Vol. 20 No. 3-text

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Journal of the
Vol. 20, No. 3 June 1986

ISSN 0311-8150

Registered by Australia Post Publication No. NBH0790THE N.S.W. FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS CLUB
PATRON A.R. McGill, O.A.M.
D. Turner
The object of the Club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and the
habitats they occupy.
Annual subscription rates of the Club (due 1st July each year) are
Adult Member $15.00
Junior Member (up to 17 yrs) $ 5.00
All members receive a quarterly newsletter and a copy of the quarterly journal “Australian
Birds”. The price of the journal is $3.50 plus postage per issue to non-members. Club badges
are available to club members at $1.40 or $1.70 if posted. The Club holds a meeting and a field
excursion each month.
All correspondence should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary and all’ membership fees should
be sent to the Hon. Treasurer at: P.O. Box C436, Clarence Street, Sydney, N.S.W. 2000.
Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at: Dept. of Ornithology, Australian Museum, 6-8
College Street, Sydney 2000.Volume 20, No. 3 June 1986
Located on the headlands that make up the entrance to Port Jackson, on the central coast of New
South Wales, Sydney Harbour National Park (33°50’S 151°15’E) forms the gateway to the city
of Sydney.
The park is characterised by massive sandstone headlands rising to 100 metres fronting the
Pacific Ocean, with gentler slopes and beaches inside the harbour. Much fragmented, it consists
of the tips of several promontaries within the harbour as well as a few small parcels of land along
the foreshores. There are six major units (fig. 1): North Head, Dobroyd Head, Middle Head, and
Ashton Park (adjoining Taronga Park Zoo) on the northern side of the harbour, and South Head and
Nielsen Park (with the adjacent Hermitage Foreshore) on the southern side.
Much of the environment has been severely modified since the beginning of European
settlement in 1788. However, since being gazetted in 1975, the park is now returning to its former
state of coastal heath, dry sclerophyll woodland and closed wet forest as the last vestiges of human
occupation are removed. Natural revegetation and restoration through the eradication of weeds66 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
and replanting of indigenous plants is now underway in many areas that were previously cleared
for military and other purposes. Until recently, North and Middle Heads, in particular, were restricted
areas, being the site of several defence establishments.
The area surveyed here includes all of the headlands, Shark and Clark Islands, and the harbour
generally up to Clark Island, but not Rodd Island or its environs. The park environment may be
conveniently divided into seven major categories: (1) coast and marine; (2) harbour; (3) foreshores;
(4) heathlands; (5) closed wet forest; (6) eucalypt woodland; and (7) lawns, gardens, recreation and
picnic areas and other habitats disturbed and highly modified by human activity. Of the park’s total
area of 356 ha, heathlands make up about 39%, forests about 16%, woodlands 26%, and modified
habitats about 19%; there are some 26 km of foreshores. Mangroves, mudflats, swamps and other
wetlands are negligible or nonexistent.
Between 1940 and 1986, a total of 152 species of birds have been recorded in Sydney Harbour
National Park. Of these, about 113 are either resident, migrant, or at least annual visitors; the
remainder (39 species) are either vagrant or accidental in occurrence. Forty-four species breed,
of which six are introduced exotics; another eight species are suspected of breeding while at least
a further five species are known to have formerly bred within park boundaries though not within the
past several decades. Very little information – even in the form of tentative estimates – is available
for absolute population levels of most bird species within the park.
The list here presented is thought to be reasonably complete, at least as far as the resident
avifauna in recent decades is concerned. However, a number of species have surely been extirpated
within the park since the time of first settlement in the late eighteenth century. Such species as Superb
Lyrebird, Spotted Quailthrush, Southern Emu -wren, Pilotbird, White -throated Treecreeper, Red-
browed Treecreeper and Satin Bowerbird are all common in similar habitats elsewhere in the near –
Sydney region, and may once also have occurred in the area now incorporated in Sydney Harbour
National Park. For example, North (1904-1914, Nests and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia
and Tasmania. Spec. Cat. No. 1, Australian Museum: Sydney) specifically mentions Restless
Flycatcher, Chestnut-rumped Heathwren and several other birds as occurring at Middle Head at
the turn of the century. If indeed these or other species ever did occur in the area now within the
park, they must have disappeared by the first few decades of this century. However, historical data
on the early occurrence of birds within current park boundaries are fragmentary and this paper
accordingly focusses on the avifauna as known within recent decades, effectively since
about 1940.
As might be expected, Feral Pigeons, Common Starlings, Common Mynas and House
Sparrows are abundant. Dominant native species include the Noisy Miner, New Holland Honeyeater,
Silvereye, and Pied Currawong, but Red Wattlebirds and Little Wattlebirds are also very common
on the north side. The lack of extensive heathlands or forests at South Head and Nielsen Park results
in some species, common on the north side (eg, Brown Thornbill, Variegated Fairy -wren, Eastern
Spinebill and Little Wattlebird), being absent on the south sideJUNE 1986 67
N.,t!h Ht.
South Hed
Rodd Island (not to
Figure 1: Map of Sydney Harbour National Park68 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
The park list includes 16 species of pelagic seabirds (mainly albatrosses and shearwaters)
that rarely enter the harbour but can readily be seen from various scenic lookouts over the Pacific
Ocean. Ducks, herons, and other wetland species are almost entirely absent. Waders and raptors
are rare. Six bird species are regular breeding summer migrants, normally arriving in September
or October and leaving in March or April. A further six species are regular winter migrants: these
include the White -fronted Tern from New Zealand; Golden Whistler, Rose Robin and Yellow -faced
Honeyeater presumably from the mountain ranges west of Sydney, and the Spangled Drongo from
the north.
Seven species, including the Common Tern, Arctic Jaeger and Spine -tailed Swift, are regular
migrants from the northern hemisphere. These, together with such species as the Wedge-tailed
and Short -tailed Shearwaters, which winter in the northern hemisphere, are among the 70 species
listed in the Japan -Australia Migratory Bird Treaty. A further four species (Lewin’s Rail, White -bellied
Sea -eagle, Osprey and Peregrine Falcon) are listed in various schedules of the National Parks and
Wildlife Act 1974 and its amendments; all are rare in the park.
In the systematic list that follows, the species, names and the order in which they occur are
in accordance with Morris, McGill & Holmes (1981. Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSWFOC:
Sydney). Each species (except accidentals and vagrants) is assigned to one or more of the seven
habitat categories, and its occurrence and status within the park is summarised according to the
following criteria:
Resident – always present (does not necessarily imply breeding)
Migrant – regularly occurring, but only at certain periods of the year
Visitor – relatively frequent in occurrence, but irregular or unpredictable

Vagrant – very rare and irregular in occurrence; less than one record per year

Accidental only two or three occurrences on record

Abundant conspicuous, normally present in substantial numbers
Common – may be confidently anticipated on any given visit, though not necessarily in large


Uncommon often seen, but in small numbers

Rare only a few individuals, or seen only a few times per year
According to these criteria, and disregarding vagrants and accidentals, 53 species are
resident, 21 are migrants, and 39 are visitors. Eighteen species (of which four are exotic) might
reasonably be classed as abundant, 28 are common, 36 uncommon, and 33 are rare. About 42
species occur regularly along the coast, in the harbour or along its foreshores; some 25 species
occur on the heaths, 46 in forest or woodland, while at least 35 species are frequently recorded in
disturbed habitats. Most species are generalists, few being entirely restricted to any one of these
Since most species occur in two or more habitats, each species in turn was assigned an

abundance category (absent, rare, uncommon, common or abundant) within each of the sevenJUNE 1986 69

habitat categories that is, a given species might be scored as abundant in forest, uncommon in
woodland and absent on heath. The results of this analysis are presented in Fig. 2. The analysis
is crude, and based on essentially subjective assessments, but several tentative observations
suggest themselves. Forest, woodland and disturbed habitats support the richest avifauna in terms
of species and in number of individuals. A number of native species are able to maintain substantial
populations in severely modified environments within the park.
Penetration of exotic species seems much less than might be expected, being largely limited
to foreshores and disturbed habitats. Twenty-nine species that occur in parks and other highly
modified habitats (category 7) score either common or abundant, yet only six of these (about 210/0)
are introduced species. Further, while Feral Pigeons and Common Mynas are abundant along
harbour foreshores and pigeons are common along coastal cliffs, with these exceptions no exotic
species scores better than uncommon in any habitat other than category 7. In particular, penetration
is negligible in closed forest.
The 44 breeding species constitute about 39% of the total species list, disregarding vagrants
and accidentals. This total is made up mainly of woodland, forest and heathland species but a
number of species breed in disturbed habitats. Most other species (raptors, waders, aquatic and
marine species) use the park in varying degrees for foraging, loafing and roosting, but not for
breeding. Breeding activity in heathland may increase with improved management. In woodland
and similar habitats, three factors may affect the level of breeding activity within the park. Severe
habitat modification may have depressed overall breeding activity from the primeval level; constant
human disturbance may also depress it; and the relative absence of predators (but foxes and feral
cats, though controlled, are not uncommon within the park) may increase it. The intrusion of exotic
common .:::%
Figure 2: Analysis of the avifauna of Sydney Harbour National Park, showing the number of species,
grouped according to abundance category, for each habitat type70 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
species such as Common Mynas and House Sparrows may also interfere with the breeding activities
of native species. It would be interesting to know more of the effects of these factors, both individually
and in combination.
Situated in the heart of a major city, the main functions of Sydney Harbour National Park are
to provide human recreation and the protection of the region’s historic and scenic amenities. To an
extent unusual in national parks, it is subjected to almost constant human disturbance at a very high
level, thus offering some unusual insights into the nature of the impact of human activities on avian
populations. Several bird species are known to have increased markedly in the Sydney metropolitan
area (and hence presumably also within the park) in recent decades (eg Sacred Ibis, Noisy Miner,
Crested Pigeon, Galah), while others (eg Jacky Winter) have decreased. However, very few precise
data are available.
Little Penguin Eudyptula minor Resident; uncommon; coast, harbour and foreshores. Breeds. Most
numerous March- October, recent counts seldom exceed six. Little on record since 1948, but
recently rediscovered breeding in secluded reaches of foreshore (total current breeding
population c 20 pairs), especially Manly and Spring Cove; formerly (prior to c 1950)
more common.
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans Migrant; common; coast and harbour. Regular off Sydney
Heads July- October, formerly (prior to c 1950) regularly occurred within the harbour, but few
recent records. Numbers inshore heavily dependant on weather conditions, occasionally
Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophrys Migrant; common; coast and harbour. Regular
off Sydney Heads July -October, formerly (prior to c 1950) frequently up the harbour to Garden
Island; 1 at Watsons Bay September 1983. Most common albatross, often numerous.
Grey -headed Albatross Diomedea chtysostoma Accidental, one record: 1 at Rose Bay in April 1931.
Yellow -nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos Visitor; rare; coast; mainly June -August.
Shy Albatross Diomedea cauta Visitor; uncommon; coast. July -August.
Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca Accidental, one record: 1 off Sydney Heads December 1944
(Hindwood & McGill, 1958. The birds of Sydney. Royal Zool. Soc. NSW, Sydney).
Southern Giant -petrel Macronectes giganteus Migrant; common; coast and harbour. Regular off
Sydney Heads July -October, casual at other times, often numerous at sewerage outfalls at
South Head (from Bondi) and at North Head, occasionally within the harbour.JUNE 1986 71
Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus Migrant; common; coast and harbour. Regular off
Sydney Heads August -April, occasionally within harbour during bad weather, and frequently
follows fishing -boats up harbour.
Short -tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris Migrant; common; coast. Regular off Sydney Heads
September -April.
Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus gavia Visitor; uncommon; coast. Erratic off Sydney Heads, generally
rare, occasionally numerous but occurrence dependant on weather.
White-faced Storm -petrel Pelagodroma marina Accidental, one record: 1 derelict at Obelisk Bay,
December 1983.
Australian Pelican Pelecan us conspicillatus Visitor; rare; harbour and foreshores. Subject to
periodic influxes from arid interior; occasionally flying over; one along Hermitage foreshores
during 1983.
Australasian Gannet Morus serrator Resident; uncommon; coast and harbour. Regularly fishes
over inner harbour (especially between South Head and Neutral Bay); most numerous March –
October. Generally only juveniles and immatures within the harbour, adults at sea.
Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo Resident; common; coast, harbour and foreshores.
Regularly fishes along coastline, less frequently within the harbour; loafs and roosts on cliff
ledges, eg at Old Man’s Hat, North Head. Recent counts seldom exceed 10-20; no evidence
of seasonal fluctuation.
Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius Visitor; rare; harbour and foreshores. More numerous
upstream of the Sydney Harbour Bridge; some evidence of increase since c 1970.
Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris Visitor; uncommon; harbour and foreshores.
Erratic in occurence, but occasionally roosting or foraging in flocks to c 48 birds at several
localities, eg Bottle and Glass Point.
Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax melanoleucos Resident; common; harbour and foreshores.
Usually occurs as solitary birds fishing within the harbour or loafing on buoys, channel markers,
etc (breeds at several nearby localities, though not within the park).
White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus Accidental, one record: 1 flying over Neutral Bay in
January 1939 (Emu 39:32).
Pacific Heron Ardea Pacifica Vagrant, one record; at North Head, June 1985.
White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae Visitor, uncommon; occurs casually (usually single
birds) foraging along foreshores, the intertidal zone, and on grassy areas.72 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
Cattle Egret Ardeola ibis Accidental, one record: 1 in breeding plumage at Taronga Zoo, 15
December 1983.
Eastern Reef Egret Egretta sacra Resident; uncommon; coast and foreshores. Mainly solitary birds
foraging casually on rock shelves and wave platforms at North and South Heads. Breeds.
Nankeen Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus Resident; uncommon; since 1944 small numbers
([20) have roosted at Taronga Zoo, presumably foraging along harbour foreshores and park
Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aethiopica Resident; common; parks and foreshores. Familiar scavenger
at grass and picnic areas, occasionally foraging along harbour foreshores. Breeds nearby
at Taronga Zoo (since 1981) and at Centennial Park (since 1982). Unknown locally before about
1950, since c 1980 increasing rapidly in number.
Royal Spoonbill Platalea regia Visitor; rare; casual forager along intertidal zone (eg Rose Bay).
Osprey Pandion haliaetus Accidental, one record: at Watsons Bay, July 1979 (Aust. Birds 15:21).
Black -shouldered Kite Elanus notatus Visitor; uncommon; heaths and parks. Recorded at Dobroyd
Point, North Head and South Head.
Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus Vagrant; recorded Manly, August 1971; Middle Head, July 1983;
South Head, April and June 1984.
Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus Migrant; uncommon; eucalypt forest and woodlands.
Recorded January -October, all wooded areas, but mainly Ashton Park and North Head.
Possibly breeds North Head.
White -bellied Sea -eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster Visitor; uncommon; harbour and foreshores: most
records April -September. Formerly bred (Chowder Bay, in gully near Clifton Gardens
Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides Visitor; rare; autumn and winter. Recorded Ashton Park, June
1983 and North Head, March 1984.
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Visitor; uncommon. Recorded Taronga Zoo, April 1950 and
January 1951; Ashton Park, June 1983: North Head and South Head regularly during 1985-86.
Little Falcon Falco longipennis Visitor; rare; forests, woodlands and headlands. Records include
2 at Taronga Zoo, April 1973; at Gap Bluff, South Head, October 1984.
Brown Falcon Falco berigora Vagrant, one record: Nielsen Park, January 1983.JUNE 1986 73
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides Resident; uncommon; mainly heath and clifftops; breeds.
Frequent at South and North Heads, also recorded Clifton Gardens, November 1949; Nielsen
Park, July 1985.
Brown Quail Coturnix australis Visitor; uncommon; heaths. Recorded Quarantine Station and North
Head, possibly increasing since heath regeneration program, c 1980. Breeds.
Painted Buttonquail Turnix varia ?Accidental, one record: in heath at Dobroyd Head,
October 1985
Lewin’s Rail Rallus pectoralis Accidental, two records: at Clifton Gardens, 1963; at North Head,
1 1
1966 (D. Sawyer, pers. comm.)
Sooty Oystercatcher Haematopus fuliginosus Vagrant, two records: 4 just inside South Head,
October 1984; at Steel Point, October 1985.
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles Resident; common; grassy areas and foreshores; breeds (North
Head and South Head). Often recorded Nielsen Park, Ashton Park and Middle Head.
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus Visitor; rare; foreshores. Recorded South Head, November 1983.
Wandering Tattler Tringa incana Accidental, one record: at Dobroyd Head rock shelf, December
1979 -January 1980.
Japanese Snipe Gallinago hardwickii Accidental, one record: in swampy depression at South
Head, November 1984.

Arctic Jaeger Stercorarius parasiticus Migrant; common; coast and harbour. Recorded October

April. Habitually follows fishing boats up harbour, harries Common Terns and other larids. Often
in flocks; recent counts seldom exceed ten.
Pomarine Jaeger Stercorarius pomarinus Visitor; rare; coast and harbour. Recorded
December -March.
Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae Resident; abundant; coast, harbour, foreshores and grass and
picnic areas. Scavenges at picnic areas.
Pacific Gull Larus pacificus Accidental, one record: an immature bird at Nielsen Park, 14
September 1983.
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia Accidental, one record: at South Head, December 1984.
Common Tern Sterna hirundo Migrant; uncommon; harbour, also foreshores at North and South
Head. Recorded October -December; usually in flocks. Apparently increasing in recent
decades, seldom reported before 1970; recent counts typically c 10-60 birds.74 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
White -fronted Tern Sterna striata Migrant; rare; coast and harbour. Most numerous July, usually
in small flocks, foraging around headlands. Recent counts seldom exceed 5-6 birds.
Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata Accidental, one record: 1 at Ashton Park, August 1972 (Aust. Birds 7:99).
Crested Tern Sterna bergii Resident; common; coast, harbour and foreshores. Alone or in small
groups, often accompanied by juveniles in autumn.
Superb Fruit -dove Ptilinopus superbus Accidental, one record: 1 flew into window at Dobroyd Head
in March 1968.
Topknot Pigeon Lopholaimus antarcticus Accidental, two records: 1 at Ashton Park in March 1951
and again in March 1973.
White -headed Pigeon Columba leucomela Accidental, one record: at Ashton Park, December
1981 (Aust. Birds 17:13).
Feral Pigeon Columba livia Resident; abundant; coast, foreshores, grass and picnic areas,
gardens. Breeds on ocean cliffs at Gap Bluff, South Head and Nielsen Park.
Spotted Turtledove Streptopelia chinensis Resident; common; grass and picnic areas, gardens;
breeds. Associated with weed infestations.
Bar -shouldered Dove Geopelia humeralis Vagrant, recorded at Taronga Zoo in January 1980 and
December 1983; Quarantine Station, North Head, October 1985; possibly aviary escapees.
Crested Pigeon Ocyphaps lophotes Resident; uncommon; woodland, parks, gardens. Recorded
at South Head, Middle Head, and Ashton Park. Increasing rapidly in number in the Sydney
metropolitan area since c 1970, extending recently to harbour foreshores; breeding not yet
confirmed within park boundaries.
Wonga Pigeon Leucosarcia antarctica Vagrant, one record: at Ashton Park, December 1985.
Galah Cacatua roseicapilla Resident; common; parks, gardens. Recorded at South Head, Middle
Head, Ashton Park, Nielsen Park. Increasing rapidly in number in the Sydney metropolitan
area since c 1970, extending recently to harbour foreshores. Classed here as resident because
always present, but most observations of flocks flying over (although also regularly foraging
on grassy areas) and apparently as yet no stable population within park boundaries.
Little Corella Cacatua sanguinea Visitor; uncommon; parks and open areas. Increasing rapidly
in number in the Sydney metropolitan area since c 1970, extending recently to harbour
foreshores. Some aviary escapees, but occasional flocks remain several days. One flock of
52 at South Head in March 1984.JUNE 1986 75
Sulphur -crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita Resident; uncommon; woodland, parks. Increasing
rapidly in number in the Sydney metropolitan area since c 1970, extending recently to harbour
foreshores. Small flocks 2-6 birds, recorded all areas except islands, large flock resident
Dobroyd Head. Breeding unconfirmed.
Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus Resident; abundant; forest, woodland and parks;
breeds. Visits flowering banksias, eucalypts and Coral Trees in all sections.
Scaly -breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus Visitor; rare; tall banksia heaths. Recorded
South Head, October 1984, April 1985 and July 1985; and North Head, April 1984.
King Parrot Alisterus scapularis Visitor; uncommon; forest and woodland. Visits fruiting trees, most
frequently recorded at Nielsen Park.
Red -winged Parrot Aprosmictus erythropterus Visitor; rare; woodland and parks. Presumed aviary
escapees, most records of single birds at Nielsen and Ashton Parks.
Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor Visitor; rare; eucalypt woodland. Recorded Ashton Park, July 1973.
Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans Resident; uncommon; eucalypt forest, tall heaths; breeds.
Mainly Nielsen Park, South Head, Dobroyd Head; recorded at Clifton Gardens in September
Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius Resident; common; eucalypt woodland and parks; breeds.
Common at Dobroyd Head, much less numerous at Nielsen Park, Middle Head and
North Head.
Port Lincoln Ringneck Bamardius semitorquatus Visitor; rare; parks. Presumed aviary escapees,
but about 5 birds at Nielsen Park and South Head throughout 1983-1986.
Red-rumped Parrot Psephotus haematonotus Visitor; rare; parks. Recorded irregularly at Nielsen
Park, possibly aviary escapees although resident at nearby Centennial Park and Rose Bay.
Pallid Cuckoo Cuculus pallidus Visitor; rare; woodland. Seldom reported. Breeding confirmed,
juvenile fed by Red -whiskered Bulbuls at South Head, January 1983.
Brush Cuckoo Cuculus variolosus Visitor; rare; forest. Recorded at Ashton Park, November 1983.
Fan -tailed Cuckoo Cuculus pyrrhophanus Migrant; common; forest and woodlands. Breeds. Mainly
April -October, but recorded also at Nielsen Park in August 1984 and August -September 1985
and at South Head in September 1985.
Horsfield’s Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis Migrant; uncommon; heaths. Recorded at South
Head, Dobroyd Point and North Head.76 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
Shining Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus Migrant; uncommon; forest and woodland.
Recorded at Ashton Park and Middle Head. New Zealand subspecies lucidus recorded at
North Head (beach derelict), September 1972 (Aust. Birds 7:101) and at Ashton Park in
March 1945.
Common Koel Eudynamis scolopacea Migrant; common; wet forest, woodland and parks,
especially with figs. Breeds. Recorded October -January, most numerous at Ashton Park and
North Head.
Channel -billed Cuckoo Scythrops novaehollandiae Vagrant, two records: at Taronga Zoo, 17 April
1984; 2 at Ashton Park, November 1985.
Pheasant-coucal Centropus phasianinus Accidental, one record: at North Head, July 1975 (Aust.
Birds 10:75).
Barn Owl Tyto alba Vagrant, one record; recorded at Quarantine Station, North Head, July –
September 1985.
Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae Accidental, one record: Ashton Park, August 1936.
Tawny Frogmouth Podargus strigoides Resident; uncommon; eucalypt woodland. Most frequently
recorded at Nielsen Park and South Head; bred Taronga Zoo in October 1950 and at Neilsen
Park until 1982; no recent breeding records.
Spine -tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus Migrant; common; all areas. Recorded November –
March, possibly most numerous over heathlands at North and South Heads.
Fork -tailed Swift Apus pacificus Vagrant; rare. Recorded Nielsen Park, March 1983.
Laughing Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae Resident; abundant; eucalypt woodland and parks
Breeds. Scavenges at picnic areas, common all areas except islands.
Sacred Kingfisher Halcyon sancta Migrant; common; eucalypt woodland, parks and foreshores.
Breeds. Recorded October -March, most numerous on the north side, less frequent Nielsen
Park and Hermitage foreshores, not recorded South Head.
Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis Migrant; uncommon; eucalypt forest. Breeds (north side).
Recorded October -January, most numerous on the north side, occasional visitor Nielsen Park.
Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena Resident; abundant; all habitats. Breeds. Occurs all areas,
including Clark Island. Favours woodland, heaths, parks and grassy areas.
Tree Martin Cecropis nigricans Vagrant, two records; at South Head, August 1985; at Middle
1 1
Head, June 1986.JUNE 1986 77
Australian Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae Resident, rare; grassy areas. Breeds. Recorded only at
South Head, where revegetation may gradually eliminate suitable habitat.
Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaehollandiae Resident; common; forest, woodland,
heaths, parks. Breeds. One of the few species common throughout the year in all areas.
Red -whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus Resident; common; woodland and parks, but favours
weed infestations and exotic shrubs (Wild Olive, Coral Tree, Asparagus Fern, Lantana,
Blackberry). Breeds.
Common Blackbird Turdus merula Vagrant. An adult male recorded at Ashton Park, March 1983.
Introduced; not uncommon several parts of metropolitan Sydney, may colonize harbour
Rose Robin Petroica rosea Visitor; rare; forest and woodland. Recorded July -August, mainly at
Nielsen Park.
Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis Resident; uncommon; eucalypt forest and woodland.
Breeds. Common at Ashton Park, Dobroyd Head, and North Head; formerly Nielsen Park.
Recorded South Head, December 1983 and April 1984.
Jacky- winter Microeca leucophaea Visitor; rare; parks and open areas. Formerly common;
recorded Chowder Bay, Clifton Gardens 1949; few recent records.
Shrike -tit Falcunculus frontatus Visitor; rare; woodland. Formerly common; recorded Clifton
Gardens 1949-1952; few recent records.
Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis Migrant; uncommon; eucalypt forest and woodlands.
Recorded April -September, mainly at South Head and Nielsen Park.
Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris Migrant; uncommon; eucalypt woodland and tall heath.
Recorded August -January, occasionally in winter; most numerous at North Head, where
probably breeds; vagrant Nielsen Park (formerly bred).
Grey Shrike- thrush Colluricincla harmonica Resident, uncommon; eucalypt woodland. Recorded
only at North Head. Probably breeds.
Black -faced Monarch Monarcha melanopsis Visitor; rare; eucalypt woodlands. Recorded Clifton
Gardens, October 1949; Nielsen Park, October 1983 and 1984; Ashton Park October 1985.
Spectacled Monarch Monarcha trivirgatus Accidental, two records: at Ashton Park, October 1981
(Aust. Birds 17:20) and at Clifton Gardens, October 1949.
Leaden Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula Vagrant, one record: Clifton Gardens, October 1949.78 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
Satin Flycatcher Myiagra cyanoleuca Vagrant, one record: Clifton Gardens, October 1949.
Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons Visitor; rare; wet forests and gullies. Recorded South Head,
November 1983 and October 1984; Clifton Gardens, October 1981.
Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa Migrant; uncommon; eucalypt forest and woodland. Numbers
declined in recent decades, formerly resident (bred Clifton Gardens 1949), now apparently
only winter visitor (May -September); not recorded Middle Head.
Willie -wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys Resident; common; woodland, heaths, parks, gardens. Breeds.
Occurs all areas, including islands.
Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus Resident; uncommon; forest and tall heath. Breeds.
Recorded at Clifton Gardens, Middle Head, North Head; especially common Crater Cove area
at Dobroyd Head.
Golden -headed Cisticola Cisticola exilis Visitor; rare; swampy grassland. Little suitable habitat,
few recent records: South Head, March 1983 and North Head, October 1984.
Superb Fairy -wren Malurus cyaneus Resident; abundant; most habitats, all areas. Breeds.
Variegated Fairy -wren Malurus lamberti Resident; common; forest and heathland. Breeds.
Recorded Ashton Park, Middle Head, Dobroyd Point; not recorded North Head (but probably
overlooked), South Head or Nielsen Park.
Rock Warbler Origma solitaria Resident; rare; sandstone outcrops and heaths. Breeds at Dobroyd
Head and Grotto Point (confirmed nesting 1964, 1983-1984); also recorded at North Head
in 1956 and (Collins Flat -Store Beach area) 1984, Ashton Park in 1970 (Birds 5:74).
White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontatus Resident; common; forest and dense heath. Breeds.
Common Ashton Park to North Head, not recorded on southern side of the harbour.
Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki Status uncertain; uncommon, possibly resident; recorded at
Taylors Bay and Spring Cove during 1985, South Head and Middle Harbour, May -June 1986.
Formerly bred at Clifton Gardens (1940-1952).
White -throated Warbler Gerygone olivacea Accidental, two records: Clifton Gardens in 1949; South
Head, October 1985.
Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla Resident; uncommon; forest. woodland and tall heath. Breeds
Not recorded southside.
Yellow-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa Visitor; rare; parks and grassy areas. Few recentJUNE 1986 79
records (one at South Head, December 1983; flock same place March -June 1986) but breeds
at nearby Centennial Park.
Yellow Thornbill Acanthiza nana Resident; common; foreshore vegetation and woodland. Not
recorded at South Head or Dobroyd Head; small population at Nielsen Park, which could
increase if current revegetation programmes there and at Hermitage Foreshore are
Striated Thornbill Acanthiza lineata Visitor; rare; eucalypt forest and woodland. Formerly resident,
breeding at Clifton Gardens (1949-1950) and from Ashton Park to North Head. No
recent records.
Varied Sittella Neositta chrysoptera Vagrant, one record: at Clifton Gardens 1949-1950.
Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata Resident; abundant; eucalypt forest and woodland.
Breeds. Especially common Ashton Park to North Head, vagrant Nielsen Park.
Little Wattlebird Anthochaera chrysoptera Resident; abundant; woodland and tall heaths. Breeds.
Especially numerous Middle Head to North Head, where it is the most abundant honeyeater.
Not recorded Ashton Park or southside, possibly due to lack of extensive heathland.
Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater Acanthagenys rufogularis Accidental, one record: in banksia heath
at South Head, December 1984.
Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus Visitor; rare; eucalypt forest. Few recent records, but at
South Head, December 1985.
Little Friarbird Philemon citreogularis Accidental, one record: 1 at a flowering Coral Tree at Taronga
Zoo, May 1951.
Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala Resident; abundant; eucalypt woodlands and parks. Breeds.
Recorded all areas; increasing in number in metropolitan area generally since c 1975.
Lewin’s Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii Visitor; rare; wet forest. Single birds occasionally at
Ashton Park.
Yellow -faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops Migrant; common; forest, woodland and heath.
Recorded all areas, mainly April -July.
White -plumed Honeyeater Lichenostomus penicillatus Resident; uncommon; eucalypt woodland.
Probably breeds. Small numbers resident at Ashton Park since 1945.
White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus Visitor; rare; eucalypt woodlands. Few recent80 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
records; bred at Ashton Park 1949-1951; pair at South Head, May 1986, during Yellow -faced
Honeyeater migration.
New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae Resident; abundant; eucalypt forest,
woodland, heaths, parks. Breeds. Most numerous honeyeater in the park, all areas; also
common in adjacent suburban gardens.
White-cheeked Honeyeater Phylidonyris nigra Visitor; uncommon; heaths. Occasional at Ashton
Park and North Head.
Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris Resident; common; forest, woodland, heaths and
parks. Breeds. Common from Ashton Park to North Head, vagrant Nielsen Park, not recorded
South Head.
Scarlet Honeyeater Myzomela sanguinea Vagrant, one record: 2 at flowering Coral Tree at Taronga
Zoo, July 1946.
Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum Visitor; rare; banksia woodland. Single males at Nielsen
Park, April -May 1984 and October 1985; Quarantine Station, North Head, May 1986.
Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus Resident; common; eucalypt forest and
woodland. Breeds.
Silvereye Zosterops lateralis Resident; abundant; all habitats. Breeds. Common all areas, including
islands; numbers augmented by southern migrants in winter.
European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis Vagrant, recorded Clifton Gardens, October 1949; South
Head, December 1984 and April -May 1985.
House Sparrow Passer domesticus Resident; abundant; all disturbed habitats. Breeds. Abundant
South Head and Nielsen Park, less numerous or absent in the more extensive heathland and
forests of the northern sections.
Red-browed Firetail Emblema temporalis Resident; uncommon; forest, parks, tall heaths. Breeds.
Recorded all areas except islands.
Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris Resident; abundant; all disturbed habitats. Breeds. Abundant
South Head and Nielsen Park, less numerous in more extensive heathland and forests of the
northern sections.
Common Myna Acridotheres tristis Resident; abundant; all disturbed habitats. Breeds. Abundant
South Head, Nielsen Park, Ashton Park and Middle Head; less numerous or absent in the
more extensive heathland and forests of Dobroyd Head and North Head. Scavenges at picnicJUNE 1986 81
areas; attracted to buildings for nest -sites. Current revegetation programmes in all areas may
reduce populations.
Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus Visitor; rare; forest and woodland. Few recent records:
recorded at Ashton Park, October 1983 and October 1984.
Figbird Sphecotheres viridis Resident; common; woodland and parks. Breeds. Occurs throughout
the year at Nielsen Park, feeding mainly at fruiting Ficus hilli and F. rubiginosus; occasionally
recorded South Head and Ashton Park.
Spangled Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus Migrant; common; all habitats. Recorded February –
October, all areas except islands. Occurrence mainly associated with flowering Banksia
integrifolia and Coral Trees. Possibly increasing in frequency since c 1980.
Magpielark Grallina cyanoleuca Resident; common; parks, grassy areas. Breeds. Recorded
Nielsen Park, Hermitage Foreshore, Shark Island, where max. 3 pairs frequent lawns and
gardens; recorded North Head, June 1984; occasional elsewhere.
Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus Resident; uncommon; eucalypt forest and woodland.
Probably breeds. Occurs at all northside areas, but only casually southside.
Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen Resident; abundant; eucalypt woodland, parks, grassy
areas. Breeds. Present at all sites; scavenges at picnic areas.
Pied Currawong Strepera graculina Resident; abundant; forest, woodland, parks. Breeds. Present
at all sites, but usually rare or absent from extensive heaths. Has increased dramatically in
Sydney metropolitan area since c 1970; population in park now substantially augmented in
winter by flocks from adjacent suburban areas.
Australian Raven Corvus coronoides Resident; abundant; forests, parks, heaths, foreshores,
clifftops. Breeds. Occurs all areas.
The assistance of Mr E.S. Hoskin is gratefully acknowledged: he provided many historical notes
from his own records and those of the Keith Hindwood Bird Recording Service, particularly for the
Ashton Park and Clifton Gardens areas. Arnold McGill also provided information from his personal
A.K. Morris, 32 Cliff Street, Watsons Bay NSW 203082 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
Gill (1982, 1983) has given a detailed and critical account of parasitism in New Zealand by the Shining
Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus on the Grey Warbler Gerygone igata. Brooker & Brooker (1986)
compared in detail the nestlings of Horsfield’s Bronze -cuckoo C. basalis and C. lucidus in Western
Australia. Otherwise, details of parasitism and the development of the nestling of the Australian
subspecies of the Shining Bronze -cuckoo are not available. It is therefore worth recording the
following observations made at Moruya, New South Wales (35°52’S, 150°03’E) in 1985-86.
At 09:00 hrs on 11 December 1985 I found a nest of Buff-rumped Thornbills Acanthiza
reguloides that contained a single egg of C. lucidus. At that time the entrance of the nest was greatly
enlarged so that the nest as a whole appeared more like that of a fairy -wren Malurus spp than that
of a species of Acanthiza. The thornbill laid one egg on 12 December before 09:00 hrs and another
at 06:15 on 14 December. On that day the female thornbill was on the nest on only one inspection
out of five after the egg had been laid. She was incubating on 15 December on seven out of eight
inspections before 19:35 hrs and on two out of three on 16 December. From 17 to 20 December
did not find her in the nest, though I checked three or four times each day, nor did I see her nearby.
She then sat persistently from 21 December onwards. The cuckoo’s egg hatched between 12:15
hrs on 28 December and 09:30 hrs on 29 December. Both unhatched thornbill’s eggs were ejected
between 18:00 hrs on 30 December and 08:30 hrs on 31 December. weighed the pullus daily about
14:00 hrs from 31 December to 15 January, when it was sitting outside the nest and may be said
to have fledged.
There are several points of contrast with Gill’s account. Enlargement of the entrance to the
nest to 34 x 36 mm left no doubt in my mind that the cuckoo had entered to lay in the manner of
birds in general. have no measurements of the entrances of undamaged nests of Buff-rumped
Thornbills but four nests of Brown Thornbills A. pusilla, from which young thornbills had fledged,
had entrances of 20 x 15, 25 x 28, 28 x 30 and 32 x 32 mm. North (1904) said that entrances of Buff-
rumped Thornbills’ nests measure about one inch across. Gill noted no signs of such enlargement
in parasitized nests of G. igata.
Gill estimated the incubation period of the cuckoo’s egg from its appearance in the nest and
not from the start of incubation by the host. On that basis my egg hatched in 18 days ± 21 hours
or in about 18 days 9 hours if one assumes that it was laid about 15:00 hrs on 10 December and
hatched at midnight on 28-29 December. This is longer than any period given by Gill (max. 17 days).
It seems to me improper to calculate the period in this way because the eggs probably received no
incubation before 10:00 hrs on 14 December, except incidentally while the female thornbill was
laying. Moreover, have some evidence from observations of other Buff-rumped Thornbill’s nests
that the female incubates only intermittently or even not at all for some days after the clutch isJUNE 1986 83
complete. At my nest the female seemed not to start full incubation till 21 December, though the
eggs were slightly warm to the lips for the previous five days. Maximum temperatures for those days
varied from 28°C to 33°C. Anyway think that the period for the cuckoo’s egg can be calculated only
from the time of completion of the thornbill’s clutch, which gives 14 days 16 hours or thereabouts.
Gill’s young cuckoos ejected other nest contents, usually when three or four days old, even
as late as seven days old. Mine did so when between 42 and 56 hours old but it probably had an
easier task than Gill’s birds because the entrance to the nest was so large.
0 5 10 15
Figure 1. Growth curve for nestling Chrysococcyx lucidus at Moruya, NSW, compared with average
curve for nestlings in New Zealand (after Gill 1983). Sold circles – NZ birds; triangles
= Moruya bird.84 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
TABLE 1. Weights (g) of nestling Chrysococcyx lucidus at Moruya, NSW, taken daily at about 14:00
hrs with a Pesola balance from third day after hatching to day of fledging.
Dec 31 4.0 Jan 4 11.5 Jan 8 19.0 Jan 12 19.3
Jan 1 6.0 5 14.3 9 19.1 13 19.5
2 7.2 6 15.5 10 19.9 14 18.8
3 9.5 7 17.3 11 19.2 15 18.3
The nestling period of Gill’s birds was 19 days for each of three nests or 19-22 for less exact
calculations. For mine the period was 17 days 14 hours (midnight 28-29 December to 14:00 hrs
15 January).
Most curiously of all, Gill’s nestling cuckoos hatched with white natal down, which his
photograph shows to have been long, sparse but conspicuous trichoptiles, thus perhaps distinct
from the usual concept of natal down in passerines. McGill & Goddard (1979) mentioned sparse
tufts of down on the heads of nestling Gould’s C. russatus and Little C. malayanus Bronze -cuckoos.
Brooker & Brooker (1986) also observed “short (2 mm), coarse, whitish hairs (trichoptiles)” on the
heads of nestling lucidus. My nestling hatched blind and entirely naked, though could have missed
inconspicuous trichoptiles on the head. The eyes opened when the chick was six days old but it
remained quite naked except for the sprouting quills. Its skin at hatching was pinkish yellow or pink
streaked with yellow except around the eyes and all over the hinder half of the back where it was
at first greyish black, both areas gradually darkening and spreading. failed to note the colour of
the gape (see Brooker & Brooker for importance of this feature for distinguishing between pulli of
lucidus and basalis). had assumed that the pulli of all parasitic cuckoos were naked until feathered,
from personal experience with Cucu/us spp (canorus, pallidus, pyrrhophanus and variolosus) and
of Chrysococcyx basalis. Cramp (1985) and Rowan (1983) confirm this for other species of both
genera. To find such a difference between two subspecies of C. lucidus seems extraordinary.
Figure compares the growth curves of young lucidus in New Zealand and at Moruya. For
precision and convenience, Table 1 presents the actual weights that I recorded. In general the curves
are similar except that the pullus at Moruya reached its peak weight earlier than the New Zealand
birds, did not become so heavy and fledged earlier.
thank Dr B.J. Gill for helpful comments on a draft of this paper and for drawing my attention to
references that had missed. also thank Mr M.G. Brooker for similar help and for letting me see
the text of his paper before publication.JUNE 1986 85
Brooker, M. & L. Brooker. 1986. Identification and development of the nestling cuckoos, Chrysococcyx basalis
and C. lucidus plagosus in Western Australia. Aust. Wildl. Res. 13 (in press)
Cramp, S. (ed.). 1985. The birds of the Western Palearctic, vol. 4. Oxford University Press: Oxford
Gill, B.J. 1982. Notes on the Shining Cuckoo (Chrysococcyx lucidus) in New Zealand. Notornis 29: 215-227
Brood parasitism by the Shining Cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus at Kaikoura, New Zealand. Ibis
125: 40-55
McGill, A.R. & M.T. Goddard. 1979. The Little Bronze Cuckoo in New South Wales. Aust. Birds 14: 23-24
North, A.J. 1904. Nests and eggs of birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Spec. Cat. 1, Aust. Mus.
Rowan, M.K. 1983. The Doves, Parrots, Louries and Cuckoos of southern Africa. Croom Helm: London
Stephen Marchant, PO Box 123, Moruya NSW 2537
The Leafless Cherry Exocarpus aphyllus is a much -branched shrub or small bushy tree that grows
to about 4 m tall and is yellowish -green in colour with rigid branchlets that appear leafless. The leaves
are but small scales, which are soon shed. Its fruit is a small globular nut 4-5 mm in diameter, seated
on a globular stalk 7-8 mm in diameter which is very succulent, berry -like and bright -red in colour
(Cunningham et al. 1981). The fruits were eaten by aborigines (Cribb & Cribb 1974). find them most
palatable, the succulent stalks being pleasantly sweet, offsetting the crisp nutty flavour of the nut.
Leafless Cherry is common in the Belar Casuarina cristatata scrub near Dareton, south-
western New South Wales, no doubt being parasitic on the roots of that tree. It usually flowers in
winter and bears its fruit in late winter and early spring. In August 1984 there was a particularly heavy
crop of this fruit, every plant being smothered with the conspicuous red stalks. At the time the weather
was consistently wet, cold and windy – climatic factors that must have reduced the amount of insect
life available. The fruits of the Leafless Cherry became an important item of food to several species
of birds, some of which are not recorded in the literature as taking any vegetable food.
The following list records birds I saw feeding on the fruit and is annotated with sundry
personal comments.
Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaehollandiae. Numerous flocks of immature birds, up to
20 birds in a flock, were constantly moving through the Belar, apparently seeking out the
Leafless Cherry. A few insects were taken in the Belar trees but the birds appeared mainly
dependent on the fruit for food. This species is frequently recorded in the literature as being
a fruit -eater.86 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
White -winged Triller Lalage sueurii. In late August a few male trillers, just starting to assume summer
plumage, appeared. All seen were feeding on fruits of the Leafless Cherry. can find no
reference in the standard literature to this species feeding on anything other than insects,
although the Varied Triller Lalage leucomela is a known fruit -eater (Blakers et al. 1984).
Gilbert’s Whistler Pachycephala inornata. A common resident of the Belar, these birds were
frequently seen taking the fruits between bouts of territorial singing or courtship. Standard
references make no mention of this species feeding on fruits, claiming it to be insectivorous.
Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris. Small groups of 4-5 birds were passing on migration
through the Belar and others, prospective breeders, were establishing territories and attracting
mates. Birds from both categories were seen frequently eating Leafless Cherry fruits. This
species has been recorded as eating berries (McGill 1976).
Spiny-cheeked Honeyeater Acanthagenys rufogularis. Common in the region, both in parties of ten
or more birds and as breeding pairs. The parties were apparently moving through the Belar
in search of the Leafless Cherry and were often seen feeding on the fruit. One breeding pair
watched fro some time were not seen to feed fruit to their young, the food recognised always
being insects, but the nest was in a Leafless Cherry! This honeyeater is a recognised fruit –
eater and at times it becomes a pest in the local vineyards.
Singing Honeyeater Lichenostomus virescens. Common in pairs and frequently observed feeding
on the fruits. A known berry -eater.
Masked Woodswallow Artamus personatus and White-browed Woodswallow A. supercilliosus. In
early September, a large mixed flock of both species, numbering in excess of 600 birds, moved
into one section of the Belar, an unexpectedly early arrival for either species. On the rare calm
day they fed high over the trees but on windy days they kept below tree -level and fed almost
entirely on Leafless Cherry fruits. On one memorable occasion the whole flock crowded onto
three adjacent bushes changing them from green to a colourful mixture of grey, white and
chestnut as the swarming birds fluttered on, climbed and hung from the branches, wings open
and waving as they strived for balance.
Dusky Woodswallow Artamus cyanopterus. A flock of 130 birds was present throughout August in
another section of the Belar. The size of this flock was exceptional as the Dusky Woodswallow
is an uncommon breeder locally, usually along the Murray River, and a rare winter visitor in
small parties. Like the Masked and the White-browed Woodswallows they occasionally hawked
insects but more often relied on the fruits of the Leafless Cherry. Like them too, they often
swarmed on to a single bush like a flurry of butterflies.
The woodswallows, with their brush tongues, are known to be frequent nectar -feeders but
no standard reference book refers to them being fruit -eaters. Lowe & Lowe (1972) watched White-
browed and Dusky Woodswallows feeding on fruits of the Weeping Pittosporum (Butterbush)
Pittosprum phylliraeoides and concluded they were eating the gummy pulp, not insects. would not
IJUNE 1986 87
dispute this but I must say that this pulp is one of the foulest things I have ever tasted: it burns the
tongue and mouth and continues to do so for hours after. Lowes’ woodswallows were either
desperate for food or devoid of all sense of taste!
All the birds listed above and observed by me were seen to swallow the whole fruit, nut and
stalk, and were definitely not feeding on insects in or on the fruit. consumed a good number myself
and none were host to any insect or parasite.
Blakers, M.J.F., S.J.S. Davies & P. Reilly. 1984. The Atlas of Australian birds. RAOU and Melbourne University
Press: Melbourne
Cribb, A.B. & J.W. Cribb. 1974. Wild food in Australia. Collins: Sydney
Cunningham, G.M.; W.E. Mulham; P.L. Milthorpe & J.H. Leigh. 1981. Plants of western New South Wales. NSW
Govt. Printing Office: Sydney
Lowe, V.T. & G. Lowe. 1972. Wood -Swallows in mid -northern Victoria. Aust. Bird Watcher 4: 205-210
McGill, A. R. 1976. Rufous Whistler, in Frith, H.J. (ed.) Complete book of Australian birds. Reader’s Digest Services
Pty Ltd: Sydney
J.N. Hobbs, 12 Hume Street, Dareton NSW 2717
There is a small resident population of Black Kites Milvus migrans in the neighborhood of Dareton,
south-western New South Wales (Hobbs, 1961. Emu 61:21-55). Each day one or two kites may be
seen circling the town looking for discarded food scraps, patrolling the highway after road -kills,
competing with the Little Crows Corvus bennetti at the garbage tip or feeding at the piles of rabbit
or kangaroo entrails left by shooters in the nearby countryside. This population is sometimes
augmented by quite impressive irruptions at times of increased, readily available food supplies, eg
an outbreak of myxamatosis among the local rabbits or, as described in this article, an emergence
of cicadas.
In mid -December 1983 numbers of kites began to increase noticeably, particularly along a
one -kilometre stretch of the Silver City Highway immediately west of Dareton. Here the highway
skirts the edge of a 20 -metre high cliff where the mallee sands drop suddenly to the flood -plain of
the Murray River. The gap between the highway and the cliff is covered with vines and citrus trees;
the foot of the cliff is swampy with some tall Red Gums Eucalyptus camalduensis; the wide flood-88 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
plain is covered with close -growing Black Box Eucalyptus largiflorens. The cliff has a southerly aspect
facing the prevailing south-westerly winds.
On 4 January 1984 I made a census of kites along this one -kilometre stretch and found a total
of 137 birds soaring along the cliff -line, riding the updraught caused by a moderate south-westerly
wind. Some were a little above the tops of the Red Gums, others up to 30 metres above the ground,
but all were feeding avidly on cicadas caught in flight. Throughout December and early January
there was a prolific emergence of cicadas at Dareton, mostly in or around the irrigation settlement
with only a few in the native bush. The stridulation of the thousands of insects was a constant
deafening blast on the ears. Only one species of cicada was involved, subsequently identified by
Dr D.K. McAlpine of the Australian Museum, Sydney as the Cherry -nose Macrotristris angularis.
The kites caught the cicadas as they flew from the tree -tops and were never seen to take them
from the ground or from branches. Riding the updraught, the kites swooped and dived on the flying
cicadas, performing some amazing aerobatics and displaying extraordinary flying skills and control.
The cicadas were caught with the feet and eaten in mid-air, the kites sailing almost stationary into
the wind, bending their heads and tearing their prey apart and dropping unwanted sections of the
bodies. Kites, satiated after a spell of easy feeding, perched in dead trees in close gatherings of
ten birds or more. was reminded of a similar experience at Deniliquin, New South Wales in 1955
when a gathering of Black Kites was watched preying on swarms of Plague Locusts Chortoicetes
terminifera, utilising the updraught caused by a high bank of an irrigation canal.
A flock of some 200 Little Ravens Corvus mellori was also present and feeding on the cicadas,
but these birds took the insects as they emerged from the ground or while they dried in or climbed
the lower branches of the trees. Having little difficulty in satisfying their appetites, the ravens spent
most of their time in a noisy flock perched high in the Red Gums where their calling and movements
seemed to disturb the cicadas into more frequent flight. The kites were quick to take advantage of
this, transferring their soaring to the immediate vicinity of the raven flock.
Subsequent observations showed that on rare windless days or the occasional days of
northerly or easterly winds when no updraught was caused at the cliff, the kites dispersed throughout
the Coomealla Irrigation Area where they fed on cicadas flying from trees in the homestead gardens
scattered among the many hectares of vines.
By the end of January the cicadas had gone, the trees were silent and Black Kite numbers
dropped back to the previous level of one or two sightings per day. Local resident breeding birds
could not have accounted for all the kites in this temporary concentration, which certainly was
composed of nomadic birds wandering through the district and staying to take advantage of a plentiful
food supply fortuitously placed to be preyed on with ease.
Occasionally Whistling Kites Haliastur sphenurus were at the cliff but they lacked the agility
in flight of the Black Kites, caught few if any cicadas and did not persist in their efforts. Little Eagles
Hieraaetus morphnoides quite frequently accompanied the Black Kites in their soaring but were neverJUNE 1986 89
seen to take, or attempt to take, a cicada in flight. However, they persistently fed on cicadas that
they caught by crashing into the foliage at the tops of trees and grabbing the insects before they
took flight. One Lombardy Poplar Populus nigra var. italica, apparently a popular take -off platform
for the cicadas, was stripped of all leaves for two metres down from its tip by this behaviour of the
Little Eagles.
Once, a lone Spotted Harrier Circus assimilis was seen to soar with the Black Kites for over
15 minutes but it made no attempt to take a cicada and eventually broke free and drifted away. On
a number of occasions an Australian Hobby Falco longipennis dashed over the tree -tops, grabbed
a cicada in flight and disappeared, to consume it at leisure.
J.N. Hobbs, 12 Hume Street, Dareton NSW 2717
At 12:00 hrs Eastern Summer Time on 15 December 1984, W.E. Boles and were traversing the
southern boundary of Mungo National Park by car as part of a bird survey of the Willandra Lakes
World Heritage Region. Whilst travelling through a belt of low open woodland (consisting of
Rosewood Heterodendron oleifolium; Belah Casuarina cristata; and an understorey of seeding grass
Stipa sp and low herbs), we stopped the vehicle to investigate a small object on a nearby fencepost.
On top of the post, some 1.1 m above the ground, we found a woodswallow chick. It was already
sitting with its head and neck erect and its tail depressed (see Fig. 1). We were then mobbed by an
adult male White-browed Woodswallow Artamus superciliosus, presumably the parent of the chick
(Masked Woodswallows A. personatus were also noted breeding less than one kilometre away).
During the observations, which lasted for some 15 minutes, the chick did not move from this posture,
even when touched, only giving a low “cheep” noise when some of the grass seeds that were
attached to its feathers were removed. took several photographs of the chick.
This cryptic posture was presumably maintained to make us believe it was part of the
fencepost, much in the manner of frogmouths Podargidae, nightjars Caprimulgidae, Potoos
Nyctibiidae, and some other birds (see Cott 1985). Though it has been noted before in woodswallows
(J.N. Hobbs, pers. comm.), such a posture has apparently not been recorded in an
Australian passerine.
An intriguing question is how the bird, not yet fledged, was able to get to the top of a sheer
fence -post, given that it was over 10 m to the nearest tree (a 5-m H. oliefolium) and that it had probably
been on or near the ground as evidenced by the grass seeds among the downy feathers. D’Ombrain90 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
Figure 1. Sketch of cryptic posture of White-browed Woodswallow chick (drawn from photographs)
(1934) reported seeing an adult male White-browed Woodswallow lift two chicks to trees adjoining
the nest tree after they had fluttered to the ground from the nest; one of these chicks was lifted some
20 feet (c 7 m). The chick at Mungo National Park may well have followed this route to the top of
the fencepost.
Copies of the photographs have been lodged with the National Photographic Index. Australian
Museum (accession numbers XT6469 and XT6470). thank W.E. Boles for companionship in the
field and for prodding me to write this note, J.N. Hobbs for discussing the observation with me, and
T.R. Lindsey for preparing the accompanying drawing.
Cott, H.B. 1985. in B. Campbell & E. Lack (eds.), A dictionary of birds. British Ornith. Union and T. & A.D Poyser:
Calton, England
D’Ombrain, A.F. 1934. The White-browed Woodswallow Emu 33: 292-297
Ian A.W. McAllen, 46 Yeramba Street, Turramurra NSW 2074JUNE 1986 91
On 6 April 1985 we found an Asian Dowitcher Limnodromus semipalmatus loafing in a flock of godwits
at a high tide roost on the Stockton side of the Hunter River adjacent to the Kooragang Island road
bridge at Newcastle, New South Wales. At a range of about 50 m, the bird was studied for over an
hour with binoculars and 20X and 30X spotting scopes. It was closely associated with some 200
Bar -tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica; other species in the immediate area included Black -tailed
Godwit L. limosa, Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus, Eastern Curlew N. madagascariensis, Great Knot
Calidris tenuirostris, Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea and Red -necked Stint C. ruficollis. Very similar
to a Bar -tailed Godwit in general appearance, the dowitcher stood out because of its long straight
black bill and a two -toned effect in the plumage of the dorsum, caused by paler scapulars and coverts
contrasting with darker mantle.
The following description was compiled from field notes made shortly afterwards: Bill about the same length
as that of neighbouring Bar -tailed Godwits but body distinctly smaller, perhaps by about 10 per cent overall,
standing not quite as tall. Bill straight, black, not slender, more or less even in depth along its length, slightly
bulbous at the tip. Plumage pattern like Bar -tailed Godwit but head somewhat paler, crown more streaked (lacking
capped appearance of Bar -tail); dark smudgy lores conspicuous; pale superciliary extending well behind the
eye, narrowing towards bill; narrow faint dark line running from just below the lower mandible down the chin.
Upperparts also as Bar -tail but slightly more grey, less brown in overall hue. Scapulars and wing coverts broadly
edged dull white or very pale grey, dark grey -sepia at centres; tertials grey with narrow white fringes. Underparts
near -white, vaguely streaked at breast and flanks, gradually merging to series of distinct short bars (perhaps
6-7 altogether, estimated about 2 mm wide) on lower flanks, all somewhat narrower than white space between;
further back, bars broke up into freckles, then to finely barred under tail -coverts. Neck and breast slightly clouded
grey. Tail narrowly barred. Legs black or near black. Bird very inactive, rump and wings seen only briefly at lengthy
intervals; rump near- white, freckled and peppered dark grey. Distinctive stiff toy -like stance, rather more erect
than Bar -tail, bill held at awkward -looking 45 -degree angle to ground. On a subsequent occasion (27 April) better
views of rump and wings were obtained: dark narrow barring across upper tail with pale area in centre extending
into a wedge of white up the back; underwing mainly white with dark leading edge to outermost primary.
The bird was seen again at the same place on 7 April, 13 April and 27 April but apparently not
thereafter. Several other observers, including Alan Dampney, Alan Morris, Trevor Quested and Alan
E. F. Rogers, also saw the bird either on the first or subsequent occasions. The record was placed
before the RAOU Records Appraisal Committee (RAC Case 85) and accepted unanimously. The
only previous occurrence in New South Wales appears to be one seen by J.L. McKean and others
at Shoalhaven Heads on 20 February 1977 (Rogers & Lindsey. 1978. Aust. Birds 13:10; Lane. 1978.
Sunbird 9:13).
Alan McBride, 3/108 Cabramatta Road, Mosman NSW 2088
T. R. Lindsey, National Photographic Index of Australian Wildlife, Australian Museum, PO Box A285,
Sydney South NSW 200092 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
At 12:05 hrs on 23 February 1985 saw two dark, fast -flying petrels about 150 m off the beach at
Camp Cove, near Watsons Bay within Sydney Harbour, NSW. The birds flew up the harbour
towards Laings Point then turned and flew back towards Sydney Heads. They were stubby, had long
wings, short tails and were uniformly dark all over. On their return they flew in a large arc, up to 30
m above the water and looped over several times before they disappeared from view. The birds were
observed with 10 x 50 binoculars and were tentatively identified as Great -winged Petrels
Pterodroma macroptera.
At 17:00 hrs on the same day, the carcass of a seabird, dead only a few hours, was found
washed up on the beach at Camp Cove. It was taken to the Australian Museum, where it was
registered (AM 0.58458) and its identity confirmed as a Great -winged Petrel of the New Zealand
subspecies P. m. gouldi. A male moulting some secondaries and inner primaries (outer primaries
worn, no body moult), its measurements were: culmen 38.7 mm, tarsus 45.3 mm, wing 318 mm and
tail 120 mm; weight 420 grams; its wingspan was 1018 mm. considerably larger than most published
measurements (I.A.W. McAllan, pers. comm.)
Although regularly seen at sea at the edge of the continental shelf off Sydney, the Great -winged
Petrel is rarely seen over inshore waters. This is the first record of the species within Sydney Harbour,
although in February 1956 one was blown ashore during a storm and found alive in Hyde Park in
the centre of Sydney (Hindwood & McGill, 1958. The Birds of Sydney. Royal Zool. Soc. NSW:
Sydney). It is also noteworthy that on the same day as my observations, several Great -winged Petrels
were seen at sea only a few kilometres offshore (A.E.F. Rogers, pers. comm.)
The weather conditions (rain, overcast sky and strong winds) on the day of these observations
were associated with the remnants of tropical Cyclone Pierre which had become a rain depression
and was moving south-east away from the NSW north coast, and bringing strong easterly onshore
winds. Until midday winds had been from the north-east at 20-30 knots but then they veered to the
south-east. Strong onshore winds associated with tropical rain depressions often provide the
conditions under which seabirds are blown ashore along the coast of New South Wales (cf Morris,

  1. Aust. Birds 13: 51-54).
    Alan K. Morris, 32 Cliff Street, Watsons Bay NSW 2030JUNE 1986 93
    On 14 March 1985, in Willbriggie State Forest (West) near Darlington Point, on the Murrumbidgee
    River some 39 km south of Griffith and 54 km west of Narrandera, New South Wales, we observed
    a Carpet Python Morelia spilotes eating a Magpielark Grallina cyanoleuca.
    The observation was made at approximately 08:00 hrs on a clear sunny morning. The python’s
    presence was brought to our attention by the behaviour of four Sulphur -crested Cockatoos Cacatua
    galerita, which were perched about 30 metres up in the outer dead branches of a River Red Gum
    Eucalyptus camaldulensis, screeching continuously and bouncing on the dead terminal branches
    of the tree. Also perched in the outer branches were a pair of Galahs Cacatua roseicapilla and a
    White -winged Chough Corcorax melanorhamphos. Through binoculars, we saw a Carpet Snake
    curled around one of the branches on which the cockatoos were bouncing, and protruding from the
    snake’s mouth was a juvenile Magpielark. Unfortunately, we did not witness the actual capture, but
    at least half of the bird’s body was protruding from the snake’s mouth. A pair of adult magpielarks
    were flying around the python, attacking the snake by dive-bombing it an apparent attempt to dislodge
    the snake from its rather precarious position. They persisted in this behaviour until the snake had
    completely swallowed the young bird some 20 minutes later, at which point the Galahs and the
    chough also departed.
    While the magpielarks mobbed the snake, the Sulphur -crested Cockatoos continued their
    incessant screeching and bouncing. Occasionally, a cockatoo would attempt to dislodge the snake
    by flying at it, but these attempts were unsuccessful. The cockatoos continued this behaviour even
    after the other birds had departed, but eventually they also lost interest and flew away.
    Rick Webster, 19/47-51 Pacific Parade. Dee Why NSW 2099
    J. Shields, PO Box 100, Beecroft NSW 2119
    L. Hazel, 3/39 Railway Parade, Eastwood NSW 2120
    K.A. WOOD
    Cramp & Simmons (1979) and McKean (1976) both describe the Eurasian Coot Fulica atra as a
    species that feeds primarily on vegetable matter, either by diving, pecking it from the surface, or
    grazing on dry land near the water’s edge. During 24 hours of observation at Sullivans Creek,
    Canberra, in 1977, Martin et al. (1979) recorded the species feeding only in water, usually 30-80
    cm deep. None of these authors nor Pizzey (1980) mentions grazing on wet intertidal mudflats.94 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
    At Lake Illawarra, NSW, during a survey of waterbirds in 1982-1983 (Wood 1985), I recorded
    Eurasian Coots on each of 12 censuses, average 34 birds per census. All were seen in Griffins Bay,
    which is very shallow with depths gradually increasing from a few centimetres on its eastern shore
    to about 50 cm some 400 m from shore. Most (if not all) coots were seen feeding while floating on
    the surface of water less than 50 cm deep on all censuses except that of 1 September 1982. On
    that occasion, protracted dry weather and a tidal efflux had reduced the water level to about 15 cm
    below normal, completely exposing at least 100 m of the eastern margin of the bay. All 35 individuals
    counted then were feeding from a standing position on aquatic vegetation lying on the exposed mud
    margin. This observation suggests that Eurasian Coots are more adaptable in their foraging
    behaviour than previously recorded.
    Cramp, S. & K.E.L. Simmons (eds.) 1979. The birds of the Western Palearctic, Vol. II. Oxford University Press:
    Martin, P. R.; B.G. Thomson, & S.J. Witts. 1979. Niche separation in three species of waterbirds. Corella 3:1-6
    McKean, J.L., in Frith, H.J. (ed.) 1976. Reader’s Digest complete book of Australian birds. Reader’s Digest
    Services: Sydney
    Pizzey, G. 1980. A field guide to the birds of Australia. Collins: Sydney
    Wood, K. A. 1985. A survey of the waterfowl and waders of Lake Illawarra, NSW. Aust. Birds 19:17-38
    K.A. Wood, 7 Eastern Avenue, Mangerton NSW 2500
    S.G. LANE
    The White Tern Gygis alba has been rarely recorded in New South Wales. Morris, McGill & Holmes
    (1981, Handlist of birds in New South Wales, NSWFOC: Sydney) list four records: from Grafton (June
    1951), Port Kembla (June 1967), Taree (March 1976) and Windang (April 1978). Lindsey (1982, Aust.
    Birds 17:12; 1984, ibid 18:53; 1985, ibid 19:88) mentioned five further records, four of birds seen
    alive offshore (off Sydney Heads, March 1981; Cape Solander, July 1981; off Sydney Heads,
    February 1983 and again in March 1983) and one found distressed near Lismore in 1982. Full details
    on this last record were not available at the time. It involves a bird found exhausted on 18 March
    1982; it died next day and was passed to the Australian Museum where it was registered (AM
    0.56631). Apparently immature, the bird could not be sexed. In December 1984 and again in
    December 1985 single birds were seen at sea off Wollongong (T.R. Lindsey, pers. comm.)
    On 21 February 1985 a White Tern was found “injured or exhausted” on a lawn at Dorrigo.
    It was handed to Ranger G. MacDonald (NPWS) but died the next day and was passed to me for
    onforwarding to the Australian Museum, where it was subsequently registered (AM 0.58756).JUNE 1986 95
    The bird could not be sexed, but the skull was clear and hard and the plumage slightly worn
    with no indication of moult. It showed some signs of a faint greyish suffusion on the upper lesser
    wing -coverts, consistent with an immature bird. Its weight (on receipt at the museum) was 83 g, and
    the following measurements were recorded: tail 120 mm, wing 245 mm, culmen 48.5 mm, tarsus
    13.1 mm.
    This occurrence followed two days of torrential rain along most of the north coast from
    Kempsey to the Queensland border. On those two days at Moonee near Coffs Harbour, a total of
    498 mm of rain was recorded from 15:00 hrs on 19 February to 09:00 hrs on 21 February.
    S.G. Lane, Lot 6 Fairview Road, Moonee via Coffs Harbour NSW 2450
    For well over thirty years Fred Johnston regularly attended monthly bird meetings in Sydney and
    was connected with the NSW Field Ornithologists Club since its inception. Born on 28 July 1914,
    he and his lifelong friend Arthur Brinsley were interested in Australian birdlife from their schooldays.
    Fred joined the AIF during the Second World War and for most of that time was stationed at
    Cape York, spending two years there and on adjacent islands, as well as eight months in the Solomon
    Islands. During that time, on 14 May 1945, he married Cath Huckstepp. Like many war -time
    weddings, time did not permit any honeymoon as he was granted only 24 hours leave for the
    ceremony before returning to Bougainville.
    Fred and first became acquainted in the early 1950s, shortly after he joined the Royal
    Australasian Ornithologists Union, of which he was a member for the remainder of his life. We met
    in a somewhat unusual way. Needing to visit the bank at Arncliffe, where had my grocery business,
    parked my utility opposite Derrin’s chain grocery store, returning some time later to find Fred, then
    unknown to me, standing beside it. He approached me, explaining that he had noticed my name
    painted on the side of the vehicle, prompting him to enquire whether might be the same person
    who was the NSW RAOU Branch Secretary. He informed me that he was the manager of Derrin’s
    Branch store at that time. So, although we could be termed business rivals, that meeting quickly
    eliminated opposition problems: we soon became close friends and afterwards regularly travelled
    together to the city for the monthly bird meetings.
    Spanning well over thirty years after that original introduction, our mutual birding excursions
    were far too numerous to detail. Together with our families, we enjoyed inland camping trips on many
    occasions during the annual four -day Easter break, at times with the Brinsleys. For me, some of
    the most memorable journeys included our first extended trip in 1963 when we travelled to Western96 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 20(3)
    Australia for the RAOU Congress in Perth and, with Dean Fisher as guide, drove to Albany for the
    Camp -out. We twice visited the Warrumbungles (1981 and 1984), travelled to South Australia in 1969
    and to Queensland (Cairns in 1974 and Brisbane in 1983). Also a memorable birding holiday was
    with John Waugh to western New South Wales and south-western Queensland in 1983. He had seen
    a lot of northern Australia with John Waugh earlier and was a member of the first Coongie Lakes
    trek with Bert Bolton Tours. Fred was certainly a most amiable and enthusiastic companion in the
    field. He also became eligible for the “600- Club” of the Australian Birding Association.
    We were also closely connected for many years in a work association. When was warehouse
    manager of the Major Food Centre grocery chain the Directors agreed with me that another storeman
    was needed. Fred was unemployed at the time so offered him the position, which was accepted.
    He remained in NFC employment after retired and for the remainder of his working life, and was
    highly respected by all the staff.
    Fred believed that his modest egg collection, which he commenced during his school years
    and which was augmented during the war when opportunities were no doubt welcomed but limited,
    was of too great a scientific and sentimental value to be destroyed. With guidance from Graeme
    Phipps and assistance by Beryl Marchant it was donated to the Macleay Museum at the University
    of Sydney. Despite a serious heart condition Fred spent a good deal of the last year or so of his life
    taking small sections weekly into that institution, where the carefully compiled data for each clutch
    was catalogued. So his collection, which had been treasured so highly from much earlier years,
    remains a valuable source of information for future students of ornithology.
    Fred died on 20 June 1985 at the age of 70. The goodly gathering of his ornithological friends
    at the Woronora Crematorium was a tribute to his popularity. We wish to convey to his widow Cath,
    son Warren (one son Ron predeceased him) and his brother Ken and family our sincere and
    heartfelt sympathy.
    Contributors are requested to observe the following points when submitting articles and notes
    for publication.
  2. Species, names, and the order in which they occur are to be in accordance with” Handlist
    of Birds in New South Wales”. AK. Morris, A R. McGill and G. Holmes 1981 Dubbo:
  3. Articies or notes should be typewritten if possible and submitted in duplicate. Double
    spacing is required.
  4. Margins of not less than 25mm width at the left hand side and top, with similar or slightly
    smaller at the right hand side of pages.
  5. No underlinings and no abbreviations except as shown in the examples.
  6. Photographs should be glossy finish and not too small.
  7. The Style Manual, Commonwealth Government Printing Office, Canberra (1966) and
    subsequent editions will be the guide for this Journal.
  8. Diagrams should be on plain white paper drawn with india ink Any lettering is to ;)e
    ‘professional style’ or lightly pencilled.
  9. Dates must be written “1 January 1975” except in tables and figures where they may be
  10. The 24-hour clock will be used, times being written 06:30, 18:30 for 6.30 a.m. and
    6.30 p.m. respectively.
  11. Mr, Mrs, Dr are not followed by a full stop.
  12. In text numbers one to ten are spelt numbers of five figures or more should be grouped in
    threes and spaced by a thin gap. Commas should not be used as thousands markers.
  13. References to other articles should be shown in the text-‘…B.W. Finch and M.D. Bruce
    (1974) stated…” and under heading
    Finch, B.W. and M.D. Bruce 1974 The Status of the Blue Petrel in Australian Waters
    Aust Birds 9, 32-35
  14. Acknowledgements to other individuals should include Christian names or initials.Volume 20, No. 3 June 1986
    A.K. Morris
    Stephen Marchant
    & T.R. Lindsey
    James Shields & L. Hazel


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