
    except for a factor of interest and to visit these reference areas every year. Reference areas might, for example,
    be chosen on the basis of distance from a new development such as a new housing area or in areas proposed
    as growth centres where the human population and density of housing will increase progressively over a number
    of years and where the rate of growth can be quantified.
    In summary, the NSWFOC bird counts may provide valuable information in the future about seasonal and
    long-term changes in abundances of birds and about the factors correlated with such changes. However, before
    they can do this the following steps should be carried out:
    (i) Adoption of written standardized procedures for carrying out the counts.
    (ii) Adoption of standard fixed locations for bird counts.
    (iii) Separate counts in reference areas that differ in terms of some factor of interest (eg size of bushland
    area) or that are in areas of increasing urbanisation.
    (iv) Statistical analysis of at least 20 years of data to test for possible patterns and to determine the sensitivity
    of the counts to possible changes in bird abundance.
    Graham H. Pyke, Department of Vertebrate Ecology, The Australian Museum, 6-8 College Street, Sydney
    NSW 200040 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    Werrikimbe National Park (area 12 658 hectares) lies on the eastern escarpment of the Great Dividing Range
    between Wauchope and Walcha, NSW. It contains a diversity of habitats ranging from natural (and man-made)
    grasslands through heath, dry schlerophyll forest, wet schlerophyll forest to temperate rainforest; the park
    contains the largest area of rainforest within any NSW national park. Glenn Holmes, in an unpublished report
    to the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (1982. Avifauna of Hastings Range and Mount Seaview), surveyed
    the region, but the park’s avifauna is otherwise little studied.
    This paper presents a compilation of bird species recorded within the park’s boundaries since the first survey
    known to me in December 1976. The list contains a total of 141 species, and is based on my own records (gathered
    from four visits); those obtained by Glenn Holmes; additions to Holmes’s list by the park ranger; separate visits
    by David Geering, Stephen Debus and by those persons who attended an Atlas camp in the park in December
    1981; and from records in the RAOU Atlas project.
    Holmes (loc. cit.) proposed nine habitat categories for the region, and these are followed in the systematic
    list, using the symbols indicated in each category. These divisions may be briefly defined as follows:
  2. Warm temperate rainforest (WT). Closed forest dominated by Coachwood, Sassafras and Thick- leaved Laurel;
    few trees with buttresses; palms, figs and stinging trees scarce or absent. Mainly medium to high altitudes
    (800-1100 m asl).
  3. Subtropical rainforest (ST). Luxuriant closed forest, with many figs, palms and stinging trees; many trees
    with buttresses. Mainly below 950 m asl.
  4. Wet sclerophyll forest (WS). Tall open forest dominated by eucalypts; rich and varied understory, often with
    tree ferns.
  5. Dry sclerophyll forest (DS). Open forest dominated by eucalypts; understorey generally sparse.
  6. Scrub (S). Closed tall shrubland, mainly with wattles, tree ferns or Water Gum Tristania laurina. Mainly of
    local occurrence within forests.
  7. Woodland (W). Open woodland with grassy understorey, with few tree species (mainly Snow Gum Eucalyptus
    pauciflora); mainly at higher altitudes.
  8. Grassland (G). Natural or induced by clearing; mainly at high altitudes.
  9. Fen -heath (F). Swampy depressions, dominated by sedges and rushes; at high altitudes.
  10. Freshwaters (FW). Watercourses and herbage at their margins.
    Species included on the basis of only one or two reports are so indicated; some may be more common than
    these records suggest. Breeding is indicated only where this has been confirmed. Nomenclature and
    arrangement follows Morris, McGill & Holmes (1981. Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSW Field
    Ornithologists Club: Sydney).APRIL 1986 41
    Two additional species (Pied Cormorant and White -breasted Woodswallow) have been reported, but their
    occurrence is considered unlikely. On the other hand, the following species were recorded during the RAOU
    Field Atlas (in 10′ blocks adjacent to those in which the Park is located) and could also occur in the park: Little
    Pied Cormorant, Crested Hawk, Little Falcon, Stubble Quail, Superb Fruit -dove, Emerald Dove, Scaly -breasted
    Lorikeet, Masked Owl, Sooty Owl, White -throated Nightjar, Rufous Scrub -bird, and Bell Miner.
    Australian Little Grebe Podiceps novaehollandiae (FW); 1 record (5 June 1979)
    Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris (FW)
    Pacific Heron Ardea pacifica (FW)
    White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae (FW)
    Great Egret Egretta alba (FW)
    Rufous Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus (FW); 1 record, September 1981
    Pacific Black Duck Anas superci/iosa (FW)
    Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata (G)
    Black -shouldered Kite Elanus notatus (G)
    Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus (WT WS S)
    Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrhocephalus (WS)
    Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae
    Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax
    Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides (DS)
    Black Falcon Falco subniger 1 record, September 1980
    Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (WS DS G)
    Brown Falcon Falco berigora (W G)
    Australian Kestrel Falco cenchroides (G)
    Australian Brush -turkey Alectura lathami (WT ST)
    Brown Quail Cotumix australis 1 record, May 1984
    Painted Button -quail Turnix varia (DS)
    Little Button -quail Turnix velox (WT WS); 2 records: December 1981
    Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles (G)
    Japanese Snipe Gallinago hardwickii (FW); 1 record: September 1980
    Wompoo Fruit -dove Ptilinopus magnificus (WT); 1 record: 5 May 1980
    Topknot Pigeon Lopho/aimus antarcticus (WT)
    White -headed Pigeon Columba leucomela (WT)
    Brown Cuckoo -dove Macropygia amboinensis (WT ST)
    Peaceful Dove Geopelia placida
    Wonga Pigeon Leucosarcia melanoleuca (WT ST WS)
    Glossy Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami (DS W)
    Funereal Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus (WS)
    Galah Cacatua roseicapilla (G)
    Sulphur -crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita (WT WS W)
    Rainbow Lorikeet Trichog/ossus haematodus (W)
    King Parrot Alisterus scapularis (WT ST WS DS)
    Crimson Rosella P/atycercus elegans (WT ST WS DS S); breeds
    Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius (DS G)42 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    Pallid Cuckoo Cuculus pallidus (DS W)
    Brush Cuckoo Cuculus variolosus (ST WS DS W)
    Fan -tailed Cuckoo Cuculus pyrrhophanus (WT ST WS DS W)
    Horsfield’s Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis (W)
    Shining Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus (WT ST WS)
    Channel -billed Cuckoo Scythrops novaehollandiae
    Powerful Owl Ninox strenua (WT WS)
    Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae (WS)
    Tawny Frogmouth Podargus strigoides (WT)
    Australian Owlet -nightjar Aegotheles cristatus (WS)
    Spine -tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus (WS)
    Azure Kingfisher Ceyx azureus (FW)
    Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae (WS DS W)
    Sacred Kingfisher Halcyon sancta (WS W)
    Rainbow Bee -eater Merops omatus (W)
    Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis
    Superb Lyrebird Menura novaehollandiae (WT ST WS S)
    White -backed Swallow Cheramoeca leucosternum (WS G); 2 records: September 1980, December 1981
    Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena (W G); breeds
    Tree Martin Cecropis nigricans (W)
    Australian Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae (G)
    Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaehollandiae (WS DS W)
    Cicadabird Coracina tenuirostris (WT WS DS W)
    White -winged Triller Lalage sueurii
    Ground Thrush Zoothera dauma (WT WS)
    Rose Robin Petroica rosea (WT ST WS)
    Flame Robin Petroica phoenicea (DS); breeds
    Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor (WS DS W)
    Hooded Robin Melanodryas cucullata (W); 2 records
    Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis (WT ST WS)
    Jacky Winter Microeca leucophaea (W)
    Pale -yellow Robin Tregellasia capito (ST)
    Shrike -tit Falcunculus frontatus (WT ST WS W); breeds
    Olive Whistler Pachycephala olivacea (WT WS)
    Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis (WT ST WS DS W)
    Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris (WS DS W)
    Grey Shrike -thrush Colluricincla harmonica (WT ST WS DS W)
    Black -faced Monarch Monarcha melanopsis (WT ST WS): breeds
    Spectacled Monarch Monarcha trivirgatus (WT)
    Leaden Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula (DS W)
    Satin Flycatcher Myiagra cyanoleuca (DS)
    Restless Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta (W)
    Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons (WT ST WS)
    Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa (WT ST WS DS)
    Willie Wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys (W)
    Logrunner Orthonyx temminckii (ST WS)
    Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus (WT ST WS)
    Spotted Quail- thrush Cinclosoma punctatum (DS W)APRIL 1986 43
    Rufous Songlark Cinclorhamphus mathewsi (W)
    Superb Fairy -wren Malurus cyaneus (WS W)
    Variegated Fairy -wren Malurus lamberti (WS)
    Large -billed Scrubwren Sericornis magnirostris (ST WS)
    Yellow -throated Scrubwren Sericornis citreogularis (WT ST WS); breeds
    White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontatus (WT ST WS DS F); breeds
    Weebill Smicromis brevirostris
    Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki (WT ST WS)
    White -throated Warbler Gerygone olivacea (W)
    Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla (WT ST WS DS S W F)
    Buff-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza reguloides (W)
    Yellow-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa (W); breeds
    Yellow Thornbill Acanthiza nana (WS)
    Striated Thornbill Acanthiza lineata (WT WS DS W)
    Sittella Neositta chrysoptera (WS DS)
    White -throated Treecreeper Climacteris leucophaea (WT ST WS DS W)
    Red-browed Treecreeper Climacteris erythrops (WS W); breeds
    Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata (WS DS W)
    Noisy Friarbird Philemon comiculatus (DS W)
    Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala (W)
    Lewin’s Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii (WT ST WS)
    Yellow -faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops (WS DS W)
    White -eared Honeyeater Lichenostomus leucotis (WS W)
    Brown -headed Honeyeater Melithreptus brevirostris
    White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus (WS DS W)
    New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae (DS)
    White-cheeked Honeyeater Phylidonyris nigra
    Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris (WT ST WS DS W)
    Scarlet Honeyeater Myzomela sanguinolenta (WS DS W)
    Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum (ST W)
    Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus (WS DS W)
    Eastern Striated Pardalote Pardalotus ornatus (WS DS W)
    Yellow- tipped Pardalote Pardalotus striatus
    Striated Pardalote Pardalotus substriatus (WS DS)
    Silvereye Zosterops lateralis (WT ST WS W)
    European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis (G)
    Red-browed Firetail Emblema temporalis (WT WS W); breeds
    Double -barred Finch Poephila bichenovii (DS)
    Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris (W G)
    Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus (WS DS W)
    Spangled Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus (W)
    Satin Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus (WT ST WS DS)
    Regent Bowerbird Sericulus chrysocephalus (ST)
    Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassirostris (WT ST WS)
    Paradise Riflebird Ptiloris paradiseus (WT WS)
    White -winged Chough Corcorax melanorhamphos (DS)
    Magpie -lark Grallina cyanoleuca (G)
    Dusky Woodswallow Artamus cyanopterus (DS W)44 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus (W)
    Pied Butcherbird Cracticus nigrogularis 1 record: 22 July 1979
    Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen (W G); breeds
    Pied Currawong Strepera graculina (WT DS W); breeds
    Australian Raven Corvus coronoides (DS G)
    Forest Raven Corvus tasmanicus (WS DS W G)
    Torresian Crow Corvus orru (W G)
    R.M. Cooper, 132 Huon Creek Road, Wodonga Vic 3690
    Between 12 and 21 April 19851 undertook a bushwalk along the valley of the Guy Fawkes River and part of the
    Boyd River between Ebor Falls and the Old Grafton Road (see Fig. 1). Referred to as the Guy Fawkes Wilderness
    Area (Heiman et al. 1976), much of the region is infrequently visited. As a result there are few accounts of the
    birds of the area.
    The Guy Fawkes River and upper Boyd River wind their way for some 120 km through a valley up to about
    500 metres deep, cut into the New England Tableland between Armidale and Grafton. The Guy Fawkes River
    spills over the edge of the plateau at Ebor Falls into a steep -sided rocky gorge which continues downstream
    for some distance until the valley widens, where river flats and wide, slow moving waters are more characteristic.
    Altitude varies from 1300 m above sea level at Ebor Falls to 250 mat the Old Grafton Road.
    The bird fauna of the area is strongly influenced by the dry forests and woodlands which dominate the steep
    slopes and ridges. These forests contrast with the moister forests (including significant areas of rainforest) on
    Vie coastal side of the plateau (eg Dorrigo and New England National Parks). These drier forests contain tree
    species such as red gum, grey box, narrow -leaved stringybark and rough -barked apple. Other habitats in the
    area visited include high altitude woodlands and grasslands around Ebor, containing snow gum, black sally
    and narrow -leaved peppermint; “dry rainforest” patches in the upper gorge and the Boyd River Valley; and
    the narrow band of wetland habitat along the rivers. Moister eucalypt forests occur along the Boyd River where
    rainfall is higher.
    The area traversed, that is the river valley described above, was divided into three sections: (1) the upper
    gorge, which is a deep narrow valley and which, due to the higher rainfall on the adjacent plateau, supports
    many small rainforest patches; (2) the lower Guy Fawkes River valley, which is much drier and is characterised
    by wide valley floors and a meandering river with grassy flats; and (3) the upper Boyd River (the Guy Fawkes
    River after its junction with the Sara River) which has a higher rainfall again, probably due to the east -west
    orientation of the Boyd River valley towards the coast.APRIL 1986 45
    Z2 A 4 Chaelunch Mtn.
    Figure 1. Location of the Guy Fawkes River Valley, New South Wales. The centre of the map is at
    approximately 30005’5 152015’E46 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    Key: 1 – Gorge above Boundary Creek; 2 – Valley below Boundary Creek;
    3 – Boyd River Valley; 4 – Guy Fawkes River NP
    V -very common; C -common; U -Uncommon; R -rare, one sighting
    1 2 3 4
    Australasian Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae R R X
    Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax melanoleucos U U X
    Pacific Heron Ardea pacifica Ebor only
    White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae U U X
    Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopica R X
    Straw -necked Ibis Threskiornis spinicollis
    Pacific Black Duck Anas superciliosa C C X
    Maned Duck Chenonetta jubata U C X
    Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus
    White -bellied Sea -eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
    Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax U U
    Australian Hobby Falco longipennis
    Stubble Quail Coturnix novaezealandiae
    Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles U C X
    Peaceful Dove Geopelia placida
    Wonga Pigeon Leucosarcia melanoleuca
    Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus U X
    King Parrot Alisterus scapularis R X
    Budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus U X
    Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans V V V X
    Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius U U X
    Tawny Frogmouth Podargus strigoides R X
    Azure Kingfisher Ceyx azureus U U X
    Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae C C X
    Superb Lyrebird Menura novaehollandiae
    Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena U V V X
    Tree Martin Cecropis nigricans
    Richard’s Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae
    Black -faced Cuckooshrike Coracina novaehollandiae C C X
    Rose Robin Petroica rosea U C C X
    Flame Robin Petroica phoenicea
    Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor U X
    Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis CU CU X
    Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis C X
    Grey Shrike -thrush Colluricincla harmonica C C C X
    Jacky Winter Microeca leucophaea U C X
    Restless Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta CU CU X
    Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa C X
    Willie Wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys C C XAPRIL 1986 47
    Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus
    Superb Fairy -wren Malurus cyaneus C V V X
    White-browed Scrubwren Sericomis frontalis
    Speckled Warbler Chthonicola sagittata U U X
    Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki U X
    Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla C C X
    Buff-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza reguloides C V V X
    Yellow-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa R X
    Varied Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera U U X
    White -throated Treecreeper Climacteris leucophaea C C C X
    Brown Treecreeper Climacteris picumnus U U X
    Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata Ebor only
    Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus
    Blue -faced Honeyeater Entomyzon cyanotis R X
    Bell Miner Manorina melanophrys
    Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala UC CU X
    Lewin’s Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii C X
    Yellow -faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops C C C X
    Yellow -tufted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops
    White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus U U X
    New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae
    Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris U U U X
    Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum U U X
    Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus UC CC C X
    Silvereye Zosterops lateralis V X
    Red-browed Finch Emblema temporalis U V V X
    Diamond Firetail Emblema guttata R X
    Double -barred Finch Poephila bichenovii U X
    Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris’ Ebor only
    Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus R X
    Satin Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus
    Magpielark Grallina cyanoleuca
    Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus U U X
    Pied Butcherbird Cracticus nigrogularis R R X
    Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen C C X
    Pied Currawong Strepera graculina C V V X
    Australian Raven Corvus coronoides U C C X
    The birds observed in the Guy Fawkes area are listed in Table 1, where an indication of their distribution
    and abundance is given. Those species recorded in the Guy Fawkes River National Park, which covers much
    of the lower Guy Fawkes River valley (see Fig. 1), are also indicated in the table.
    Due to the time of year (mid -autumn), no migrant bird species were observed in the area. However, seasonal
    altitudinal movements were evident in the common occurrence, for example, of the “red robins”, particularly
    the Rose Robin, along the lower sections of the river.48 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    The distribution of many of the bird species reflected the differences between moist and dry forest types.
    Species such as the Wonga Pigeon, Yellow Robin, Bell Miner and Eastern Whipbird were seen only in the wetter
    areas of the valley, while the Superb Lyrebird was observed only in the rainforest patches of the upper gorge.
    The dry -country species, particularly evident in the central section of the valley, included Brown Treecreeper,
    Diamond Firetail and Budgerigar. The only breeding record was for the Stubble Quail; a pair with four young
    was observed on the Old Grafton Road on 11 April. I saw one species that was not recorded here during the
    RAOU Atlas project (Blakers et a/. 1984). This was the Budgerigar, which was observed in a number of small
    flocks in the woodlands and grassy flats of the lower valley, in Atlas block 29/152. This species is generally
    restricted to more inland areas but is recorded irregularly near the coast (Morris, McGill & Holmes 1981).
    Blakers, M.J.F., S.J.S. Davies: & P. Reilly. 1984. The Atlas of Australian birds. Melbourne University Press: Melbourne
    Heiman, P.; A. Jones; J. Pigram & J. Smith. 1976. Wilderness in Australia – eastern New South Wales and south-eastern
    Queensland. University of New England: Armidale
    Morris, A.K.; A.R. McGill & G. Holmes. 1981. Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSW Field Ornith. Club: Sydney
    Kevin Mills, Geography Department, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2500
    This note records the first three sightings in New South Wales of the Banded Whiteface Aphelocephala nigricincta,
    which according to Morris, McGill & Holmes (1981) has not previously been recorded in the State.
    David Stewart made the first of these observations on 9 September 1976, when he watched a party of three
    to five birds in stony, undulating country with scattered low shrubs in the Sturt National Park, between the ruins
    of Fort Grey and the Queensland border. As he was not aware of the significance of the sighting at the time he
    merely verified the identification and did not note the exact situation or the behaviour of the birds. It is of interest
    that Storr (1973) mentions an observation just north of Warri Warri Gate, across the Queensland border but
    not far to the north-east of Stewart’s sighting.
    Bourke’s two records of the species were north-west of Broken Hill. On 27 August 1982 three birds were
    seen feeding on the ground with Crimson Chats Ephthianura tricolor at a spot about 10 km south of McDougall’s
    Well. This locality was reached on the Silver City highway to a point about 30 km north of Broken Hill, then by
    following a track north-west for some 70 km until it joins the border track near McDougall’s Well. The second
    observation, on 22 September 1984, was of five birds about 30 km north-west of Silverton, close to the border
    and approximately due west of Eldee homestead. Associating with Yellow-rumped Thornbills AcanthizaAPRIL 1986 49
    chrysorrhoa, these birds were also feeding on the ground and flushed into nearby low, dead bushes. One of
    these bushes contained a used, flask -shaped nest which raised the possibility of breeding.
    The habitat was similar in both areas — undulating and rocky, with low vegetation, mostly of Eremophila
    and Cassia and much of it dead. Bourke has observed this species in Western Australia, Northern Territory and
    South Australia in similar habitat and usually with members of other species. His sighting in South Australia
    nearest to New South Wales was on 27 September 1984 just south of the Strzelecki Track north-west of Lake
    Callabonna and in this case the companion species was the Southern Whiteface Aphelocephala leucopsis. Other
    observers have remarked on this tendency for Banded Whitefaces to associate with other species (eg White,
    in Mathews 1923; Goodwin 1967).
    The species is not difficult to identify, but it is so little known and seldom recorded that perhaps some remarks
    on the field identification of the Banded Whiteface and similar species might prove useful. There are at least
    nine other species of small, grey -brown birds that inhabit the same general region and which could conceivably
    be mistaken for the whiteface. However, habitat preferences, calls, jizz and one important field mark (the white
    eye) should rule out most of them immediately.
    Both White -fronted Chats Ephthianura albifrons and Crimson Chats have pale eyes and the females could
    conceivably be mistaken for whitefaces, but they are long-legged, and the grey mantle and broad dusky breast –
    band of the former and splashes of red on the breast and rump of the latter should prevent confusion. Also, chats
    have distinctive monosyllabic call -notes, unlikely to be mistaken for those of the whiteface. Female and immature
    Red -capped Robins Petroica goodenovii have rusty foreheads and pale flashes in the wings; they also have
    distinctive behaviour and are unlikely to be encountered in the sparsely -vegetated environments favoured by
    whitefaces. The Western Warbler Gerygone fusca is also superficially similar, but has a plain brown back, much
    white in its tail, and a whitish eyebrow; it lives in trees and spends very little time on the ground. The Redthroat
    Pyrropygia brunnea has a dark eye and a noisy flight like a miniature Crested Pigeon. Further, the head, back
    and rump are all of the same colour, contrasting with a much darker tail, and the species has a strong, varied
    song and persistent vocal mimicry; it also prefers dense cover, which whitefaces tend to avoid.
    Perhaps more likely contenders for confusion include the Inland Thornbill Acanthiza apicalis, which, in the
    form albiventris occurring in the region, also has a reddish rump. However, it has a habit of cocking its tail, which
    is not a whiteface trait; it rarely feeds on the ground and it prefers denser cover both in the form of overhead
    scrub and undergrowth. Again, like whitefaces, the Chestnut-rumped Thornbill A. uropygialis has a white eye
    and a chestnut rump and it also feeds on the ground. However, it is smaller and slimmer, has a dull -brown back
    and its fine bill and speckled forehead are obvious. Additionally, it appears to have longer legs and when flushed
    it flies up into trees rather than shrubs. Similarly, the immature Zebra Finch Poephila guttata is stocky, feeds
    on the ground, has a heavy, dark bill and pale markings on the side of the face. However, the barred tail is obvious
    and its flight is swifter and more direct than any of the other birds mentioned.
    Banded and Southern Whitefaces not infrequently occur together and are similar in size, shape and
    behaviour. Whitefaces, as a group, are rather nondescript, stocky, ground -dwelling birds with white eyes, face
    and chin and a relatively short, heavy black bill. They prefer an open habitat. The Southern Whiteface has a
    drab, greyish -brown back whereas the Banded Whiteface has a brighter, red -brown back which is probably a50 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    more useful fieldmark than the narrow black breast band. Call -notes of the two species are quite different although
    the differences are not easy to put into words. The Southern Whiteface is the more vocal, uttering a persistent
    squeaking twitter of three -note phrases in a monotonous minor key. It is not unpleasant but has little musical
    quality. There is also a livelier flight call of four short notes. The Banded Whiteface is more vocal in flight; it has
    a softer, more pleasant (sometimes described as “sweeter”, eg McGilp, 1920), twittering contact call, a harsh
    buzzing alarm note, a lively trisyllabic flight call and another call that closely resembles what Bourke regards
    as a warning note of the White -plumed Honeyeater Lichenostomus penicillatus, although the function of this
    call is unknown. In his field notes, S.A. Parker (pers comm.) has described the call (while the birds were feeding
    on the ground) as “a rapid pinging `tri-tri-tri-tri-tri-, distinct from the “twittering rattle” of the Southern Whiteface.
    The records north-west of Broken Hill, as well as the one at Lake Callabonna are of some interest as they
    are south of any published records that we have seen. Still, the Strzelecki track is busy now and with the influx
    of observers it may be that the Banded Whiteface will prove as common there as the Eyrean Grasswren is along
    the northern section of the Birdsville Track. It may also prove to be less sedentary than has been thought. This
    suggestion is supported by the fact that Bourke has seen it only twice in the Wilcannia-White Cliffs -Fowlers Gap-
    Silverton area and never near Fort Grey, despite numerous searches in the region over the past several decades.
    We must acknowledge our indebtedness to Glenn Holmes who called our attention to the fact that the Banded
    Whiteface was not on the New South Wales list, and we are grateful to Shane Parker for permission to quote
    from his own field notes.
    Goodwin, D. 1967. Notes on behaviour of some Australian birds. Emu 66:237-252
    Mathews, G.M. 1923. The birds of Australia. H.F.& G. Witherby, London
    McGilp, J.N. 1920. Notes on Aphlocephala nigricincta (Black -banded Whiteface) and other birds. S. Aust. Ornith. 5:98-100
    Morris, A.K., A.R. McGill & G. Holmes. 1981. A handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSWFOC, Sydney
    Storr, G.M. 1973. List of Queensland birds. Spec. Pubis West. Aust. Mus. no. 5
    P.A. Bourke, 48 High Street, East Maitland NSW 2323
    D.A. Stewart, PO Box 256, Mullumbimby NSW 2482APRIL 1986
    Since Campbell (1900) and North (1904), I can find no serious mention of the breeding habits of the Black -faced
    Monarch Monarcha melanopsis, although there is also a small amount of information in the RAOU Nest Record
    Scheme. I have found one or two nests at Moruya, NSW, in most years since 1976 and here I present some
    notes on voice, nest construction, laying and incubation routines.
    The characteristic and well -described song (Campbell 1900; North 1904; Pizzey 1980) seems to be given only
    by the male. The assumed female seems almost entirely silent when with a nest, except perhaps for a short
    scraping ‘quick’ call. During five hours’ watch at one nest in the first few days of incubation, the singing bird
    wandered far away and in the end came to the nest, sang several times, replaced the silent bird on the nest
    and often sang while on the nest. While he was sitting, there was no song at all except his own until the silent
    bird returned and replaced him and he left, perhaps with a song and continued singing in the distance.
    Previous accounts of the nest and some Nest Record cards state or imply that the nest is entirely covered on
    the outside with green moss and Pizzey (1980) uses the term “decorated”. North (1904) distinguished between
    two sorts of nests: those in slender deep forks of bushes and those on almost horizontal supports, the first being
    tall and cone -like, the second squat. None of the nests that I have found has been covered with moss externally
    and in three that I found while being built it was plain that the bird first constructs a rather small cup of green
    moss, inside which it builds up a taller proper cup -shaped nest of casuarina stems and similar thin twigs so that
    the completed structure looks rather like an egg with its top cut off in an egg -cup. In these nests the green moss
    was certainly not decorative but its use may depend on the site and the matter needs more study.
    Only the female built in all the nests that I watched, as confirmed by several Nest Record cards, but two
    cards, both from Queensland, claimed that both birds built. It would be extraordinary if birds in the north of their
    range differed in this fundamental respect from those in the south but again the matter needs more study.
    In one nest I was astonished to find that the second egg was laid at 06:15 more than 40 hours after had seen
    the first egg and that the third egg had been laid less than 35 hours after the second. This suggests that the
    laying interval between first and second eggs may have been about 48 hours and between second and third
    about 24 hours, unless laying was totally irregular. In another nest the second egg was laid at least 40 hours
    ‘for introductory remarks, see Aust. Birds 20:15, 198552 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    after the first but only two eggs were laid and the record is suspect because, though both eggs were undoubtedly
    those of the monarch, the second was larger with a chalky shell and looked abnormal. Obviously then, the laying
    routine of this species needs investigation.
    Chisholm (1971) noted both birds on the nest, without saying how he distinguished the sexes. Neverthless he
    was quite right, as one Nest Record card confirms. During three and a half hours watch at one nest in the first
    three days of incubation, recorded that the male sat for 79 minutes (35%) and the female for 118 minutes (55%).
    Change-overs were quite rapid, the sitting bird usually slipping off when the other bird was less than 10 m away
    and being replaced in less than two minutes; yet on the third day the female seemed reluctant to replace the
    male at times and the nest remained unoccupied for some minutes longer. When this nest held only two eggs,
    the female sat briefly three times (11, 4 and 6 mins) and the male once for 2-3 minutes, during watches totalling
    225 minutes from 05:35 to 11:45 hrs.
    I could not adequately record the incubation period and all nests that I knew failed before the young fledged.
    None of the Nest Record cards has enough detailed observations to estimate either period reasonably.
    Campbell, A.J. 1900. Nests and eggs of Australian birds. Sheffield: privately
    Chisolm, A.H. 1971. Various bird notes. Aust. Bird Watcher 4:41-43
    North, A.J. 1904. Nests and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Spec. Cat. 1, Aust. Mus. Sydney
    Pizzey, G. 1980. A field guide to the birds of Australia. Sydney: Collins
    S. Marchant, Box 123, Moruya NSW 2537
    Apart from descriptions of nest and eggs in the standard references can find no accounts of other aspects of
    the breeding behaviour of the White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus. It has been reported that co-
    operative breeding takes place (references in Rowley 1976; Dow 1980) but most of the evidence comes from
    sightings of more than two adults attending fledgelings, which in my opinion does not necessarily prove that
    co-operation at the nest occurs because failed breeders in many species of birds may attend young that are
    not their own (Skutch 1935). However, three cards (16, 17/78, 6/79) in the RAOU Nest Record Scheme record
    three adults feeding young in the nest. Our ignorance about general breeding activities of this species is easily
    understood because most nests are quite inacccessible. In 1984 at Moruya, NSW, I was able to follow closely
    the whole cycle in a nest at 3.5 m high slung in the outer leaves of a small sapling Forest Red Gum Eucalyptus
    tereticornis, but unfortunately the adults were not colour -banded.
    For introductory remarks, see Aust. Birds 20: 15, 1985APRIL 1986 53
    The first cobweb or spiders’ cocoons were laid down on 17 October. During half -an -hour’s watch on 18 October
    a single bird came with material four times; a single bird came six times with one companion that even
    accompanied it to the nest but left before it did without building; and once accompanied by three birds, all of
    which huddled round the building bird but probably did not contribute material. On 19 October the single bird
    that was building began to rob material from the sides and bottom of a Crested Shrike -tit’s Falcunculus frontatus
    nest about 10 m away and by the next day had almost entirely demolished it, watched for 80 minutes on that
    day and noted that the single builder came seven times unaccompanied, seven times with one companion (even
    right to the nest), and once with two companions, which left with the builder. On 22 October the nest was being
    lined with fur and was virtually complete.
    I have little doubt that only one bird built, as is de rigeur among the eight other species of honeyeaters that
    I have watched building; in those too the female has always been accompanied by her mate to the nest while
    building. I assume that in the White-naped Honeyeater the builder is also the female.
    At 08:15 hrs on 23 October there was one egg in the nest. A bird sat on the nest, restlessly, from 11:30 to 12:00
    hrs, from 16:55 to 17:09 hrs and returned to the nest, possibly for the night, at 17:38 hrs. At 05:00 hrs on 24
    October the nest still had one egg and was not occupied. Two birds came at 05:13 hrs; then at 05:20 hrs she
    became restless, turning round and standing up, was fed on the nest at 05:25 hrs and left at 05:36 hrs when
    there were two eggs.
    I watched on 24, 25 and 30 October for a total of 265 minutes during which the bird was on for 204 (77%) minutes
    and off for 61 (23%) minutes. She was fed on the nest only five or six times but was led to, or enticed off, the
    nest by another bird six times. The second bird did not replace her on the nest. On 25 October between 05:15
    and 06:55 hrs incubation was in stints that averaged 5 min 59 sec (range 0.42 – 14.55, n = 10) with absences
    averaging 3 min 49 sec (range 1.20 – 16.05, n = 10). Again have little doubt that only the female incubated,
    partly because otherwise I should have expected to see some changeovers, even for 45 minutes on the nest
    on 30 October, and partly because in the other meliphagid species that I know incubation is by the female alone.
    I could not visit the nest on 6 November and the eggs hatched between 16:30 hrs on 5 November and 05:00
    hrs on 7 November, giving an incubation period of 13 days 6 hours ± 19 hours, but the young were so small
    when first seen that they had probably hatched overnight or about 13.5 days from the laying of the last egg.
    When first seen, the nestlings were pinkish orange and apparently without down. When a week old, there was
    long greyish down on their heads. By their tenth day they were stretching up eagerly for food, never seemed54 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    to become sated and began to flap their wings; they became really active on their twelfth day, flapping, preening
    and hopping up to the edge of the nest. On 23 November before 09:15 hrs they were climbing up twigs out of
    the nest and returning; by 11:00 hrs they were both perched together 80 cm above the nest and did not return
    to it. One was still in the tree in the afternoon but I saw neither afterwards. The nestling period, if the last egg
    hatched about midnight 6-7 November, was 16.5 days. Two calculations from Nest Record cards (1/67, 1/70)
    each gave 15 ± 1 days.
    watched for 17 hours in all from 10 to 23 November, i.e. from the fourth day after hatching to fledging.
    The female brooded for 55% of the three hours watched until the eighth day, for only three minutes in an hour
    on the ninth and thereafter not at all, although she spent much time at the nest, probing into it, poking about
    outside, preening the chicks and sheltering them from the sun, behaviour reminiscent of that of the female Varied
    Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera (Marchant 1984). This behaviour, with the observations that during the
    brooding period she left the nest while other birds came to feed the young, was often in view throughout and
    returned as soon as they left, convinced me that she was the female.
    counted 436 feeding visits in all, i.e. a rate of 25-26 per hour, but this ranged from 12/hr in the afternoon
    of the eleventh day after hatching to 35/hr early on the fifteenth. On three days the first feed occurred between
    04:40 and 05:03 hrs. During many of my watches there were bursts of feeding activity followed by periods without
    any visits. During at least twelve of these bursts birds followed one another to the nest so rapidly that there must
    have been more than two attendants; six times noted three birds at the nest together and all fed the chicks;
    twice noted four similarly. Faecal sacs were swallowed or carried away equally often.
    During the brooding period the usual procedure of a feeding visit was for the feeding adult to come into
    the sapling silently, perch 1-2 m from the nest (rarely coming to it directly) and hop along the twigs to it. Meanwhile
    the female left as it approached and either stayed nearby or flew to the next tree. She returned to the nest and
    settled as soon as the feeding bird had left. Later she spent much time at the nest and sometimes did not leave
    when the attendants came with food but continued to tinker about with the nest while the young were being fed.
    The birds that brought food usually perched on twigs above the nest and stretched down to feed the chicks.
    It was impossible to know what food was brought except occasionally in the last three or four days of the nestling
    period when it was clearly a green caterpillar; often it was a small whitish object (?lerp) but mostly nothing could
    be seen in the closed beaks of the visitors. Up to the fifteenth day, on 86 feeding visits both young were fed and
    on 57 only one, of those visits when could clearly see what happened; during the last two to three days in the
    nest only one young was fed on 65 visits, both on eight. When both young were fed on a visit, usually no visible
    food was brought and the feeding bird after giving its offering to both chicks flickered its tongue. When only
    one chick was fed, an object (?insect) was often seen to be brought. This made me wonder whether nectar was
    being brought on those visits when could see no food and solid items on the others; it might be possible for
    the adults to feed both chicks with a load of nectar but it would be hardly possible for them to do so with a single
    insect. The observation suggests also a change of diet for the chicks towards the end of the nestling period.
    However, the suggestion is most tentative.APRIL 1986 55
    In summary, building in this species is probably by the female alone, though other birds and particularly her
    mate accompany her closely. Incubation is also only by the female; she is fed on the nest occasionally but is
    often called off, and led back to it, by her mate. Feeding of the chicks is carried out mostly by her mate and other
    attendants but the relationships of these attendants to the primary is not known. A study is needed of banded birds.
    Dow, D. 1980. Communally breeding Australian birds with an analysis of distributional and environmental factors.
    Emu 80: 121-140
    Marchant, S. 1984. Notes on the breeding of Varied Sittellas Daphoenositta chrysoptera. Corella 8: 11-15
    Rowley, I. 1976. Co-operative breeding in Australian birds. Proc. XVI Int. Orn. Congr.: 657-666
    Skutch, A. 1935. Helpers at the nest. Auk 52: 257-273
    S. Marchant, Box 123, Moruya NSW 2537
    Although much attention has been paid to some aspects of the behaviour of the Dusky Woodswallow Artamus
    cyanopterus (e.g. clustering and roosting), I can find no serious reports of its breeding behaviour beyond the
    standard descriptions of nests and eggs. Co-operative breeding has been recorded incidentally (Harrison 1969;
    Rowley 1976; Dow 1980). In 1984 I was able to watch a few birds quite closely, when the species bred on my
    property at Moruya, NSW, for the first time since 1975. Interpretation of observations were handicapped because
    the birds were not colour -banded.
    Four or five birds appeared on 21 September and it soon became apparent that they had settled down as
    a trio and as a pair. The trio began searching for nesting sites and building preliminary nests by 25 September
    but did not settle on a site till 13 October, when they started their first nest on a twisted twiggy hanging limb
    of a big Rough -barked Apple Angophora floribunda, 20-25 metres high. The young fledged from this nest on
    26 November and by 28 November the birds had started another nest, similarly placed in the same tree within
    10-15 m of the first. This nest totally disappeared on 25-26 December soon after the young hatched.
    The pair similarly searched for sites and built preliminary nests until 8 November, when they probably started
    to build on top of a dead broken stump of an Acacia at 2.25 m high. I found this nest on 18 November, containing
    one egg. Three young fledged on 23 December. By 31 December all these birds, old and young, had disappeared
    but some, doubtfully the same, reappeared in February 1985.
    For introductory remarks see Aust. Birds 20: 15, 1985AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    There being only two primary pairs, territories were probably ill-defined but it was hard to follow individuals among
    the trees. Once nests were established, the owners seemed to stay generally within an area of less than two
    hectares and to meet rarely. However, especially in the first three weeks after arrival, I noticed aggressive chasing
    in the areas where there seemed to be a common boundary: one bird in purposeful level flight chasing another,
    or four birds chasing about in confused flight with grating calls, and once a tussle between two birds that fell
    grappling to the ground.
    Behaviour as a whole was varied and hard to generalise without marked birds because the birds were
    constantly on the move and liable to fly far. Periods of perching prominently on bare dead branches or sideways
    on tree -trunks were broken by swoops for feeding, the swoops always ending on a perch different from the starting
    point. During three hours of watching recorded feeding on the ground seven times; swooping to catch prey
    in the air below about 20 m, twenty-eight times; gleaning from leaves, five; gleaning from trunks or branches,
    twenty-nine; and once an excursion above the tree tops – I assumed for food – in high circular flight. I noticed
    the birds visiting eucalyptus blossom only in the first hour of daylight when the sun first came onto a flowering
    tree -top. Evidently the birds foraged widely at all levels in the habitat but mostly aerially or by gleaning within
    20 m of the ground. Large prey was taken to a perch, held down by the foot, dismembered and eaten. One bird
    quite often fed another, presumably courtship feeding from male to female, but it was curious that the male could
    be reluctant to release the food; a tug-of-war then developed between the birds, sometimes ending with the
    recipient getting none of the offering or only part of it.
    The periods of feeding were regularly interrupted when two or three birds huddled together on high bare
    perches in sunlight and spent a long time preening and allopreening, often hopping over one another from side
    to side or wedging in between. I could not quantify this, not knowing which bird was which. Individuals also
    perched alone, preening for long periods, during which the wagging of the white -tipped tail and much exposure
    of the white lining under the wing probably acted as a recognition signal.
    During the first two or three weeks of their presence, and less or not at all later, there were times when all
    the birds apparently vanished; either I could find none when I arrived or they disappeared after I had been watching
    them for some time. Sometimes was able to keep a bird in view as it flew away in purposeful flight until lost
    above the tree- tops 300-400 m away and sometimes I picked up a bird, circling perhaps at 500 m, that eventually
    came down to the territory in one long swoop. Ostensibly these high and distant flights were much like hawking
    flights round and just above the tree -tops but came to think that they must have had some significance other
    than that of feeding, perhaps as some sort of communal display.
    A striking aspect of the behaviour of these birds is the time spent on preening and allopreening, which
    seemed to be much more than one normally sees in other species. The mysterious absences of the birds from
    their territories is another. Speculation about these matters would be futile on the basis of what I recorded but
    my observations at least suggest interesting lines of research that can only be undertaken with banded birds,
    preferably in less wooded areas than where worked, and ones in which the birds can be followed for
    greater distances.APRIL 1986 57
    The birds remained active until dusk when it was so dark at ground level that they were hard to follow. At this
    time they disappeared into a thicker part of the wood where there were plentiful rough -barked trees. Once only
    I watched them to their roost. A bird came into this area, perched, displayed and flew into the main fork of a
    small stringybark where there was some twiggy outgrowth; it perched just above the fork and quickly hopped
    down into it. Three more birds followed it in, one after the other; two clinging to the trunk with the first bird, the
    other perching on the twigs. A fifth bird arrived but was chased away by the fourth bird, which came back to
    join the others, and all four huddled down into the fork behind the twigs. In spite of checking on later evenings
    I did not see the birds using this site again and could not find others though I was sure that on some evenings
    at least they were roosting nearby.
    In the early mornings the birds were sometimes active by the time that arrived at 05:20 to 05:40 hrs and
    sometimes appeared as if from nowhere, later (05:40-06:10 hrs). On all my early morning visits they spent an
    hour or so perching singly, huddling together as an allopreening group high in the gum trees (usually in the sun),
    or feeding on eucalyptus blossom. Warham (1957) described an “early morning” roost, without saying how
    early, on the branch of a dying Blackbutt. I suspect that this was not a roost but an early -morning huddle after
    leaving the true roost, as my birds evidently did.
    Immelmann (1960) described pre -copulatory display in the Black -faced Woodswallow Artamus melanops and
    in almost all respects his description fits perfectly that of the Dusky Woodswallow, which Boehm (1957) must
    have seen, though his description is unsatisfactory. In my Dusky Woodswallows both sexes used it but not always
    as a prelude to copulation and not necessarily when the two birds were close to one another. Once when it led
    to copulation the birds were 30 m apart, the female near a nesting site. I did not see which sex initiated it, if it
    was not started simultaneously. After some moments the female flew to the male who mounted quickly and briefly
    and flew away. On another occasion, the male flew to the female from a similar distance. On most occasions
    an apparently solitary bird started to display, though it was usually hard to know whether any other birds were
    near, and finished without attracting, or flying to, its mate. noticed the display at all stages in the nesting cycle
    and even just as the birds went to roost.
    When displaying the bird opened its wings almost to full extent but apparently keeping the carpal joints
    close to the body, raised them slightly above the plane of its back and gently waved them; at the same time it
    spread its tail widely and wagged or waved it vigorously round in a circular fashion. The white tips to the tail
    and white undersides of the wing were thus made prominent and doubtless could attract attention.
    Only four days after arrival the primary pair of the trio, as assumed, began to inspect likely sites behind peeling
    bark on dead acacias and in forks of gum trees and were collecting twigs from Kunzea bushes and carrying58 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    them round for up to five minutes two days later. The two then began to pay particular attention to one site and
    the supposed female began to build there seriously on 5 October; the male brought twigs less assiduously and
    both birds were often at the site together. By 12 October the nest was substantial and building was continuing,
    believe by the female only, but on the same day found the supposed male starting another nest 50 m away.
    I I
    They suddenly lost interest in these early attempts because did not see them again at either site and on 13
    October noted them for the first time at the site where they subsequently built their first true nest.
    The pair behaved similarly but less expeditiously and I could not watch it so fully. Building at the first site
    began about 9-10 October but the birds showed little persistence there and abandoned the site after 19 October.
    On 2 November they had another apparently complete nest 150 m from the first that never received eggs and
    they must have started their successful nest about 8 November. The desertion of the preliminary sites could
    not have had anything to do with the shyness of the birds as suggested by Campbell (1900).
    At least two birds came to build the first nest of the trio. They brought Kunzea twigs from more than 100 m away
    direct to the site, calling “vut, vut” (Pizzey 1980) steadily as they flew. Building occurred in bursts (ten visits/28
    mins; nine visits/27 mins) with periods of inactivity between. This nest was completed in about ten days. At the
    second nest three birds twice came to the nest at the same time and two huddled into it building, while the third
    perched below and took no part in building. Thus had no evidence that the attendant helped to build.
    The second egg in the nest of the pair was laid between 06:25 and 07:30 hrs on 19 November, and the third
    between 09:00 and 11:00 hrs next day.
    At the nest of the trio at least two birds incubated, probably only the primary pair. The sitting bird was sometimes
    fed on the nest and occasionally noted three birds at one time on and near the nest but got no suggestion that
    the third bird incubated.
    At the nest of the pair during six hours of watching the eggs were covered for 81% of the time; completed
    stints of incubation (n = 20) ranged from one to 37 minutes and averaged 11.3 minutes. The sitting bird often
    called a soft “vut”; it (?she) was fed rarely (three times) on the nest but at change-overs it was fed more often,
    after it had left the nest; then it or the feeding bird came to continue incubation. During other intermissions the
    sitting bird joined its mate fifty or more metres way and huddled and preened until one or other bird returned
    to the nest. Once the off -duty bird displayed vigorously until joined by its mate and copulation may have followed.
    On another occasion the sitting bird joined two others in a huddle but this was the only time that saw a third
    bird in association with this pair. Various quirks of behaviour and an overall shade of lightness in the plumageAPRIL 1986 59
    as compared with the other bird suggested to me that the female incubated much more than the male – in the
    ratio of perhaps 5:1 – but this needs deciding with banded birds.
    I was away from 10:00 hrs on 3 December to 13:00 hrs on 6 December during which time the three eggs
    hatched, giving an incubation period of 15 days 1.5 hours ± 1 day 2.5 hours.
    When first seen the young were covered in grey down. The nest being in such a small confined space on top
    of an isolated stump, the young had little room when, within a few days of fledging, they became very active,
    standing on one another, preening, stretching and flapping their wings, and calling. They fledged on 23 December
    before 07:30 hrs when they were all perched separately in dead acacias 5-8 m from the ground within 20 m of
    the nest. The incubation period was thus 17 days 18.5 hours ± 1 day 30 hours.
    Till about the sixth day after hatching the young were brooded for one third of the time watched (three hrs),
    thereafter not at all. In 13 hours of watching throughout the period, nearly always between 08:00 and 12:00 hrs,
    they were fed 190 times or an average of 14-15 times an hour by both adults. However, in the first six days the
    rate was only 7-9 per hour in three hour-long watches; in the hour after dawn on the sixteenth day they were
    fed only three times, yet during similar watches on the twelfth and seventeenth days they were fed 17 and 21
    times respectively. In the first eight days distinguished between the visiting adults because each constantly
    foraged in, and approached the nest from, a different direction; one bird, suspected to be the male, fed the young
    33 times; the other, which brooded most, 22 times. Faecal sacs were swallowed for the first six days and thereafter
    carried way and dropped.
    Usually I could not identify the food brought but on the fourth day after hatching, when the chicks seemed
    very small, the adults began to bring them the imagines of the Common Brown Butterfly Heteronympha merope,
    which was swarming at the time, and forced them down the gullets, wings and all. By the last day in the nest,
    the adults were bringing little else except these butterflies, doing so even at 05:00 hrs before the butterflies were
    on the wing. I also noticed that large (4-5 cm long) dragonflies were brought occasionally on and after the
    seventh day.
    My observations at the nest of the trio were necessarily imperfect but there saw nothing to contradict what
    I saw later at the nest of the pair. From time to time there were certainly three birds near the nest but I could
    never be sure that all were feeding the young. Surprisingly large moths were brought to the young in their last
    days in the nest and fed to them wings and all. I was, however, better able to follow the fledged young of the
    trio than those of the pair. They remained within about 150 m of the nest for at least 25 days after fledging, being
    fed by adults for at least 19 days, though by then they were also feeding themselves; indeed, they may not have
    left the area until their parents did so, as soon as their second nest was destroyed. Because these birds had
    started a second nest as soon as the young fledged from the first and were incubating again by the tenth day
    after fledging, the attendant probably played a large part in sustaining the fledgelings.60 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    Boehm, E.F. 1957. Perching birds (Passeriformes) of the Mount Mary Plains, South Australia. Emu 57: 311-324
    Campbell, A.J. 1900. Nests and eggs of Australian birds. Sheffield: privately
    Dow, D.D. 1980. Communally breeding Australian birds with an analysis of distributional and environmental factors.
    Emu 80: 121-140
    Harrison, C.J.O. 1969. Helpers at the nest in Australian passerine birds. Emu 69: 30-40
    lmmelmann, K. 1960. Behavioural observations on several species of western Australian birds. Emu 60: 237-244
    Pizzey, G. 1980. A field guide to the birds of Australia. Sydney: Collins
    Rowley, I. 1976. Co-operative breeding in Australian birds. Proc. XVI Int. Orn. Congr.: 657-666
    Warham, J. 1957. Notes on the roosting habits of some Australian birds. Emu 57: 78-81
    S. Marchant, Box 123, Moruya NSW 2357
    On 13 February 1984 I observed two Crested Pigeons Ocyphaps lophotes feeding on level ground at a partially
    completed sporting complex at Ulladulla, New South Wales. Their behaviour suggested that they may have
    been a mated pair. Their identity was obvious from their general pale grey colour and conspicuous long blackish
    crest, and am familiar with this common bird elsewhere in the State. The birds were present in the area for
    several days after the first sighting, but I failed to locate them on the fourth day, and I assumed that resumption
    of activities by workmen at the site had caused them to move on.
    This is my first local record of the species in nearly forty years of regular observations. Pizzey (1980. A field
    guide to the birds of Australia. Collins: Sydney) in referring to the range and status of this species indicates that
    it is primarily a bird of the arid interior, but that it has progressively extended its range into northern and eastern
    coastal areas of Australia in recent years. Morris, McGill & Holmes (1981. A handlist of birds in New South Wales.
    NSWFOC: Sydney) included all of New South Wales except the South Coast region within its distribution. The
    RAOU Field Atlas (Blakers, Davies & Reilly 1984. The atlas of Australian birds. RAOU, Melbourne) indicates
    several records from the north of the region (around Nowra, Jervis Bay and the Kangaroo Valley), but I am unaware
    of any other published reports within the region. The species is apparently expanding in range and number in
    the Illawarra region (Lindsey 1985, Aust. Birds 19:89), and may be continuing to spread southwards.
    Chris Humphries, 10 Pindari Place, Ulladulla NSW 2539APRIL 1986 61
    On 31 December 1983 during a visit to Big Island, No. 1 Island, Five Islands, off Port Kembla, NSW (34029’S,
    150056’E) a small colony of Australian Pelicans Pelecanus conspicillatus was discovered by Richard and Peter
    Fackender (pers. comm.). The colony consisted of two nests each containing two eggs. This was the first breeding
    record of Australian Pelicans on the Five Islands, and the first for the Illawarra region (Gibson 1977).
    During 1984 LES noted that pelicans were spending a great deal of time on nearby Martin Island, Five Islands
    group (Smith 1984), and on 7 October 1984 he visited the island to assess the status of the pelicans there. Seven
    nests were found each containing two eggs, one of which was hatching. Six young pelicans were also present
    varying in age from downy chicks to almost fledged. The nesting site was on the highest part of the island, on
    bare sandy earth between clumps of Prickly Couch Zoisia macrantha, and extended over an area of about 10
    m2. The island has a total area of less than 2.5 ha, of which 90% is bare rock. Martin Island and its seabirds
    have been described by Battam (1976); it is difficult of access, landing being possible only during calm seas.
    At 12:30 hrs on 20 October 1984, AJL also visited the island for a brief check on the status of the pelicans.
    Landing was made on the northern side of the island, the boat having to stand off due to the lack of a suitable
    landing site. A cautious approach was made to the nesting area so as to reduce disturbance, but some adults
    flew off and three of the more advanced young pelicans moved away down the side of the island to swim a short
    distance off shore. A total of 16 young feathered pelicans of non -flying age were counted, in addition to three
    naked chicks still in the nest. No eggs were noted.
    On 1 December 1984 the colony we revisited the island in company with Messrs J. Hardy, G.D. Bell, D.
    Geering and Miss L. Willimont in order to band the chicks. Eleven chicks were banded with bands provided
    by the Australian Bird -banding Scheme. Two small feathered chicks were still in the nest; these were considered
    too young to band and were left undisturbed. One nest contained a single egg.
    S.G. Lane landed on Martin Island on 10 January 1985 and banded the two remaining unbanded chicks.
    Three of the chicks banded on 1 December 1984 were recaptured. On 27 January 1985 four large feathered
    young were observed in the nesting colony on Martin Island. This observation was made with the aid of 8 x 40
    binoculars from Red Point Lookout on the adjacent mainland. No adults were present.
    In addition to the colony on Martin Island, pelicans may also have attempted breeding on Big Island, No.
    2 during 1984. This possibility was indicated by the discovery, on 1 December 1984, of one dead adult and two
    dead chicks on the southern side of the island.
    Pelicans seldom breed in coastal or eastern New South Wales (Morris, McGill & Holmes 1981), but a recently
    established colony in the Myall Lakes was reported by Moffat (1984) and, in earlier times, North (1912) mentioned62 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    breeding on the Tweed River in the far north-east of the state. The Five Islands are the first marine breeding
    station of the Australian Pelican in New South Wales or Victoria, although such sites are usual elsewhere in
    Australia (Serventy et al. 1971), and this species is the eighth breeding seabird recorded for Martin Island (see
    Battam 1976).
    Battam, H. 1976. Seabird Islands No 41. Martin Island, Five Islands, New South Wales. Aust. Bird Bander 14: 108-109
    Gibson, J.D. 1977. The birds of the County of Camden (including the Illawarra District). Aust. Birds 11: 41-80
    Moffat, R. 1984. Nesting of Australian Pelicans on the mid -north coast of New South Wales. Aust. Birds 19: 6-7
    Morris, A.K.; A.R. McGill & G. Holmes. 1981. A handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSWFOC: Sydney
    North, A.J. 1912. Nests and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Spec. Cat. No. 1, Aust.
    Museum: Sydney
    Serventy, D.L.; V.N. Serventy and J. Warham. 1971. The handbook of Australian sea -birds. A.H. & A.W. Reed: Sydney
    Smith, L.E. 1984. Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspicillatus) nesting in Illawarra. IBOC Newsletter,
    December 1984, page 5
    H. Battam, 3 Alpine Place, Engadine NSW 2233
    A.J. Leishman, 7 Belford Street, Ingleburn NSW 2565
    L.E. Smith, 5/50 Petebough Avenue, Lake Illawarra South NSW 2528
    In September 1983Itravelled in north-eastern South Australia in company with David A. Stewart and John L.
    McKean. Banded Whitefaces Aphelocephala nigricincta were observed on several occasions, in each case in
    similar country to that described in the observations given by Bourke & Stewart (1985. Aust. Birds 20:48-50).
    As discussed by Bourke & Stewart, the Banded Whiteface is unlikely to be confused with the Southern Whiteface
    A. leucopsis, while confusion is only likely with the Chestnut -breasted Whiteface A. pectoralis in certain
    circumstances, ie poor views of birds in flight. If the bird is seen head-on then the distinguishing features can
    easily be ascertained.
    Banded Whitefaces were seen in the following locations: –
  11. 1 September 1983. 44 km south of Mundibarcooloo Waterhole on the Strezlecki Track (at approximately
    29°39’S 104005’E) in desolate sandhill country with very sparse dead bluebush. Two birds flew across the
    road and perched about 100 m away in dead bluebush. They were then observed as close as 15 metres.
  12. 7 September 1983. Two birds were seen 125 km south-east of Oodnadatta on the Oodnadatta Track from
    Marree (28039’S 135°55’E), on the edge of similar sandhill country.APRIL 1986 63
  13. 7 September 1983. Three birds were seen 100 km south-east of Oodnadatta on the Oodnadatta Track from
    Marree (28024’S 135°52’E), again in similar country to the earlier sightings.
  14. 8 September 1983. Two birds seen on the border of Granite Downs and Lambina stations just east of the
    Stuart Highway, at about 26°57’S 135°35’E. These two Banded Whitefaces were in company with Southern
    Whitefaces on gibber plains bordering small rolling hills with scattered mulga and dry creek beds.
    The locality of the birds sighted at (4) also yielded three Chestnut -breasted Whitefaces (which afforded
    excellent head-on views at close range when flushed into a low dead mulga branch), thus allowing all three
    species of whitefaces to be compared within the space of two hours.
    Alan McBride, 3/108 Cabramatta Road, Mosman NSW 2088
    The Birds of Australia. A book of identification. Edited by Ken Simpson, illustrated by Nicholas
    Day. Published by Lloyd O’Neill Pty. Ltd., 1984 352 pp. 200 x 278 mm.
    Only a handful of years ago there were few books which could be used in the field to assist the
    identification of Australian birds. Most of us grew up with Cayley; then in 1970 we had the first
    “Slater” volume, covering non -passerine species, but we had to wait another four years before
    volume two, covering the passerines, appeared. In 1 980 a third guide was published, and many
    thought that “Pizzey” was the ultimate in single -volume field guides. Now we have “Simpson
    and Day”, which is arguably the best yet.
    “The Birds of Australia” is divided into three sections, plus a two page glossary and an index of
    scientific and common names:-
    KEY TO FAMILIES: 10 pages with at least one colour illustration of an Australian representative
    of each family.
    FIELD INFORMATION: 154 pages. Brief de-s criptions of each species incorporate reference to
    habitat preference, a distribution map and for most species black and white illustration to
    show aspects which may assist in field identification. This information appears on the left page
    and the correspondin-g species are illus-tra ted on the colour plates opposite. Seventy-seven
    colour plates portray in life -like poses both sexes, all important age classes, and breeding
    and non -breeding plumages as appropriate.AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(2)
    THE HANDBOOK: 70 pages containing useful informa-ti on on the life cycle of a bird; modern
    avifaunal regions; prehistoric birds; where birds live vegetation and -la ndform habitats of
    Australia; hints for bird watchers; notes of interest on each bird family behaviour, feeding
    and breeding habitats.
    The vernacular names used in the book basically follow the RAOU’s 1977 “Recommended
    English Names for Australian Birds”, but it is unfortunate that cross references to other widely
    used common names were not included, at least in the index.
    Over 60 ornithologists contributed to the text which has been expertly edited by Ken Simpson
    and superbly illustrated by Nicholas Day. However, although it is inevitable that errors creep
    into publications such as this, perhaps a little more care might have been taken in editing the
    proofs. I do not propose to provide a comprehensive list of the errors which I and others have
    noted, but feel that some do warrant a mention, if only to illustrate their diversity.
    Definitions of the terms “juvenile” and- ” immature” are given on pages 273 and 342, yet many
    illustrations are incorrectly labelled for example, several juvenile finches are shown as
    “immature” whereas immature crakes and rails are labelled as “juvenile”; head profiles of
    Cape and Snow Petrels are transposed; there is no illustration “61 b” for the Short -tailed
    Shearwater, but it is referred to in the text; the flight profile of the Black Bittern is wrongly
    labelled as Little Bittern; labelling of the Blue Bonnet races narethae and haematorrhous have
    been transposed; distribution maps for Franklin’s and Sabine’s Gull have been transposed, as
    have those of Lesser and Black Noddy; the accuracy of distribution maps for many species is
    questionable (eg. Magpie Goose, Plumed Whistling -Duck, Pink -eared Duck, Osprey).
    Whilst the standard of artwork is very high, there are many examples of poor proportioning of
    heads, bills, wings, legs and feet and some colours may be too vivid and contrasting. For
    example, the head is too big and the bill too small on the Red Goshawk; the heads, bills and eyes
    of the Australian King Parrots are too small; and the legs of the Collared Sparrowhawk and
    Brown Goshawk are too short, However, these errors do not detract from the value of the
    illustrations for field identification.
    Despite these criticisms this book is undoubtedly the best illustrated and most usefully set out
    identification guide on Australian birds yet produced. am sure most will agree that the
    illustrations of raptors and waders, in particular, are the most accurate and helpful published to
    date. Although it could hardly be called a pocket guide, I know that many bird -watchers and field
    researchers alike will carry this book into the field as their primary identification reference.
    However, “The Birds of Australia” is not solely “A Book of Identification”, as it is sub -titled; it is
    a valuable and worthwhile addition to the ornithological literature of Australia. Whether it is
    taken into the field or not, there should be a space reserved on every bird enthusiast’s bookshelf
    for “Simpson and Day”.
    Contributors are requested to observe the following points when submitting articles and notes
    for publication.
  15. Species, names, and the order in which they occur are to be in accordance with” Handlist
    of Birds in New South Wales”. AK. Morris, A R. McGill and G. Holmes 1981 Dubbo:
  16. Articles or notes should be typewritten if possible and submitted in duplicate. Double
    spacing is required.
  17. Margins of not less than 25mm width at the left hand side and top, with similar or slightly
    smaller at the right hand side of pages.
  18. No underlinings and no abbreviations except as shown in the examples.
  19. Photographs should be glossy finish and not too small.
  20. The Style Manual, Commonwealth Government Printing Office, Canberra (1966) and
    subsequent editions will be the guide for this Journal.
  21. Diagrams should be on plain white paper drawn with india ink. Any lettering is to he
    ‘professional style” or lightly pencilled.
  22. Dates must be written “1 January 1975” except in tables and figures where they may be
  23. The 24-hour clock will be used, times being written 06:30, 18:30 for 6.30 am. and
    6.30 p.m. respectively.
  24. Mr, Mrs, Dr are not followed by a full stop.
  25. In text, numbers one to ten are spelt numbers of five figures or more should be grouped in
    threes and spaced by a thin gap. Commas should not be used as thousands markers.
  26. References to other articles should be shown in the text-“…B.W. Finch and M.D. Bruce
    (1974) stated…’ and under heading
    Finch, B.W. and M.D. Bruce 1974 The Status of the Blue Petrel in Australian Waters
    Aust. Birds 9, 32-35
  27. Acknowledgements to other individuals should include Christian names or initials.Volume 20, No. 2 April 1986
    SOUTH WALES R. M. Cooper
    SOUTH WALES Kevin Mills
    IDENTIFICATION P.A. Bourke and D.A. Stewart
    NEW SOUTH WALES H. Battam, A.J. Leisham and L.E. Smith
    AUSTRALIA Alan McBride

J. W. Hardy

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