Vol. 9 No. 3-text

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Journal of the

Volume 9 No. 3 March 1975

Registered for Posting as a Periodical, Category B Price $1.00.THE N.S.W. FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS CLUB
PATRON A.H. Chisholm, O.B.E.
R. Cooke
Dr. R. Mason
The object of the Club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and their
Annual subscription rates to the Club are
Ordinary Member $4.00
Family Member $5.00
Junior Member (under 17) $1.00
All members receive a quarterly newsletter and a copy of the quarterly journal, Australian Birds.
The price of the journal is $1.00 per issue to non-members. The Club holds a general meeting and
a field excursion each month.
All correspondence, including membership fees, should be addressed to the Secretary. The Club’s
address is:
18 Russell St., Oatley, 2223.
Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at:
P.O. Box 39, Coonabarabran, 2857.Volume 9, No. 3 March, 1975
This paper provides details of the 335 indigenous and 11 species of introduced birds that occur
within the County of Northumberland. Each species is dealt with separately and notes on their status,
preferred habitat and movement details are given. A physical description of the County, together with
notes on the major vegetation zones and wetland habitat, is provided. The methods for obtaining the
data, and notes on the present and future conservation needs to preserve bird habitat are outlined.
The introductory notes are followed by the systematic list.
The purpose of this paper is to provide an accurate account of the present distribution, status
and breeding information of birds in the County of Northumberland. The County with a popul-
ation of 370,000 embraces the heavily populated industrial cities of Newcastle, Cessnock and Mait-
land; the commuter suburbs and recreational centres of Gosford, Wyong and Lake Macquarie Shires;
the extensive coalfields in the lower Hunter Valley; the pastoral areas of Singleton; the vineyards of
Pokolbin; and the large, dry and relatively unpopulated sandstone forests of the western section of38. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
the County. The large and ever increasing population of the County with its demand for industrial,
residential and recreational land is quickly destroying many wildlife habitats. It is important there-
fore to place on record the present status of the birds in order that future land users and planners
will ensure that adequate samplings of all habitats important for birds, will be retained.
The County consists of 606,575 ha. and is similar in size to that of the neighbouring County
of Cumberland. Within the area some 346 species of birds have been recorded (viz 335 native and
11 introduced). This compares with 403 native and 15 introduced species recorded for the County
of Cumberland. The discrepancy between the two is considered to be related primarily to a lack of
qualified observers within Northumberland County, and the very rich ornithological history and
literature for Cumberland County. A map of the County showing the location of places mentioned
in the text is included.
Geological. Two distinct geological formations comprise the major part of the County; they are
sandstones of the Triassic Era containing some shales, and the Permian coal measures of the
Hunter Valley. The south-western area of the County consists mainly of the Hawkesbury sand-
stone, which has produced tracts of rugged mountains. The highest ridges rise to about 1200m
with a local relief of 500m, having steep valley sides, often with vertical cliffs. The Narrabeen
series of the Triassic Era made up of multi -coloured chert sands, quartzose sandstone, shale and
claystone comprise the largest part of the County and extends north to Swansea and west to
Bulge. The shales break down.to form more fertile soil than the sandstones and produce a more
rounded and undulating relief compared to the sharpness and poorer soils of the Hawkesbury
A belt of undulating lowlands has developed on relatively weak sedimentary rocks, south
of the Hunter river extending from Singleton to Newcastle. While the general altitude gradually
rises inland from the coast, local relief in any given lodality rarely exceeds 75m. Around the
northern end of Lake Macquarie the landscape is subdued but an abrupt transition to the steep
sandstone country of the south occurs. The rocks giving rise to the areas of undulating topo-
graphy are a mosaic of Permian coal measures and formations.
A coastal zone occurs of dunes under all phases of succession, swampy flats, sand flats,
and fresh/brackish swamps, consisting of Quaternary gravels, sands, silts and clay. This zone
includes the Wentworth and Wallis Creek Swamps, Hexham Swamp, the Hunter estuary region,
and the coastal dunes from Redhead to Swansea, Wybung Head to the Entrance, and much of
the low country west of Tuggerah Lakes. Areas of perched dunes occur on many of the low
Vegetation. The vegetation zones and hence the habitats for the bird life, are illustrated on the
maps. The dry land vegetation zones used are according to E.J. Hayden (1971, Natural PlantDNALREBMUHTRON
Communities of New South Wales, M.Sc. Thesis. Dept. of Botany, A.N.U. Canberra.) Whilst the
wetlands and marsh zones are according to G.N. Goodrick (1970 A Survey of Wetlands of Coastal
New South Wales. CSI RO Tech Mem. No. 5). The following zones are recognised.
Sandstone Flora. Where the underlying rock is of the Hawkesbury series the vegetation consists
mainly of dry sclerophyll forests, tree heaths, mallees, heaths and hanging swamps, with some
small pockets of wet forest. Typical examples being the forest types of Bouddi National Park.
However on the better soils coming from the Narrabeen series, wet sclerophyll forests with rain-
forests in the gullies, are common. The rugged and more elevated sandstone has a distinct avi-
fauna with such species as the Lyrebird, Rock Warbler, Heath Wren and Spotted Quail -thrush.
The rainforests gullies are frequented by such birds as the Regent Bower -bird, Catbird and
Yellow -throated Scrub -wren.
Coastal Heaths. These are located on Quaternary sands and are dominated by Acacias, Banksias,
Grevillias, and Dwarf Casuarinas. These plants are a particular source of nectar for honeyeaters
during winter. Many coastal and elevated heaths are located within the area of sandstone flora.
Many sandy heaths of the coastline have been destroyed by beach -mining operations and the
restored vegetation often contains introduced plants of little value to wildlife. Tawny -crowned
and White-cheeked Honeyeaters and Brush Bronzewings are typical heathland birds.
Wet Sclerophyll Forests. (a) Tall eucalyptus forest often exceeding a height of 25m dominated
by Blue Gums Eucalyptus saligna and Blackbutt E. pilularis located in the elevated Wattagan
and Mulbring areas on soils derived from the Narrabeen series. The understorey of these forests
is variable, but is often composed of tree ferns and Acacia spp. Where the canopy of the forest
is continuous only a poor understorey develops.
(b) At lower elevations in the Lake Macquarie – Newcastle region is
another wet sclerophyll forest dominated by Blackbutt E. pilularis, Red Mahogany E. resinifera
and Bloodwood E. gummifera. These forests occur on the Newcastle/Branxton coal measures,
and in many areas are much drier forests than the former. Patches of dry Ironbark forests occur
around Kurri. Golden Whistler, Lewin Honeyeaters and Whipbirds are typical of the wet forest.
Savannah Woodland. An association dominated by White Box E. albens, Buloke Casuarina leuhmahni,
acacias and some cypress pine, occurring on the Permian coal measures and formations of the Hunter
Valley. The dominant trees are 20-30 m high and originally there was little understorey. The greater
part of the zone has been cleared for pastoral and vineyard purposes. Hooded Robins, Painted and
Blue -faced Honeyeaters, Brown Tree -creepers and White-browed Woodswallows are typical.
Tall Wood/and. Occurs on the poorly drained clay soils of the slopes leading down to the Hunter
River, with an average rainfall of less than 1000 mm p.a. A tall woodland dominated by Grey Box
E. mo/uccana and Red Gum E. tereticornis with fringing Rough -barked Apples Angophora flori-
bunda along watercourses. Unfortunately this vegetation has been extensively cleared. Western
Warblers and Red -capped Robins are typical birds.March, 1975 41.
Wetlands. Goodrick recognises the following types in the region. (For a full description see his paper.)
There is a very gradual transition between fresh meadows and seasonal swamps,and they are used by
the same wide range of waterbirds. Seasonal fresh swamps are, however, available for a somewhat,
longer peiod. These types, in conjunction with semi -permanent fresh swamps and open fresh waters
are the major waterfowl habitats in the County. Sheoak, Swamps occur in the lower Hunter but are
little used. Salt meadows occur in estuarine areas and are used by many waterbirds particularly
herons, egrets and ibis, but when flooded for long periods are frequented by Black Swans, and both
species of teal. Reed Swamps, dominated by phragmites and typha are the habitat of the Brown
Bittern. Salt flats, which often are fringed with mangroves on the seaward side are important for
herons and waders, whilst mangrove swamps and shallow estuarine waters are utilised by most water –
birds at some time; where waterbirds are confined to only one or two of these wetland zones, this
has been indicated viz Mangrove Heron – mangrove swamps, Painted and Japanese Snipe – seasonal
fresh meadows. etc.
Rainfall. The pattern of rainfall is interesting in relation to the distribution of birds. At Newcastle
on the coast, 1046 mm was the annual average for 30 years prior to 1956, dropping away gradually
to 628 mm p.a. at Jerry’s Plains on the western boundary of the Country. The rainfall is uniform
throughout the year with lowest falls being recorded May to October. This bias towards summer
rainfall is more noticeable in the drier western sector.
The regularity of the rainfall on the coast means that the population of both resident birds
and summer migrants to the coastal forest is not noticeably different from year to year. However,
when very dry seasons prevail inland two movements to the coast are noticeable. First, summer
migrants to inland regions are forced closer to the coast, included amongst these species are the
Masked and White-browed Woodswallows, Rufous Songlarks and Pallid Cuckoos. Second, resident
inland birds, particularly waterbirds are most common in coastal wetlands during droughts and
many other species visit the County at such times including flocks of Budgerygars, Quarrians,
Banded Plover and Ground Cuckoo -shrikes. Conversely during very wet conditions inland such as
experienced in 1973 and 1974 there is a great dearth of waterbirds in the coastal wetlands;
most herons, spoonbills, ibis and ducks returning to their traditional breeding haunts in the
Murray/Darling basin. When the summer rains are late coming, many of the fresh swamps dry
out and there is little suitable breeding habitat for the local waterbirds.
In the light of the seasonal conditions that prevail it is of interest to note that of the 346
species recorded for the County, only 192 (55%) can be considered resident throughout the year;
66 (19%) are summer migrants to New South Wales; 12 (3%) are winter migrants; 39 (12%) are
regular nomadic visitors; whilst 37 (11%) are occasional migrants. Many of the nomads and vag-
rants only come to the County during inland droughts.42. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
Three National Parks (Bouddi, Brisbane Water and Dharug) are located within the County
having a total area of 23,806 ha, and there are four island Nature Reserves (Bird, Lion, Moon and
Pulbah). Whilst these provide a good sampling of island and sandstone forest habitats, little progress
has been achieved with preserving other habitats. In particular, the woodlands of the Hunter Valley;
fresh and saline wetlands; tidal and mangrove flats; dune forests and coastal lagoons; all remain un-
represented in the parks and reserves of the County. 14 State Forests of 67,000 ha preserve for the
present good samplings of wet sclerophyll forests, but more effort is needed to ensure that adequate
samplings of all habitats are retained.
Most time and effort has gone into obtaining distribution data for all the species. Much of the
data has come from sight records, made and recorded since 1960. These have been obtained by
combing all appropriate journals, the abbreviations of which as used in the systematic list are given
in brackets. All issues of “Hunter Natural History” (HNH) and “Australian Birds” (formerly
known as “Birds”) have been examined. “The Emu”, “The Bird Observer” (ABO), and
the “Australian Birdwatcher” (ABW) have been searched for data since 1960 although a
number of earlier references were also sighted. Information on movements and longevity
has been obtained from the “Australian Bird Bander” (ABB), as well as details of sea-
bird colonies on offshore islands. The published and personal data of F. Van Gessel
and others, in relation to the weekly bird counts conducted on Kooragang Island and
Stockton have been extensively drawn upon. All beach patrol survey forms completed
by members of the NSW Field Ornithologists Club for the County beaches have been
examined for rare seabird records.
Breeding records too have been extracted from journals as well as from ornith-
ologists’ notes. In particular A. Gwynne and P. Bourke have provided very detailed
data. No doubt many historical records have been overlooked, but the intention has
been to provide data on the present status of the species rather than providing an historical
In the systematic list only those species which have been reasonably verified have been
included. As no detailed collection of specimens from the area exists, the majority of the
species are included on the basis of sight records alone. However, all rare seabirds found in
these surveys have either been verified at or lodged in the Australian Museum.
The common and scientific names used and the order in which they appear are in
accordance with “An Index of Australian Bird Names” CSIRO Tech. Pap. No.20 1969. TheMarch, 1975 43.
relative abundance for each species is given, and follows that of A. B. Snow Ed. (1971 The Status of
Birds in Britain and Ireland). The following terms are employed in ascending order of commonness: –
Rare (1 – 10 records), Scarce (11 – 20), Uncommon (20 – 30), Moderately common, Common and
Very Common. The following categories and their abbreviations are used to express the status of
each species:- Visitor (V), Summer Visitor (SV), Winter Visitor (WV), Passage Migrant (PM), Summer
Migrant (SM), Winter Migrant (WM), Resident Breeder (RB), and Breeding (B). Combinations are
often used where it is known that part of the population behaves differently to that of the remainder.
The term “visitor” will often indicate that the status of the bird is not fully understood. It will also
be noted that part of the population of birds considered to be resident, are nomadic and this is
indicated where appropriate. The normal period for which migrants are known to occur within the
County is given in brackets following information on the status. The nesting dates given refer to the
period in which the eggs are laid. The habitat most used by each species is indicated. “National
Parks” and “State Forests” are abbreviated thus:- N.P. and S.F.
Special tribute is paid to the many people who through their personal notes and helpful
criticism, enabled me to produce this account of the birds of the County. In particular, the following
people provided great assistance:- P. A. Bourke, G. Clancy, J. Gray, A. J. Gwynne, G. Holmes,
E. S. Hoskins, S. G. Lane, A. R. McGill, A. E. F. Rogers and F. Van Gessel. Mrs. Beryl Marchant
typed the manuscript and Mrs. Marie Owens helped in the preparation of the maps.
ALAN K MORRIS, 20 Harrison St, Old Toongabbie. 214644. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

  1. Thick -billed Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. First and only N.S.W. specimen Ettalong 5/12/1917.
    (Birds of Sydney, p.13).

2. Little Penguin Eudyptula minor

RB. Moderately common. Coastal seas, breeding on offshore islands (Sep Nov).
c. 250 pair Lion Is, 10 pair Bird and Moon Islands. Possibly nomadic, band recoveries

from Lion Is have been made 134 km south, whilst one banded on the Five Islands was

recovered at Norah Head 150 km north. Occasionally beachwashed, particularly Feb

3. Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans

WV. Moderately common (May Oct). Coastal seas. Rare at other times, occasionally

  1. Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. One beachwashed alive 2/8/72 and subsequently released after
    being fed for several days at The Entrance. (Birds 7:42-3).

5. Black-browed Albatross Diomedea malanophris

WV. Moderately common (May Nov). Coastal seas. Occasional beachwashed specimens.

6. White -capped Albatross Diomedea cauta

WV. Scarce (May Nov). Coastal seas. One beachwashed Tuggerah 9/8/1972.

  1. Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. One Nobby’s Breakwater 7/11/1967 (HNH 1:23-26).

8. Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus

WV. Moderately common (May Nov). Rare at other times. Coastal seas. A number
banded at Malabar (NSW) have been recovered on beaches of the county and banding
data suggests that individuals forage in the same general area each season.

  1. Silver-grey Petrel Fulmarus glacialoides
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. One beachwashed Soldiers Beach 17/12/1972. (Birds 8:22).

10. Cape Petrel Daption capense

WV. Uncommon (May Nov). Coastal seas. Occasionally beachwashed.

  1. Great -winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera
    SV. Rare. Coastal seas. Beachwashed specimens from Long Jetty 9/12/1956, and
    Moonie Beach 11/1/1970.
  2. White -headed Petrel Pterodroma lessonii
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Beachwashed at Dudley 2/2/1969 and Nine Mile Beach,
    Belmont 1/12/1972.
  3. Kermadec Petrel Pterodroma neg/ecta
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. First Australian specimen beachwashed at Tuggerah 16/3/1968.
    (ABW 4:30-1).March, 1975 45.
  4. Gould Petrel Pterodroma /eucoptera
    V. Rare. Coastal seas, breeding at Cabbage Tree Island, 50 km north-east of county.
    Beachwashed at Dudley 23/3/1968. Blacksmiths 8/2/1969 and Nobbys Beach 6/4/1969.
  5. Blue Petrel Ha/obaena caerulea
    V. Rare Coastal seas. Remains of one bird found below Peregrine’s eyrie on Lion Is in
    December 1954. (The Birds of Sydney p.24).

16. Dove Prion Pachyptila desolate

WV. Scarce (July Oct). Coastal seas. Rarely recorded but numerous beachwashed
specimens taken in the winter of 1973. (Aust. Birds 9:1-12).

17. Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur

WM. Moderately common (July Dec). Coastal seas. Commonest Prion beachwashed
in county, often large flocks present offshore.

18. Fleshy -footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes

SM. Moderately common (Sept May). Coastal seas. Banding data indicates that the

seas of the Central Coast of N.S.W. are within the foraging range of birds breeding on

Lord Howe Is. Occasionally beachwashed, particularly Jan April.

19. Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus

SMB. Common. Coastal seas. Nesting (Nov May)) on Bird Is (300 pair), Lion Is
(250 pair), Moon Is (occasionally). The Lion Is colony is apparently declining
(ABB 12:10). Local band recoveries have been made up to 20 km from the breeding
islands. On Lion Is some adults exceed 20 years of age.

20. Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus

PM and SMB. Uncommon summer passage migrant (Oct Jan) with a small local
breeding population. A few pairs nest annually on Bird Is and Lion Is. Most do not
breed in Australian waters but in New Zealand. Beachwashed specimens not uncommon.

21. Short -tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris

PM and SMB. Very common (Sept Jan) with a small local breeding population of a
few pairs on Bird Is. Other small colonies nest on islands north and south of the county.
One adult in burrow on Lion Is 22/12/1973 (Birds 8:81). Commonest beachwashed
seabird i.e., 1045 in 16 km on 17/12/1972 (Birds 8:21-30). Vast flocks move south on
passage. A number of muttonbirds banded on the Victorian breeding islands have been
recovered along the coast in subsequent seasons during passage.

  1. Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus gavia

V. Uncommon, possibly a passage migrant. Coastal seas. Flocks of many hundred seen

offshore particularly Aug Nov. Occasionally beachwashed, particularly Feb.

  1. Huttons Shearwater Puffinus huttoni
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. One beachwashed Avoca 20/11/1972.
  2. Little Shearwater Puffinus assimi/is
    V. Scarce. Coastal seas, mainly late summer and autumn. Five beachwashed specimens
    from Newcastle beaches.46. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 13/
  3. Wilson Storm -petrel Oceanites oceanicus
    PM. Rare. Coastal seas. One specimen Broken Bay 24/10/1913. (Emu 52:113).
  4. Grey -backed Storm -petrel Garrodia nereis
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Second only N.S.W. specimen, Soldiers Beach 29/10/1972.
    (Birds 7:92).

27. White-faced Storm -petrel Pelagodroma marina

VB. Uncommon. Coastal seas. c.500 pair nesting on Bird Is Sept Feb (ABB
11:14-15) Occasionally beachwashed, one live bird inside the Hunter Estuary 16/12/1969.

  1. Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus
    V. Moderately common but nomadic. Estuaries, fresh and saltwater lakes, occasionally
    farm dams. Up to 450 in Hunter Estuary (16/12/1972), 150 Lake Macquarie (23/10/1972
    and 70 Tuggerah Lakes (1/12/1958), numbers appear highest in summer.
  2. Australian Gannet Morus serrator
    V. Moderately common. Coastal seas. Band recoveries indicate that the birds of this

coast come from New Zealand. Present throughout the year, occasionally beachwashed,

Feb April.

  1. Darter Anhinga rufa
    V. Uncommon. Freshwater lakes, most sightings at Koorangang Is (max. 11) and on the
  2. Black Cormorant Pha/acrocorax carbo
    V. Common and nomadic. Coastal seas, estuaries, salt and freshwater lakes. Band
    recoveries indicate that the origin of many birds is from the Coorong in South Aust-
    ralia. Max number 60 Kooragang Is 21/5/1972, elsewhere singly or small numbers.
  3. Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius
    V. Uncommon and nomadic, irregularly recorded. Estuaries and coastal seas, up to 25
    in the Hunter Estuary, occasionally at The Entrance and Lake Macquarie.
  4. Little Black Cormorant Pha/acrocorax sulcirostris
    RB. Common, sedentary and nomadic. Coastal estuaries, lakes and wetlands. Usually
    in small flocks, max. 80 Kooragang Is 27/5/1972 and up to 200 Lake Macquarie in
    winter. Small nesting colonies in mangroves in Brisbane Water, Shortland Golf Course
    and at Seaham in paperbarks, just north of the County.
  5. Little Pied Cormorant Pha/acrocorax melanoleucos
    RB. Very common, sedentary and nomadic. Coastal estuaries, lakes and wetlands

generally. Singly, pairs or small flocks, max. 200 Tuggerah Lake 15/9/1972.

Nesting annually (Nov Feb) with Little Black Cormorants at Brisbane Water and
Seaham, but alone at Woy Woy Golf Course and Jewells Swamp, Redhead 1966/67.
A nestling banded at Narrandera has been recovered at Tuggerah.

  1. Red-tailed Tropic -bird Phaethon rubricauda
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Two found in February 1973 at Merewether Beach.March, 1975 47.
  2. Lesser Frigate -bird Fregata ariel
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Broken Bay March 1957 (Birds of Sydney p.27), and a pair at
    Budgewoi Jan 1959 (Emu 62:65).
  3. Little Grebe Podiceps novaehollandiae

RB. Common and sedentary. Freshwater marshes and lakes, occasionally saltwater

lakes. Nesting Sept April, pairs or small to large flocks, max. 180 Kooragang
4/6/1972 and 40 Tuggerah Lake 15/9/1972.

  1. Hoary -head Grebe Podiceps poliocephalus
    V. Scarce and nomadic. Estuaries and freshwater marshes, nesting at Bolwarra
    1963/67, recorded only in the Hunter Valley.
  2. Great -crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Freshwater marshes, although one at Bonnells Bay, Lake Mac-
    quarie (Emu 61:296). Elsewhere observed singly only in the Hunter Valley marshes
    although common at Liddell Lake and Grahamstown storage, just outside the County.
  3. White -necked Heron Ardea pacifica
    V. Uncommon and nomadic. Freshwater wetlands, singly or small flocks, most records
    for the Hunter Valley and Wyong-Morrisset area.
  4. White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae

V and RB. Common, nomadic, also uncommon breeding resident. Estuaries, fresh

and saltwater lakes and wetlands generally, nesting Aug Dec. Singly or in small
flocks, max. 160 Kooragang Is 27/5/1971, up to 50 regularly Lake Macquarie and
Tuggerah Lake.

  1. Mangrove Heron Butorides striatus
    BR. Uncommon and sedentary. Confined to mangroves and adjacent mud flats.

Numbers greatest in the Hunter Estuary and Lake Macquarie. Destruction of man-

groves has caused a decline in the local population. Nesting Aug Jan.

  1. Cattle Egret Bulbu/cus ibis
    V. Moderately common and nomadic. First recorded in May 1960 at Ourimbah,
    now increasing and generally present in cattle grazing areas from May to November.
    Max. 200+ Morpeth Dec 1968. One in breeding plumage Kooragang Is 30/1/1972.
  2. White Egret Egretta alba
    BR. Common, sedentary and nomadic. All wetlands and estuaries. Singly or in
    small flocks, nesting at Kooragang Is in mangroves. Max. 200 pairs Oct 1970, but
    lesser number in recent years due to disturbance to colony by the Dept. of Public
    Works dredging programme.
  3. Little Egret Egretta garzetta
    V. Moderately common and nomadic. Estuaries and occasionally freshwater marshes.
    Singly or in pairs, from The Entrance north to the Hunter Valley.48. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  4. Plumed Egret Egretta intermedia

VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands of the Hunter Valley south to

Tuggerah, up to 30 pairs nest (Oct March) annually on Kooragang Is. Observed
singly or in small flocks.

  1. Reef Heron Egretta sacra
    RB. Scarce. Coastal seashore, rock platforms and offshore islands. Nested (Dec 1971)
    on Bird Is and possibly Moon Is. Generally observed singly.
  2. Nankeen Night Heron NyOticorax caledonicus

RB. Moderately common and nomadic. Estuaries, salt and freshwater streams and

wetlands. Up to 200 pairs have nested in mangroves on Kooragang Is Jan March
(HNH 4:198). Singly or small flocks, all recent records are for coastal areas and the
Hunter Valley as far west as Maitland.

  1. Little Bittern lxobrychus minutus
    SVB. Rare, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands with heavy reed growth. Nested Koora-
    gang Is 16/12/1972 (Birds 7:93). Numbers may be higher than records indicate.
  2. Black Bitten Dupetor flavicollis
    RB. Rare. Fresh and saltwater slow -moving streams and lagoons. Nested Wyong
    Creek 28/12/1963, recorded at Pelaw Main, Tumbi and Belmont.
  3. Brown Bittern Botaurus poiciloptilus
    V. Scarce but sedentary. Reed swamps. Only recorded in the Hunter Valley from
    Maitland to Kooragang, observed singly.
  4. Jabiru Xenorhynchus asiaticus
    RB. Scarce, sedentary. Estuaries and freshwater wetlands. Most records for the
    Hunter Valley and its tributaries where an estimated population of seven birds
    occur (Emu 65:151), rarely Lake Macquarie (Feb 1960, Sept 1965).
  5. White Ibis Threskiornis molucca
    V. Common, nomadic. Estuaries and freshwater marshes. Small to large flocks
    (Max. 350 Kooragang Is 6/3/1971). Often feeds on exposed tidal mudflats.
  6. Straw -necked Ibis Threskiomis spinicollis
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Freshwater marshes and agricultural lands. Small
    to large flocks. Up to 150 regularly at Hexham swamp. Band recoveries indicate that
    local birds originate from the Murray -Darling Basin, i.e., Booligal (NSW), Bool
    Lagoon and Narrung (SA).
  7. Glossy Ibis P/egadis falcinellus
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Freshwater marshes of the Hunter Valley extending south
    to Wyong. Singly or in small flocks, max. 50 Kooragang Is 25/11/1972.
  8. Royal Spoonbill Plata/ea regia
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Estuaries, fresh and saltwater wetlands. Small to
    large flocks, max. 190 Kooragang Is in Jan 1968.March, 1975 49.
  9. Yellow -billed Spoonbill P/ata/ea flavipes
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands and stock dams. Singly or in small
    flocks, max. 64 Hexham Swamp 25/3/1971. Recorded only in the Hunter Valley.
  10. Grass -whistling Duck Dendrocygna eytoni
    V. Rare, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands and stock dams in the Hunter Valley occas-
    ionally Lake Macquarie district. Small to large flocks, max. 100 at Maitland, May
  11. Black Swan Cygnus atratus
    V. Common, nomadic and RB uncommon. Fresh and saltwater wetlands, lakes and
    estuaries. Large numbers gather at times on all the coastal lakes, max. 2200 Tuggerah
    Lakes 15/9/72. Other large flocks may be present in Lake Macquarie (570 Lake
    Eraring Sept 1975) and Brisbane Water. A small resident breeding population nests on

the freshwater swamps and coastal lagoons, max. 10 pair Kooragang and 30+ Hexham

Swamp, throughout the year although mostly May August.

  1. Mountain Duck Tadorna tadornoides

V. Rare, nomadic. Fresh and saline wetlands. Five present on Kooragang Is from

March June 1973 (Birds 8:96).

  1. Black Duck Anas superciliosa
    RB. Common, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands, farm dams, streams and at times on
    shallow saline lakes, particularly the Tuggerah Lakes, feeding on exposed water weeds
    and algae. (Max. 120 15/9/1972). Large number may roost by day on Kooragang Is

(max. 900 2/6/1972) and at Fullerton Cove (up to 3000 birds), leaving at dusk to feed

throughout the Hunter Valley wetlands. Nesting Nov Feb.

  1. Mallard Anas platyrhychos
    R. Rare, possibly escapes from aviaries etc. Pair at Avoca Lagoon 1973/1974 and a
    male at Kooragang Is 12/8/1972. Introduced.
  2. Grey Teal Anas gibberifrons
    V. but also VB. Moderately common, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands but occasionally
    saltmarshes and lakes. Pairs or small flocks, sometimes large numbers occur at Hexham

Swamp and Kooragang Is. On 15/9/1972 160 were present on Tuggerah Lakes feeding

on exposed weedbeds. Nesting Oct Dec, although rarely recorded.

  1. Chestnut Teal Anas castanea
    RB. Common, sedentary. Coastal wetlands, saline marshes and mangroves. Pairs or

small flocks, but in winter large flocks gather for mate selection, max. 2000 Koora-

gang Is in July 1972. Nesting Aug Feb, often the nest site being a hollow in man-

  1. Blue -winged Shoveler Anas rhynchotis
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands, all recent records for the Hunter
    Valley pairs or small flocks.50. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

66. Pink -eared Duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus

V. Scarce, nomadic. Pairs or small flocks, max. 20 Oct Nov 1972 at Kooragang Is
only recorded in the Hunter Valley.

  1. White -eyed Duck Aythya australis

VB. Scarce, nomadic. Deep freshwater wetlands of the Hunter Valley. Pairs or small

flocks, max. 50 Kooragang Is 24/7/1971. Nesting Oct Nov.

  1. Wood Duck Chenonetta jubata
    RB. Uncommon. Agricultural and grazing lands, particularly in the Hunter Valley
    and the MacDonald River. Pairs or small flocks, generally nesting in hollow eucaly-
    ptus near stock dams.
  2. Freckled Duck Stictonetta naevosa
    V. Rare, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands. Pair observed twice in June 1974 at a
    small swamp near Dora Creek.
  3. Musk Duck Biziura lobata

RB. Scarce, nomadic. Freshwater and saline wetlands particularly in the Hunter

Valley and south to Tuggerah Lakes. Singly or small flocks. Nesting Sept Oct

and March May.

  1. Crested Hawk Aviceda subcristate

V. Rare. Wet sclerophyll and rainforest. In recent years has only been recorded at

Wyong 16/4/1963. Green Point 1968 (ABO:471), Tumbi 1975 possibly breeding
and regularly at Black Hill.

  1. Black -shouldered Kite Elanus notatus
    VB. Moderately common, nomadic. Prefers pastures, croplands, roadside edges and

wastelands generally. Singly or in pairs. Commonest in the Hunter Valley, lower

MacDonald Valley and the coastal strip. Nesting June Nov, some birds may be

  1. Fork -tailed Kite Milvus migrans
    V. Rare, nomadic. Open areas generally. Only recent records are for single birds
    at Singleton, Cessnock (1966) and Kincumber (May 1974).
  2. Red -backed Sea -eagle Haliastur indus
    V. Rare. Salt flats and shallow estuarine waters. One at Arcadia, Lake Macquarie
    1944 (K. & E. Todd pers. comm..
  3. Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus
    R. Moderately common, nomadic. Favours estuaries, lakes, wetlands and water-
    courses also agricultural lands generally. Singly or in pairs, absent from the timbered
    ranges of the central and southern section of the county.
  4. Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests of the coastal and
    central sections of the county, rare or absent elsewhere. One at Kooragang Is
    8/7/1972 (HNH 4:200). Singly or in pairs, occasional white form birds are noticed.March, 1975 51.
  5. Australian Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus

RB. Moderately common, sedentary. All forested areas but possibly an autumn and

winter visitor to the agricultural and urban areas of the Hunter Valley. Nesting Oct
Dec, young disperse widely, viz., one banded at Jilliby, recovered Gerringong, 180 km
south (ABB 11:71-75).

  1. Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrocephalus
    VB. Scarce. Forested areas generally, nesting Nov. Difficulty in separating this species
    from the Goshawk may result in it being under -recorded. Probably a sedentary resident.
  2. Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Agricultural lands, timbered watercourses and woodlands.
    Singly or in pairs, all records being for the Hunter Valley east to Blackbutt, possibly
    a breeding resident in the Wollombi Valley.
  3. Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Timbered ranges and agricultural lands on the
    western side of county. Singly or in pairs, rarely seen in the coastal strip.
  4. White -breasted Sea Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Estuaries, coastal lakes and lagoons, occasion-
    ally working their way up the MacDonald River beyond St. Albans and along the
    Hunter River. 3 pair nest Lake Macquarie, 2 Brisbane Water, 1 Tuggerah Lakes with
    other sites in the Hunter, MacDonald and Hawkesbury Rivers.
  5. Swamp Harrier Circus approximans
    R and WV. Moderately common. Fresh meadows and swamps, reed swamps. Regular
    at Kooragang Is and Hunter Valley wetlands, occasionally elsewhere. Singly or in pairs.
  6. Osprey Pandion haliaetus

V. Scarce, nomadic. Estuaries and freshwater marshes. Singly, with recent records at

Bonnells Bay March April 1960, Maitland Aug 1971 and regularly between St. Albans

Wisemans Ferry Oct Nov 1971.

  1. Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Favours offshore islands, steep escarpments and rocky
    outcrops, may also frequent wetlands outside of breeding periods. A number of
    coastal eyries are known, nesting October, also nests in the ranges of the central
    section of the county. Autumn and winter visitor to the agricultural and urban
    areas of the Hunter Valley.
  2. Little Falcon Fa/co longipennis
    R. Scarce. Timbered watercourses, wetlands and timbered urban areas. Most records
    are for the Hunter Valley extending south to The Entrance.
  3. Grey Falcon Falco hypoleucos
    V. Rare, nomadic. A specimen was collected in 1897 at Bulga (Nests & Eggs of
    Birds found Breeding in Australia, 3:266). Could be expected to occur in open
    grazing lands of the Upper Hunter during dry years.52. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  4. Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides
    RB. Common, sedentary. Grasslands, cultivations, roadside verges and wastelands,
    absent from the timbered ranges and sandstone forests. Observed in pairs, banding

indicates that the young disperse widely, viz. one banded at Vineyard was recovered

at Bateau Bay, 40 km north east. Nesting Sept Nov.

  1. Brown Falcon Fa/co berigora
    R. Moderately common. Agricultural areas, grazing lands, heath and open areas.
    Singly or in pairs, confined to the Hunter Valley, coastal regions and cleared valleys
    in the timbered ranges.
  2. Brush Turkey Alectura lathami
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Rainforest and wet forested gullies, occurs in small flocks,
    recent active mounds have been found from Tumbi to Bouddi and near Minmi apart
    from those in the Wattagan-Wyong S.F. area. Numbers appear to be increasing.
  3. King Quail Exaca/factoria chinensis
    V. Rare, nomadic. Rank grassland and swampy areas. Single birds at Dharug N.P.
    8/4/1973 and 10/6/1973 (Birds 8:96), and 2 Kooragang Nov 1973 (HNH 6:75).
  4. Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis
    R. Uncommon, nomadic. Found in crops and grassland where there is plenty of
    cover, probably breeds in the Hunter Valley. No coastal records south of Newcastle.
    An immature banded at Narrandera was recovered at Singleton 520 km north-east
    (ABB 12:16). Occurs in pairs and small coveys.
  5. Brown Quail Synoicus ypsi/ophorus
    RB. Uncommon. Rank grassland, margins of wetlands and heath. Pairs and small
    coveys up to 12 birds. Most records Kooragang Black Hill Tumbi. Nesting Sept.
  1. Painted Quail Turnix varia
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Coastal heaths and dry sclerophyll forests and
    sandstone ridges. Pairs and small coveys.
  2. Lewin Water -rail Ral/us pectora/is
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Freshwater swamps and depressions. Pair with young at Tumbi
    1972/73 and at a small swamp near Wyee.
  3. Banded Landrail Rallus philippensis
    R. Uncommon. Freshwater wetlands and damp grasslands. Singly or in pairs, all
    recent records are coastal from Kooragang to The Entrance.
  4. Marsh Crake Porzana pusilla
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Freshwater and brackish wetlands, nesting at Maitland and
    Kooragang Is. Observed in the Hunter Valley and in The Entrance District.

97. Australian Spotted Crake Porzana fluminea

RB. Scarce, nomadic. Fresh and saline wetlands, nesting Oct Dec at swamps near
Maitland and on Kooragang Is. Recorded from the Hunter Valley and The Entrance
districts in pairs and small flocks, up to eight birds.March, 1975 53.

  1. Spotless Crake Porzana tabuensis
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Fresh and saline wetlands, nesting at Maitland in Jan 1971.
    Only recorded in the Hunter Valley marshes.
  2. Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa

RB. Common, sedentary. Fresh meadows, swamps and open fresh water. Flocks up

to 300 on Kooragang Is marshes. Nesting Sept May.

  1. Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
    RB. Common, sedentary. Freshwater wetlands, reedbeds and coastal brackish water

lagoons. Particularly common in the lower Hunter Valley, coastal wetlands and the

lower MacDonald Valley, immatures may disperse widely. Nesting Aug March.

  1. Coot Fulica atra
    RB & WV. Moderately common, nomadic with a small local breeding population.

Present on the larger freshwater marshes particularly in the Hunter Valley, up to

350 recorded Kooragang Is in winter (HNH 4:202). Nesting Sept Jan.

  1. Lotus Bird Jacana gallinacea
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Semi -permanent fresh swamps in the Maitland area, the only
    locality where it is recorded in the county.
  2. Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Seasonal fresh swamps in the Hunter Valley. Nesting Dec near
    Minmi, where up to seventeen have been observed. Also recorded at Kooragang Is
    and the Maitland swamps.
  3. Pied Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal beaches and estuarine sandflats, several resident
    pairs in Lake Macquarie and the Hunter estuary, rare elsewhere. Winter flocks max.
    24 Kooragang Is 29/4/1972. (HNH 4:202).
  4. Sooty Oystercatcher Haematopus fuliginosus
    RB. Rare sedentary. Offshore islands and coastal rock platforms. One pair nest
    annually on Moon Is, single birds at Toowoon Bay 6/10/55 and occasionally on rock
    platforms near Newcastle.
  5. Spur -winged Plover Vane//us novaeho//andiae
    RB. Common, sedentary. Fresh and saline wetlands, estuaries, sandspits, golf courses,

playfields, farmlands and adjacent stock dams, absent from the timbered ranges.

Nesting July Oct, large flocks may form from late summer to early winter.

  1. Banded Plover Vanellus tricolor
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Open short -grassed plains, bare paddocks and airfields,
    numbers highest during dry conditions inland. Pairs and small flocks, a runner
    banded at Mascot was recovered two years later at Tuggerah.Nested Morpeth Sept
    1973.54. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  2. Red -kneed Dotterel Charadrius cinctus
    VB. Scarce, nomadic. Fresh meadows and seasonal fresh swamps mostly in the Hunter

Valley, rare elsewhere. Pairs and small flocks, max. 50 Kooragang Is 29/4/1972

(HNH 4:203). Nesting Dec Jan at Kooragang and Maitland. Single bird at Tuggerah
Lakes Dec 1968 (Birds 3:31).

  1. Red -capped Dotterel Charadrius alexandrinus
    RB. Common, sedentary, breeding resident. Coastal beaches, sandspits and shallow

  • estuarine waters. Nesting Aug May. Winter flocking Feb Aug, maximum 100
    Kooragang, 20 Lake Macquarie, 15 The Entrance.

110. Ringed Dotterel Charadrius hiaticula

V. Rare. Shallow estuarine waters and sandspits, single bird Feb Dec 1967 Koora-
gang Is. (HNH 4:203).

111. Double -banded Dotterel Charadrius bicinctus

WM. Moderately common. (March Sept). Shallow estuarine waters and sandspits,
coastal rock platforms and occasionally fresh meadows and swamps. Up to 260
present each winter at Kooragang, 20-30 each at Lake Macquarie and Tuggerah Lakes.

112. Large Sand -dotterel Charadrius leschenaultii

SMV. Scarce (Sept April). Estuaries, sandspits and mudflats. Only recorded at

Kooragang Is Stockton, with a maximum of four per season.

  1. Black -fronted Dotterel Charadrius me/anops

RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Freshwater wetlands and the mud and shingle

margins of rivers and streams. Pairs and small flocks. Nesting Oct Dec.

114. Mongolian Sand -dotterel Charadrius mongo/us

SMV and PM. Moderately common. (Sept April). Estuaries, sandspits and mudflats
4 – 500 present throughout the season and up to 800 during passage at Kooragang,
60 -70 Lake Macquarie, small numbers elsewhere.

  1. Eastern Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica
    SMV and PM. Moderately common. Some birds overwinter. Estuaries, sandspits and
    mudflats. Up to 350 Kooragang, 120 Lake Macquarie, lesser numbers at Tuggerah
    Lakes and Brisbane Water.

116. Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola

MV. Scarce summer migratory visitor (Nov Jan). Estuaries, sandspits and mudflats.
First recorded at The Entrance 6/12/1959, and subsequently Pelican, Redhead, Swan-
sea and Kooragang Is. Singly or in small flocks.

  1. Turnstone Arenaria interpres
    SMV and PM. Uncommon, some birds overwinter. Coastal seashores, rock platforms
    and estuaries. Small numbers, up to 30 birds at each of the major estuaries.March, 1975 55.

118. Japanese Snipe Gallinago hardwickii

SMV. Moderately common. (Aug April). Fresh meadows and seasonal fresh swamps.
Numbers greatest in the Hunter Valley but can occur anywhere. One banded at Jilliby
in summer recovered in Japan the following winter. (ABB 7:42).

  1. Little Whimbrel Numenius minutus
    SMV. Rare. Fresh meadows and saline wetlands. Three at Kooragang 21/9/1968 and
    one 12/12/1969 (HNH 4:204).

120. Asiatic Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus

SMV and PM. Uncommon (Aug April), some overwinter. Salt flats, mangrove swamps
and shallow estuarine waters. Singly or small flocks, 40 at Swansea 17/2/1968 and 50
Kooragang 7/9/1974 on passage.

121. Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis

SMV and PM. Moderately common (Aug April), some overwinter. Mangrove and
estuarine mudflats, singly or in small flocks but during passage large flocks may occur
(1000+ Kooragang 29/11/1970). Normally 300 lower Hunter, 70 Lake Macquarie,
60 Brisbane Water and lesser numbers elsewhere. Up to 80 overwinter in the Hunter

122. Little Greenshank Tringa stagnati/is

SMV and PM. Scarce (Oct March), occasionally overwintering. Saline and freshwater

marshes, tidal mudflats. Normally only small numbers present, but between Oct Dec
1972 up to 210 present, and 60 in December 1973 at Kooragang Is – Stockton, not
observed elsewhere.

123. Greenshank Tringa nebularia

SMV. Moderately common, (Aug March), often overwintering. Freshwater and
saline wetlands both coastal and inland, also estuaries. Small number up to 80 summer
at Kooragang Is, 15-20 Lake Macquarie, and small number elsewhere. Up to 200
recorded on passage at Kooragang in September.

124. Wood Sandpiper Tringa g/areola

SMV. Scarce, (Nov May). Freshwater and saline wetlands. One to six recorded
annually since 1970 at Kooragang Is.

125. Common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos

SMV. Scarce, (Sept March), occasionally one overwinters. Margins of fresh and saline
wetlands, estuaries and streams. Generally singly with up to 10 birds each summer in
the Hunter Estuary. One at Boolaroo 1/3/1972.

  1. Wandering Tatler Tringa incana
    SM. Rare. Seashore, coastal rock platforms and rock piers. One Kooragang Is on
    21/9/1974. The few records probably reflect confusion in identification with the Grey –
    tailed Tattler.56. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

127. Grey -tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes

MV, SMV. Moderately common, (Aug April), often overwinters. Tidal mudflats or
oyster leases in estuaries. Singly and in small flocks with up to 100 each in Lake Macqu-
arie, Tuggerah Lakes, Brisbane Water and the Hunter Estuary during the summer of 1973/7

128. Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus

SMV. Scarce, (April Sept), odd birds overwinter. Only known from the Hunter
Estuary where up to 600 spend the summer, feeding on the tidal mudflats and
roosting on the sandspits.

129. Knot Calidris canutus

SMV and PM. Moderately common, (Sept April). Estuarine mudflats and sandspits,

small to large flocks up to 500 recorded on passage (Sept Oct) at Kooragang.
Small numbers present throughout the season there, and at other estuaries.

130. Greater Knot Calidris tenuirostris

SMV. Scarce, (Sept March). Estuarine mudflats and sandspits. Singly or in small
flocks, max. 15 at Stockton 18/3/1972.

131. Sharp -tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata

SMV. Common, (Aug April). Freshwater, brackish and saline marshes and tidal
mudflats. Feeds on the mudflats at low tide, moving to the freshwater marshes at
high tide to feed and roost. Up to 500 recorded at Kooragang and Tuggerah Lakes
each season, 100 at Lake Macquarie. Also frequents freshwater swamps with muddy

132. Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris me/anotos

SMV. Scarce, (Sept March). Freshwater and saline wetlands and estuarine mud

flats. Singly or in small numbers, most recorded at Kooragang but one at Belmont
Lagoon 30/3/1969.

  1. Red -necked Stint Calidris ruficollis
    SMV and PM. Common, some overwinter. Margins of fresh and saline wetlands, est-
    uarine mudflats and sandspits, coastal rock platforms. Small to large flocks, up to
    500 each summer Hunter Estuary, 220 Lake Macquarie and 100 + Tuggerah Lakes.
  2. Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
    SMV and PM. Common, large numbers overwinter. Margins of fresh and saline wet-
    lands, estuarine mudflats and sandspits. Small to large flocks, up to 2200 on passage
    at Kooragang and 1000 throughout the summer; 100+ Lake Macquarie and smaller
    numbers elsewhere.
  3. Sanderling Calidris alba
    SMV. Rare. Sandspits and beaches, one 27/11/1965 and one 4/11/1973 both at
    Kooragang (HNH 6:75).

136. Broad -billed Sandpiper Limicola fa/cinel/us

SMV. Scarce, (Sept March). Estuarine mudflats and sandspits, singly or in small
flocks. Up to 180 present each summer in the Hunter Estuary, rare elsewhere. One
at The Entrance 8/11/1956.March, 1975 57.

137. Black -tailed Godwit Limosa limosa

SMV. Uncommon, (Sept April), small flocks overwinter. Estuarine mudflats and
sandspits, up to 500 present each season in the Hunter Estuary, not reported from

  1. Bar -tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica
    SMV and PM. Common, large numbers overwinter. Small to large flocks, up to 1500
    present throughout the season in the Hunter estuary, up to 100 Lake Macquarie and
    The Entrance, lesser numbers elsewhere.

139. Ruff Philomachus pugnax

SMV. Rare, (Nov Feb). Fresh and saline wetlands, estuarine mudflats and sandspits.
Five records, all for single birds at Kooragang Is, Nov 1967 and Oct 1969 both Ruffs;
27/2/1972 (ABW 7:233), 1/12/1973, 22/1/1974 all Reeves (HNH 6:79).

  1. White -headed Stilt Himantopus himantopus

RB. Moderately common, nomadic. Saline and freshwater shallow wetlands, occasion-

ally estuarine mud and sand flats. Nesting Oct Jan. Singly or in small flocks, mostly
confined to the wetlands of the Hunter Valley and coastal lakes and lagoons south to
Morisset. Max. 350 Kooragang 15/5/1972.

  1. Banded Stilt Cladorhynchus leucocephalus
    V. Rare. Saline and freshwater wetlands. One immature May 1972 (HNH 4:257) and
    another, possibly the same bird Sept 1972 (Birds 7:98) on Kooragang Is.
  2. Avocet Recurvirostra novaehollandiae
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Saline and freshwater marshes, estuarine mud and sand flats.

Singly or in small flocks, up to 5 in 1965 at Kooragang and Shortland, occasionally

at Minmi 1961-1969, but up to 19 at Kooragang May Nov 1972.

  1. Southern Stone Curlew Burhinus magnirostris
    RB. Scarce, sedentary. Salt flats adjacent to mangrove and sheoak swamps, also wood-
    lands. At least five pairs resident Rileys and Pelican Is, and formerly on St. Huberts Is
    in Brisbane Water. Reasonably common at Wollombi 1938 (Emu 38:413) but no
    recent records. Not recorded in the Maitland area for 10 years prior to 1973 when 3
    pairs nested in November.
  2. Beach Stone Curlew Esacus magnirostris
    V. Rare. Beaches and estuaries. One Norah Head 27/12/1959. (Emu 61:64-5).

145. Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus

SMV. Uncommon, (Nov Feb). Coastal seas, particularly offshore of the major
estuaries. Singly or in small flocks. Pair Tuggerah Beach 27/11/1958, occasionally

146. Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus

SMV. Moderately common, (Oct Jan). Estuaries and coastal seas, but during bad
weather may be forced upstream and into coastal lakes. Singly or in pairs, particularly
in the Hunter, Lake Macquarie and Broken Bay estuaries.58. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

  1. Southern Black -backed Gull Larus dominicanus
    RB. Uncommon and sedentary, but juveniles may disperse widely. Coastal seas and
    estuaries. First observed in Australia at Newcastle 22/1/1939 (ABB 11:10), first bred
    on Moon Is 1958 and now two pairs breed there annually. Singly or in pairs, recorded
    from the Hunter to Broken Bay. A runner banded at Moon Is was recovered four years
    later at Fremantle, W.A.
  2. Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae
    RB. Very common, sedentary and nomadic. Coastal seashore, estuaries and offshore
    islands, city parks and gardens. Nesting Moon Is where up to 1000 pairs nest spring
    and summer in most years. A number of immature birds, banded at other coastal
    islands rookeries, have been recovered within the county up to 500 km from their
    natal island. Chicks banded on Moon Is have been recovered from Beach port, S.A. to
    Bundaberg, Old. (ABB 12:37-37).

149. Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida

PM. Uncommon, (Oct Apr). Fresh meadows and swamps, occasionally shallow
estuarine waters. Small to large flocks, up to 120 Kooragang Is 21/10/1972. Observed
only in the lower Hunter Valley south to Belmont Lagoon.

150. White -winged Black Tern Chlidonias leucoptera

SMV. Uncommon (Sept May). Freshwater and saline wetlands along the coastal strip.
Singly or small flocks, up to 46 at Kooragang in recent years. Some birds acquire breed-
ing plumage prior to departing.

151. Black Tern Chlidoniasniger

SMV. Rare (Jan March). Freshwater and saline wetlands of the coastal strip. Single

at Tuggerah 1958 and another at Kooragang Jan March 1968. (Emu 68:238-9).

  1. Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Estuaries, coastal lakes and beaches. Singly or in small
    flocks, up to nine can be seen at Lake Macquarie, Tuggerah Lakes and Hunter Estuary,
    generally in winter.
  2. Gull -billed Tern Sterna ni/otica
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Estuaries, fresh and saltwater wetlands. Singly or in small
    flocks throughout the year although most common in winter in the Hunter Estuary,
    rare elsewhere. Max. 65 on 16/9/1972.

154. Asiatic Common Tern Sterna hirundo

SMV. Moderately common, (Oct March). Coastal seas, rock platforms and estuaries.
Small to large flocks, first recorded in the Hunter Estuary 1951 and now present
every year. Max. 1600 Stockton Bight 6/2/1972, rare elsewhere.

155. Arctic Tern Sterna macrura

SMV. Rare (Sept March). Estuaries and coastal seas. Single birds recorded at Koora-
gang Is 30/3/1968 and September 1968 (ABO 442).March, 1975 59.

156. White -fronted Tern Sterna striata

WMV. Uncommon (March Sept). Estuaries, rock platforms and coastal seas, small
flocks, max. 400 Moon Is Oct 1963, and 350 Oct 1965.

157. Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata

SMV. Scarce, nomadic (Oct March). Coastal seas, beachwashed specimens from
Newcastle to The Entrance, mostly immature birds.

158. Little Tern Sterna albifrons

VB & SMV. Scarce breeder but common non -breeding. Summer migrant (Aug April).

Estuaries, tidal mudflats and sandspits. Nests Oct Dec in the Hunter Estuary, Redhead
and at Swansea but rarely since 1969 due to disturbance of nesting sites. In March 1974,
700 birds Hunter Estuary, 280 Lake Macquarie, and 60 Tuggerah Lakes. An adult
banded at Port Kembla in Oct 1967 recovered seven years later at Wamberal.

  1. Crested Tern Sterna bergii

RB and V. Common, nomadic. Coastal seas, estuaries and coastal saline lakes. Small

to large flocks, nesting Moon Is (Oct Dec) about 700 pairs. Breeding adults at Moon
Is return to nest in subsequent years, young disperse widely, recoveries ranging along
central and northern coast of N.S.W. and southern coast of Qld. (ABB 12:36-7). Many
runners banded in S.A. are recovered as immatures along the coast.

  1. Red -crowned Fruit Pigeon Ptilinopus regina
    V. Rare, nomadic. Rainforests and riparian forests, recorded on Tuggerah Peninsula
    in 1969. (ABO 456).
  2. Wompoo Pigeon Megaloprepia magnifica
    V. Rare, nomadic. Rainforests. One found dead Kooragang Is Aug 1973 (Birds 8:96),
    Also observed recently at Black Hill and Wollombi.
  3. Top -knot Pigeon Lopholaimus antarcticus
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Rainforests and riparian forests. Pairs and small
    flocks, often feeding on privet and camphor -laurel trees in agricultural areas. Passage
    migrant at Kooragang but probably resident in the Gosford-Wyong-Tumbi area.
  4. White -headed Pigeon Columba norfolciensis
    V. Scarce, nomadic, possibly resident. Rainforests and riparian forests. During 1973
    was recorded singly and in pairs in the Gosford-Ourimbah-Wyong area.
  5. Domestic Pigeon Columba Livia
    RB. Common, sedentary. Mainly manmade habitats and urban areas, but also beaches
    and picnic areas. Introduced.
  6. Brown Pigeon Macropygia amboinensis
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Rainforets, riparian forests and wet gullies. Singly
    or in pairs, commonest in the Kincumber-Gosford-Wyong area.
  7. Spotted Turtledove Streptope/ia chinensis
    RB. Common, sedentary. Urban, agricultural and forested areas altered by man.
    Singly or in pairs. Introduced.60. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  8. Bar -shouldered Dove Geopelia humeralis
    RB. Scarce. Coastal heaths, forests and former cleared areas now regenerating. Singly
    or in pairs, confined to the coast from Kooragang to Wamberal (19/12/1972). Nested
    at Vales Point Dec 1961, gradually extending range south.
    168 Peaceful Dove Geopelia striata
    RB. Common, sedentary. Woodlands, semi -cleared land, and agricultural areas. Pairs
    or small flocks, commonest in the Hunter Valley and the western sections of the
    169, Diamond Dove Geopelia cuneata
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Tall woodland and agricultural lands in the Upper Hunter, west
    of Branxton, nesting at Singleton 1961-67. (HNH1 :2:24).
  9. Green -winged Pigeon Chalcophaps indica
    R. Scarce. Rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests gullies. Singly or in pairs, recorded
    at widely separate localities, viz. Wattagan, Howes Valley, Branxton, Blackbutt
    Reserve, Kincumber, Tumbi and Black Hill.
  10. Common Bronzewing Phaps chalcoptera
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests and woodlands. Singly or in pairs,
    most observations in the Hunter Valley, occasionally at The Entrance.
  11. Brush Bronzewing Phaps elegans
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal heaths and wet sclerophyll forests. Nesting Dec,
    most observations Merewether to Bouddi.
  12. Crested Pigeon Ocyphaps lophotes
    RB. Common, nomadic. Agricultural areas particularly bare paddocks and grazing
    land. Pairs and small flocks, common and widespread in the Hunter Valley. Since
    1961 has extended east from Maitland to Newcastle, south to Redhead (1972) and
    Tuggerah (1973).
  13. Wonga Pigeon Leucosarcia melanoleuca
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Forested gullies in extensive forests. Singly or
    in pairs, scarce in the Hunter Valley.
  14. Rainbow Lorikeet Trichog/ossus haematodus
    R and V. Moderately common, sedentary but some nomadic. Wet sclerophyll forests

and urban areas. Small flocks present throughout the year in the coastal strip, Woy

Woy The Entrance, where they are fed at backyard feeders.

  1. Scaly -breasted Lorikeet Trichog/ossus chlorolepidotus

R. Uncommon, nomadic. Wet sclerophyll forests, coastal and littoral forests, heaths,

urban areas. Common in the Woy Woy The Entrance area, small flocks.

  1. Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Eucalyptus forests both in agricultural areas and timbered

ranges. Small to large flocks, following the flowering of trees and shrubs. A large

flock max. 230 visited the Cooranbong area Aug Dec 1966 (HNH 2:36).March, 1975 61.

  1. Little Lorikeet Glossopsitta pusilla
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Eucalyptus forests and groves. Pairs, small to
    large flocks.

179. Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor

WMV. Rare, nomadic (May Oct). Eucalyptus forests. Small to large flocks,
recorded Morisset – Kurri area 1958, Gosford – Woy Woy 1960, Merewether – Morisset
180 Yellow -tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus
V. Scarce, nomadic. Timbered ranges in the central and south-west of the county.
Small flocks, possibly resident in the Wattagan S. F.

  1. Glossy Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami
    R. Rare, sedentary. Wet and dry sclerophyll forests where Casurarinas occur.
    Formerly more widespread, but only recorded since 1967 at Darug. Pairs or small

182. Gang -gang Cockatoo Callocephalon fimbriatum

WV. Scarce (April Sept). Wet sclerophyll forests Pairs or small flocks, most records
for the Cooranbong-Wattagan area.

  1. Sulphur -crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita
    R. Uncommon. Sclerophyll forests and adjacent agricultural areas. Pairs or small
    flocks, most records in the MacDonald and Wollombi Valleys; feeding on the farms,
    nesting and roosting in the forests.
  2. Galah Cacatua roseicapilla
    R. Common, sedentary. Agricultural and urban areas. Small flocks, common in the
    Hunter Valley, extending southwards along the coast, Wyong 1973, Gosford 1974.
  3. Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus
    V. Rare, possible breeding visitor. Pastoral and croplands, mainly in the Hunter
    Valley. Pair inspecting nest -hole at Kooragang Is, the birds may have been escapees.
  4. King Parrot Aprosmictus scapularis
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Wet sclerophyll forests and adjacent agricultural
    lands. Pairs or small flocks. Flocking in winter, sometimes visiting gardens, dispersing
    in Sept.
  5. Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans
    R. Common, sedentary. Sclerophyll forests, coastal heaths and dune forests. Pairs
    or small flocks.
  6. Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius

RB. Common, sedentary. Open woodland, agricultural and urban areas adjacent to

timbered areas. Nesting Oct Nov, found throughout the county.62. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

  1. Red-rumped Parrot Psephotus haematonotus

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Agricultural areas near timber. Pairs, small to large flocks.

Nesting Aug Nov. Common in the Upper Hunter Valley and tributaries, absent from
the sandstone forests and the coastal strip, although small numbers breed on Koora-
gang in mangroves.

  1. Turquoise Parrot Neophema pulchella
    V. Rare, sedentary, but probably resident. Open forests and cleared lands adjacent to
    woodland. Pairs or small flocks. Recent records at Kooragang Is, Maitland, Singleton,
    Buckitty, Neath and West Wallsend. Easily overlooked in timbered areas.
  2. Budgerygah Melopsittacus undulatus
    V. Rare, nomadic. Agricultural lands, a small flock at St Albans 17/10/1970.
  3. Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus
    SV. Rare. Wet sclerophyll forests and adjacent areas. A single bird at McMaster’s
    Beach 10/3/1956 (EMU 56:432-3).

193. Pallid Cuckoo Cucu/us pa//idus

SMB. Moderately common (Sept Dec). Woodland, agricultural lands, parks and
gardens, coastal heaths. Common in the Hunter Valley. One winter record at Koora-
gang Is 25/6/1972. Call at night on arrival in spring.

194. Brush Cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus

SMB. Moderately common (Sept Jan). Wet sclerophyll forests, rainforests, dune and
mangrove forests.

  1. Fan -tailed Cuckoo Cacomantis pyrrhophanus
    RB. Common, nomadic. All forested areas. Commonest cuckoo, dispersing widely
    during winter months. Singly or in pairs.
  2. Black -eared Cuckoo Chrysococcyx osculans
    V. Scarce. Tall and savannah woodland. Only recorded in the Hunter Valley, regularly
    near Belford, Bulga and Black Hill, rarer near the coast, viz. Newcastle 16/2/1968 and
    Kooragang Is 2/1/1972.

197. Horsfield Bronze Cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis

SMB. Moderately common (Aug Jan). Open forests, coastal heaths, agricultural and
urban areas. Singly or in pairs, small flocks in winter. Nesting Oct — Jan.

198. Golden Bronze Cuckoo Chrysococcyx plagosus

SMB. Common. (Aug April), some birds overwinter. Sclerophyll forests and coastal
areas. Singly, pairs or small flocks. Nesting October.

  1. Shining Bronze Cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus
    PM. Rare. One dead Tuggerah Beach 28/9/1972.

200. Koel Eudynamys scolopacea

SMB. Moderately common (Oct Jan). Wet sclerophyll forests and rainforests, attract-
ed to fig trees. Singly or in pairs. Common in the coastal strip and the Hunter Valley
west to Branxton.March, 1975 63.

201. Channel -billed Cuckoo Scythrops novaehollandiae

SM. Scarce (Sept Dec). Open forests and agricultural lands. Most records for the

McDonald and Wollombi valleys, regular in the Maitland Kurri districts.

  1. Pheasant Coucal Centropus phasianinus
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal forests, margins of coastal lagoons, and swampy
    depressions generally. Singly or in pairs, most records in the Gosford and Wyong
    coastal strip, which unfortunately is subject to considerable development.
  2. Powerful Owl Ninox strenua
    V. Rare, although probably a resident. Wet sclerophyll forests. One found dead at
    Freemans Waterhold (per G. Holmes), another at Tumbi August, 1974.
  3. Barking Owl Ninox connivens
    RB. Rare. Woodland. Pair have bred in the Morpeth-Tenambit area since 1965.
    (HNH 1:3:24).
  4. Boobook Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Forests generally and adjoining agricultural
    and urban areas. Pairs.
  5. Barn Owl Tyto a/ba
    RB. Scarce, nomadic. All habitats, roosting in tree hollows, caves and old buildings
    by day. Rare but possibly overlooked. Nested Blackbutt Reserve 1972/3.
  6. Masked Owl Tyto novaeho//andiae
    V. Rare. Two road casualties, Brisbane Water N.P. 27/8/71, and at Lochinvar 1970.
    Observed at Merewether in 1951.
  7. Sooty Owl Tyto tenebricosa
    V. Rare. Rainforests and coastal dune scrubs. Recorded at Redhead in 1972.
  8. Tawny Frogmouth Podargus strigoides

RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Mainly dry sclerophyll forests but occurs wher-

ever small patches of eucalypts are found. Nesting Sept Nov. singly or in pairs.

  1. Owlet -nightjar Aegotheles cristatus
    V. Rare. Only record 20/1/1974 at Bulga in lightly timbered country. Probably a
    resident of dry sclerophyll forests.
  2. White -throated Nightjar Eurostopodus mystacalis

  • SMB. Rare. (Oct Feb). Dry sclerophyll forest ridges. Nesting Oct Dec, and has
    been observed at Kincumber (1931) and breeding at Buchanan (1950), West Wallsend
    and Gosford 1973/4.

212. Spine -tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus

SM. Common, (Oct March). Along coastal hills from Swansea to Kilcare. Small to
large flocks, up to 500 not uncommon.

213. Fork -tailed Swift Apus pacificus

SM. Scarce, (Nov Jan). Often occurs with Spine -tailed Swifts. Singly or in small
flocks, max. 50.64. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

  1. Azure Kingfisher Alcyone azurea
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Fresh and saline streams, mangrove forests.
    Singly or in pairs, widespread throughout the County.
  2. Kookaburra Dacelo gigas

RB. Very common, sedentary. Urban, agricultural and woodland areas. Nesting

Sept Oct. Commonly fed in gardens.

  1. Red -backed Kingfisher Halycon pyrrhopygia
    SV. Rare. Woodland and agricultural areas in the dry Upper Hunter Valley. Single
    records for Pokolbin and Singleton. (HNH 1:3:24).

217. Sacred Kingfisher Halcyon sancta

SMB. Common, (Sept March), some birds overwinter in mangroves. All habitats

but mainly open forests and sclerophyll forests adjoining urban and agricultural

areas. Nesting Sept Dec. Singly or in pairs.

218. Rainbow Bee- eater Merops ornatus

SMB. Uncommon. (Sept March). Agricultural areas and banks of watercourses,
nesting October. More common in the Upper Hunter, Wollombi and MacDonald
catchments than elsewhere. Rare on the coast, pairs or small flocks.

219. Dollar -bird Eurystomus orientalis

SMB. Common (Sept Feb). Wet sclerophyll forests and rainforest gullies, hawking
over adjacent areas, numbers highest in the coastal strip. Pairs and small flocks late
in the season.

220. Lyrebird Menura novaehollandiae

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Gullies of sclerophyll forests, nesting June July. Occurs
mainly in the central section of the county where forests are more extensive. Best
areas Wyong-Wattagan-St. Albans-Dharug, with the nearest population to Newcastle
being the eastern side of Mt Sugarloaf.

  1. Bul Bul Pycnonotus jocosus
    V. Rare. Agricultural and urban areas adjoining wet sclerophyll forest gullies. First
    recorded at Kincumber and Tumbi in 1973 and possibly increasing. Introduced.
  2. Skylark Alauda arvensis
    V. Rare. Playing fields, open areas and short coastal heaths. One at The Entrance
    18/10/1957, and at Kooragang 1970. Introduced.
  3. White -backed Swallow Cheramoeca leucosternum
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Open forests and agricultural areas of the western side of

the county, being regularly found in the MacDonald, Wollombi and Hunter Valleys.

Nesting Sept Nov. Breeding at Narara and Ourimbah in Oct 1940.

  1. Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena

RB. Very common, sedentary. All habitats but favours farms and buildings, coastal

areas, small and large swamps. Nesting Sept Dec. Farm sheds, bridges and build-
ings are favoured nest sites but occasionally nests in caves in sandstone outcrops.
Pairs and small flocks, larger flocks in autumn and winter. There is yet no evidence
to suggest that local birds migrate.March, 1975 65.

224. Tree- martin Petrochelidon nigricans

SMB. Uncommon. (Aug April), some birds overwinter near large wetland areas.
Breeding in sclerophyll forests and along tree -lined watercourses, often moving to
freshwater swamps after nesting. Small flocks whilst nesting, larger flocks late
summer and autumn.

226. Fairy Martin Petrochelidon ariel

SMB. Moderately common (Aug April). Agricultural areas, cleared forests and

freshwater streams. Nesting Aug Dec, having a preference for road culverts and
bridges (Emu 73:188). Small to large flocks, late summer and autumn flocks often
feed over wetlands.

  1. Australian Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae
    RB. Common, sedentary. Short -grass paddocks, stubble -fields, short coastal heaths,

beaches, playing fields etc. Pairs or small flocks, on Kooragang Is there is evidence

to suggest migratory behaviour. Nesting Sept Jan.

  1. Ground Cuckoo -shrike Pteropodocys maxima
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Tall woodland cleared for pastoral purposes. Recorded at
    Belford (nesting 1964) and Luskintyre (HNH 1:3:24). Probably only visits the
    county in dry years.
  2. Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaeho//andiae

RB & WV. Common. Eucalyptus forests and scattered -trees throughout the county.

Nesting Oct Nov. Pairs and small flocks, there is some evidence to suggest that
Tasmanian birds winter in N.S.W. The movement of this species outside the breeding
season is not understood.

  1. Little Cuckoo -shrike Coracina robusta
    R. Scarce. Dry sclerophylll forests. May breed in the drier Wollombi and MacDonald
    Valleys. A winter visitor to the coastal regions, viz. Waratah and Charmhaven.

231. Cicada -bird Edoliisoma tenuirostre

SMB. Uncommon, (Nov Feb). Wet sclerophyll forests, particularly in the ranges
and hills of the centre of the county. Singly or in pairs. Most records for the
Wyong-Tumbi-Gosford-Dharug area.

  1. White -winged Triller Lalage suerii
    SMB. Uncommon, (Oct – Jan). Grazing paddocks with scattered timber, woodland and
    open areas adjoining forests. Nesting Oct. Pairs to small flocks. Most records for the
    Hunter, Wollombi and MacDonald Valley, rare on the coast south of Newcastle.66. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  2. Ground Thrush Zoothera dauma
    R. Scarce. The forest floor of rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests. Recorded only
    in the Dharug, Tumbi, Blackbutt and Wattagan areas.
  3. Southern Chowchilla Orthonyx temmincki
    R. Rare. The forest floor of rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests. Pairs and family
    parties, recorded only in the Wattagan, Wyong and Strickland S.F.

235. Spotted Quail -thrush Cinclosoma punctatum

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forest ridges. Nesting Sept Oct. Singly
or in pairs, recorded mainly in the sandstone forests but also at Merewether.

  1. Grey -crowned Babbler Pomatostomus temporalis
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll and open forests of the Hunter, Wollombi
    and MacDonald Valleys. Absent from the coastal strip. Small family parties.
  2. Golden -headed Fantail -warbler Cisticola exilis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Reedy margins of fresh and saline wetlands, salt –

marshes, rank grassland, swampy depressions and overgrown market gardens. Pairs and

small family parties. Nesting Aug Feb. Common in the Lower Hunter and the
coastal strip.

  1. Little Grassbird Megalurus gramineus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Reedy margins of fresh and saline wetlands. More often

heard giving its low mournful whistle, than seen. Singly or in pairs. Common in the

Lower Hunter, less common or scarce elsewhere. Nesting Sept March.

  1. Tawny Grassbird Megalurus timoriensis
    V. Rare, nomadic. Reedy margins of freshwater marshes, particularly Typha swamps,
    rank grasslands and standing crops near water. Only recorded at Newcastle, Toronto
    and at Dharug 22/4/73.

240. Reed -warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus

SMB. Moderately common (Sept March), small numbers overwinter. Reedy margins
of saline and freshwater marshes, reedbeds in streams, preferring Typha and Phragmites.

Generally in pairs, common in the fresh water marshes and reed swamps of the Hunter

Valley. Nesting Oct Dec.

  1. Brown Songlark Cinclorhamphus cruralis
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Extensive short grass paddocks, airfields, and saline flats.
    Recorded at Hexham and Kooragang Is in recent years (HNH 4:211), and regular in
    the farmlands west of Maitland.
  2. Rufous Songlark Cinclorhamphus mathewsi
    SMB. Uncommon, nomadic. Grazing country with scattered timber, and agricultural
    areas adjacent to forests. Pairs, common in the farmlands west of Maitland and occas-
    ionally at Kooragang Is.March, 1975 67.
  3. Superb Blue Wren Malurus cyaneus

RB. Very common, sedentary. Forest edges and undergrowth in all habitats, particul-

arly agricultural and urban areas and streamside vegetation. Nesting Aug Feb small

  1. Variegated Wren Malurus lamberti
    RB. Common, sedentary. Coastal heaths, and the undergrowth in wet sclerophyll and
    sandstone forests. Mainly in the coastal strip from Newcastle to Dharug, rare in the
    Hunter Valley. Small groups, nesting October.
  2. Southern Emu -wren Stripiturus malachurus

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal and elevated heathlands, occasionally the margins

of saline wetlands. Nesting Aug Nov. Habitat has been nearly destroyed by beach
mining from The Entrance to Newcastle.

246. White -throated Warbler Gerygone olivacea

SMB. Common, (Sept Jan). Sclerophyll forests generally preferring saplings.
Nesting October, pairs.

  1. Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki

RB. Moderately common sedentary. Rainforest gullies and riparian forests. Nesting

Sept Nov. Numbers highest in the Gosford and Wyong Shires, uncommon to rare
in the Upper Hunter and western sections of the county. Pairs and small flocks.

  1. Buff -breasted Warbler Gerygone levigaster

RB. Rare, sedentary. Mangrove forests of the Hunter Estuary, mainly Fullarton Cove

and Kooragang Is. Nesting Oct Nov. First recorded in the county 30/9/1967, popul-
ation now about 20 pair.

  1. Western Warbler Gerygone fusca
    RB. Scarce, sedentary. Woodland and open grazing country with scattered clumps of
    timber. First recorded nesting Belford S. F. 1959, subsequently recorded at Minmi,
    Black Hill and Broke, in the Hunter and Wollombi Valleys (Emu 61:298). Pairs.
  2. Weebill Smicrornis brevirostris
    R. Uncommon. Dry sclerophyll forest and woodland mainly in the MacDonald,
    Wollombi and Hunter Valleys east to Wallsend. Pairs and small flocks. Rarely recorded
    along the coastal strip.
  3. Straited Thornbill Acanthiza lineata
    RB. Common, sedentary. Eucalyptus forests throughout the county. Nesting Sept.
    Pairs and small flocks, occurring in both tall forests and undergrowth.
  4. Little Thornbill Acanthiza nana
    RB. Common, sedentary. Melaleuca, casuarina and mangrove forests located along

coastal shores, streams and the wetlands generally. Occurs through the county but

greatest numbers occur in the coastal strip. Pairs and small flocks. Nesting Sept Jan.68. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

  1. Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla

RB. Very common, sedentary. The undergrowth of dune forests, sclerophyll forests

generally, and coastal heaths. Nesting Aug Dec. Pairs and family parties, numbers
greatest in coastal areas.

  1. Buff-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza reguloides
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Woodland and dry sclerophyll forests of the county,
    commonest in the western sector, particularly the Wollombi and MacDonald Valleys.
    Small flocks.
  2. Yellow-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa

RB. Common, sedentary. Open forest, agricultural areas with scattered timber and

urban areas. Nesting Aug Dec. Common throughout the county, particularly in the
Hunter Valley. Small flocks.

  1. White-browed Scrub -wren Sericornis frontalis
    RB. Common, sedentary. Undergrowth of forests and woodlands, streamside veget-
    ation and coastal heaths. Pairs and small groups. At Tumbi banding has shown these
    birds to be resident with recoveries up to four years later.
  2. Large -billed Scrub -wren Sericornis magnirostris
    R. Uncommon, sedentary, probably breeds. Rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests.
    Pairs and small groups; at Tumbi banding has shown that they are resident, with
    recoveries up to ten years. Most records for the Gosford and Wyong Shires.
  3. Yellow -throated Scrub -wren Sericornis lathami

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Forest floor of rainforests and wet gullies, often construct-

ing their nests over water. Nesting Sept Dec. Pairs and small groups. Most records
for Gosford and Wyong Shires.

  1. Heath Wren Hylacola pyrrhopygia
    R. Scarce. Undergrowth and forest floor of coastal heaths and dry sclerophyll wood-
    lands. Singly or in pairs. Only recorded from East Maitland to Newcastle.
  2. Whiteface Aphelocephala leucopsis
    R. Rare. Drier agricultural lands of the Hunter Valley, having a scattering of trees and
    thickets. Pairs and small groups. Irregularly recorded east to Cessnock (Emu 61:298).
  3. Speckled Warbler Chthonico/a sagittata
    RB. Uncommon. Dry sclerophyll forests, woodland and partly cleared lands. Pairs and

small flocks, found throughout the county in widely separated localities. Nesting

Sept Oct.

  1. Rock -warbler Origma solitaria
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Sandstone forests. Pairs and family parties.
    Nesting August, the nest being suspended from the ceiling of caves. Northern limits
    of its distribution being a line through Martinsville – Mu’bring- Cessnock.March, 1975 69.
  2. White -fronted Chat Epthianura albifrons
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Salt marshes, wetlands and edges of mangrove forests.
    Pairs and small flocks, max. 50 Kooragang Is 14/8/1971. Decreasing due to develop-

ment of their habitat for recreational facilities, quay estates and industrial areas.

Nesting Sept Jan.

  1. Jacky Winter Microeca leucophaea

RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Agricultural and lightly timbered areas, dry

sclerophyll forests and woodland. Nesting Oct Nov. Generally in pairs.

  1. Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor
    V. Scarce. Dry sclerophyll forests and woodlands, moving into grazing lands in winter.
    nowhere common although recorded regularly in the Wattagan S.F. Singly or in pairs.
  2. Red -capped Robin Petroica goodenoyii
    R & WV. Rare, nomadic. Agricultural areas with scattered timber and woodland. A
    few pair are resident in the Upper Hunter east to Lochinvar and some are winter
    visitors to Black Hill. (HNH 1:3:24).
  3. Rose Robin Petroica rosea
    R. Uncommon. Wet sclerophyll forests and rainforests, during winter they disperse
    into more open forest. Probably breeds in the central section (Wattagan and Strick-
    land S.F.) but dispersing to the dry sclerophyll forests in winter. Pairs.
  4. Hooded Robin Petroica cucullata
    R. Uncommon. Woodlands of the Hunter Valley east to Pokolbin and in the MacDonald
    Valley. Pairs or small flocks but thinly dispersed.
  5. Southern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis
    RB. Common, sedentary. All forested areas. Nesting Oct. Pairs and small family parties.
    Resident status at Tumbi confirmed by banding.
  6. Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa

RB. Very common, nomadic. All forests and woodlands, wandering to more open

country in winter. Nesting Oct Feb. Pairs but occasionally small flocks on passage.

271. Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons

SMB. Moderately common, (Oct April). Wet sclerophyll forests and rainforests.
Nesting Jan. Banding indicates they return to the same breeding area each season.
Commonest on the coastal strip, rare elsewhere.

  1. Willie Wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys

RB. Very common, sedentary. All habitats but prefers suburban parks and gardens,

agricultural lands and watercourses. Nesting Sept Jan, singly or in pairs, one on
Lion Is in 1966.

273. Satin Flycatcher Myiagra cyanoleuca

PM. Rare (Sept Feb). Sclerophyll forests. Only recorded in forested ranges near
Bulge. Singly and in pairs.70. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

274. Leaden Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula

SMB. Moderately common (Sept April). Prefers forests and woodland, where it

nests, Nov Feb. Singly or in pairs.

  1. Restless Flycatcher Seisura inquieta
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Open forests and agricultural areas. Singly or in pairs, may
    occur anywhere.
  2. Spectacled Flycatcher Monarcha trivirgata
    V. Rare. Rainforests and wet gullies. Recorded in the Strickland S.F. during 1935,
    whilst an immature was banded at Tumbi 14/4/1973.

277. Black -faced Flycatcher Monarcha frater

SMB. Moderately common (Sept April). Wet sclerophyll forests and rainforests,
predominantly in the eastern section of the county. Nesting Nov. Singly or in pairs.

  1. Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis
    R. Common, sedentary. All forested areas, numbers highest in wet sclerophyll forests.
    Singly or in pairs, some wander into open forests during winter. Banding at Tumbi
    indicates resident status with recoveries up to eight years.
  2. Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris

SMB. Very common (Sept -April). All forests but favour dry sclerophyll forests

and woodlands. Nesting Sept March. Singly or in pairs, odd birds overwinter.

280. Grey Shrike -thrush Colluricincla harmonica

RB. Very common. All forested areas, suburban parks and gardens. Nesting Aug Jan.
Often nests in sandstone rock holes and caves, pairs.

  1. Shrike -tit Falcunculus frontatus
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Can occur in all forested areas, but prefers eucalyptus saplings.
    Pairs or small family groups. Specimen Ash Is (Kooragang) 1859 (HNH 6:77).
  2. Easterm Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus
    RB. Common, sedentary. Undergrowth of wet sclerophyll forests, rainforests and

streamside vegetation. Commonest in the coastal strip, absent from the agricultural

areas of the Hunter Valley. Singly or in pairs, nesting July Feb. Resident at Tumbi,
recoveries up to eight years.

  1. Orange- winged Sittella Neositta chrysoptera

RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Sclerophyll forests but prefers the drier forests and

woodlands. Nesting Oct Nov. Small flocks (4-12 birds).

  1. Brown Tree -creeper Climacteris picumnus
    R. Scarce, sedentary. Open forests and agricultural areas with scattered clumps of
    forest. Commonest in the Upper Wollombi, MacDonald and Hunter Valleys, rare in
    the coastal strip. Pairs or small family groups.
  2. White -throated Tree -creeper Climacteris leucophaea
    RB. Common, sedentary. All forested areas but commonest in dry sclerophyll
    forests. Banding recoveries at Tumbi, up to eight years, indicate resident status.
    Singly or in pairs.March, 1975 71.
  3. Red-browed Tree -creeper Climacteris erythrops
    R. Rare, Rainforests and wet sclerophyll forests. Only recorded at Wattagan S.F.
    (1958) and at Dharug N.P. (1969) and at Blackbutt Reserve.
  4. Mistletoe Bird Dicaeum hirundinaceum
    R. Common, sedentary. All habitats, wherever mistletoe is found, particularly in the
    open forests of the Wollombi and Upper Hunter areas. Pairs or small flocks, possibly
  5. Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus

RB. Common, sedentary. Wet and dry sclerophyll forests, suburban parks and gardens.

Nesting Aug Nov in earthen banks. Very common in the sandstone forests, returning
to nest each year in the same area.

  1. Yellow -tipped Pardalote Pardalotus striatus
    WV. Rare visitor from Tasmania. Eucalyptus forests and woodland. Flock at Morisset
    8/8/1958 (Emu 61:299).
  2. Striated Pardalote Pardalotus substriatus
    RB. Scarce. Dry sclerophyll and open forests in the drier western sections, particularly
    in the Upper Hunter east to Beresfield, and Howes Valley. Nesting Oct. Pairs and small
  3. Eastern Striated Pardalote Pardalotus ornatus
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests and woodlands. Nesting
    Oct. Pairs and small flocks.

292. Grey -breasted Silvereye Zosterops lateralis

RB, PM and WV. Very common, migratory winter visitor (April Sept). All habitats,

forests, parks and gardens, orchards and vineyards. Nesting Sept March. Tasmanian
and southern Australian birds winter on the Central coast but the extent of the move-
ment of local birds is not known. One banded at Thirroul in April recovered at
Boolaroo in July four years later. Pairs, small to large flocks.

  1. Brown Honeyeater Lichmera indistincta
    RB. Rare, sedentary. Frequents mangroves and adjacent paperbark forests and gardens.

Most records for the Hunter Valley but also breeds regularly at Swansea. Nesting

Oct Jan.

294. Scarlet Honeyeater Myzomela sanguinolenta

SV. Moderately common (Aug Jan). Coastal heaths, streamside vegetation in sand-
stone forests and wet sclerophyll forests. Follows the flowering eucalypts, particularly
Blackbutt, Swamp Mahogany and Bloodwood. Pairs or small flocks, adult males are
often hard to find.

  1. Black Honeyeater Myzomela nigra
    V. Rare, nomadic. Woodland. In 1945 several observed by A.J. Keast and A Gwynne
    (in litt.).72. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
  2. Lewin Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii

RB. Very common, sedentary. Rainforests, wet sclerophyll forests. Common along the

coastal strip and central hills. Nesting Oct Nov. Singly, pairs or small flocks. Resident
at Tumbi, recoveries up to eleven years later.

  1. Fuscous Honeyeater Meliphaga fusca
    R. Scarce. Woodlands of the Hunter Valley, South to Wattagan S.F. Singly, pairs or
    small groups. May wander to coastal heaths in autumn.
  2. Yellow -faced Honeyeater Meliphaga chrysops
    RB. Very common. PM (April/May and Aug/Sept) and WV (April/Aug). Eucalyptus

forests with good undergrowth. Flocks move on to coastal heaths to feed on Banksia

ericafolia in autumn and winter. Nesting Sept Nov. Pairs, small to large flocks.
Migration and movement of this honeyeater is not understood.

  1. White -plumed Honeyeater Meliphaga penicillata
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Eucalyptus in open forests, woodlots, streamside trees
    and parks and gardens. Pairs or small flocks. Extended from the Upper Hunter Valley
    to Newcastle in the mid -1960’s, recorded at Wyong December 1968.
  2. White -eared Honeyeater Meliphaga leucotis
    RB. Moderately common sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests and woodlands, particul-
    arly sandstone forests. Rare in agricultural areas like the Hunter Valley. Singly or in
    pairs. Takes human and animal hair for nests.
  3. Yellow -tufted Honeyeater Meliphaga melanops
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Eucalyptus torests with heavy undergrowth, close to
    water, occurs in colonies but individuals wander in winter. Small to large colonies.
  4. Brown -headed Honeyeater Melithreptus brevirostris
    R. Uncommon. Dry sclerophyll forests, woodland and sandstone forests. Small
  5. White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus
    RB, PM & WV. Common. Habitat and habits as for the Yellow -faced Honeyeater,
    with which it associates.
  6. Blue -faced Honeyeater Entomyzon cyanotis
    VB. Rare. Dry sclerophyll forests and partly cleared lands. Nesting Nov. Pairs and
    small flocks, regularly recorded at Broke, Howes Valley and Wollombi.
  7. Little Friar -bird Philemon citreogularis
    VB. Scarce. Dry sclerophyll forests, coastal casuarinas and melaleuca swamps.
    Recorded at Newcastle 1968 and more regularly in the Hunter Valley west of
    Maitland. Nesting Oct.
  8. Noisy Friar -bird Philemon comiculatus

RB. Common, nomadic. Eucalyptus and melaleuca forests, particularly when in

flower, also attracted to flowering Silky Oaks and Coral Trees. Nesting Sept Nov.
Small to large flocks.March, 1975 73.

  1. New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehol/andiae
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Heathlands, dune and sandstone forests of the
    coastal strip. Recorded from Merewether southwards. Generally absent from the
    Hunter Valley and the western areas. Pairs and small flocks.
  2. White-cheeked Honeyeater Phylidonyris niger
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests, heathlands and dune forests
    of the coastal strip. Forages almost exclusively between ground level and 4.5 m,

feeding mainly on flowers of Banksias and eucalypts. Resident on Lion Is, scarce

in the Hunter Valley west of Minmi. Nesting June Oct, peak late July. Pairs and
small flocks. (Emu 70:117-125).

  1. Crescent Honeyeater Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera
    V. Rare. Wet sclerophyll forests. Only recorded at Dharug 27/5/1973, when in excess
    of five were seen.
  2. Tawny -crowned Honeyeater Gliciphila melanops
    R. Scarce. Short coastal heath and grassy dunes. Pairs and small flocks, only recorded
    from Newcastle to Redhead and at Frazer Park.
  3. Striped Honeyeater Plectorhyncha lanceolata
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests of the Hunter and Wollombi
    Valleys; me/a/euca and casuarina forests of the coastal strip from Kooragang to The
    Entrance. Pairs, recorded at Ettalong 5/4/1930 by K. A. Hindwood. Nesting Jan.
  4. Painted Honeyeater Conopophila picta
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Woodlands and scattered eucalypts in agricultural lands. Nesting
    at Bulga in Jan 1975 where it has been reported in previous years. Also at Broke in
    October 1965 & 1968; singly and in pairs, feeding on mistletoe.
    313 Regent Honeyeater Zanthomiza phrygia
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Woodlands and partly cleared lands, particularly in the
    western sector. Nesting St. Albans and Howes Valley (Nov 1970) and Wyong (Dec
    1963). Small to large flocks, following the flowering of the eucalypts.
  5. Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
    RB & WM. Very common. All native forests; coastal heaths and dune forests; suburban
    parks and gardens. Nesting Sept. Some migrants move on to the coastal heaths in
    autumn and winter but others are resident (i.e., at Tumbi, where recoveries have been
    up to seven years later).
  6. Bell Miner Manorina melanophrys
    RB. Common sedentary. Very common in the wet sclerophyll forests of the Gosford-

Kincumber-Wyong areas, small colonies in the Hunter and Wollombi Valleys. Nesting

Sept Dec. Some colonies consist of many hundreds of birds, all are very pugnacious,
driving other birds away.74. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)
316 Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala
RB. Common, sedentary. Open forests, agricultural areas, and the remnants of forests
surrounded by cleared land. Small to large colonies, similarly pugnacious like the
Bell Miner.

  1. Little Wattle -bird Anthochaera chrysoptera
    RB. Very common. Dry sclerophyll, dune and sandstone forests of the coastal areas.
    Nesting August. Some local movement on to heathlands in autumn and winter to feed
    on Banksia ericafolia. Rare in the western section.
  2. Red Wattle -bird Anthochaera carunculata
    RB. Common. Sclerophyll forests and heathlands following the flowering trees and
    shrubs. Pairs, small to large flocks. Often favours exotic trees such as Coral Trees
    when in flower. Local movements to nectar sources.
  3. Diamond Firetail Emblema guttata
    R. Uncommon. Open forests and cleared agricultural lands with scattered clumps of
    trees. Commonest in the Upper Hunter, Upper MacDonald and Wollombi Valleys. One
    at Tumbi 8/11/1956. Pairs and small flocks.
  4. Red -bowed Finch Aegintha temporalis
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Wet sclerophyll and rainforest edges; streamside veget-

ation; undergrowth of eucalyptus and dune forests; suburban parks and gardens.

Nesting Oct Jan. Small to large flocks. Banding has demonstrated resident status
at Tumbi.

  1. Banded Finch Poephila bichenovii
    RB. Moderately common. Open forests and cleared lands adjoining forests. Pairs and
    small flocks, common in the Upper Hunter and Wollombi Valleys.
  2. Zebra Finch Poephila guttata
    VB. Scarce. Grazing and croplands in the Hunter and Wollombi Valleys. A flock at
    Wyong Oct 1963, but otherwise absent from the coastal strip. A flock with juveniles
    at Ko -o ragang Dec 1969 – Jan 1970. More common in drought years. Nesting
    Nov Dec.
  3. Plum -headed Finch Aidemosyne modesta
    V. Rare. Typha clumps in freshwater streams and adjacent crop and grasslands.
    Flock of ten at Bulga 1/2/1960, occasional autumn visitor to Thornton District
    1963-68, 1970.
  4. Chestnut -breasted Finch Lonchura castaneothorax
    RB. Uncommon. Rank grasslands, reedbeds and grain crops. Nesting at Tumbi 1973
    where juveniles have been banded. Small to large flocks, max. 150 Kooragang winter
  5. House Sparrow Passer domesticus
    RB. Common, sedentary. Farm buildings, urban and industrial sites. Widespread
    throughout the county, appearing at quite isolated farmhouses. Small to large flocks.
    Introduced.March, 1975 75.
  6. Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
    RB. Scarce. Wastelands, agricultural areas and exotic conifers in suburban parks and
    gardens. Recorded regularly at The Entrance, Kooragang Is, St Albans and the Upper
    Hunter. Small flocks. Introduced.
  7. Starling Sturnis vu/garis
    RB. Very common, possibly nomadic. Agricultural lands, suburban parks and gardens

and margins of wetlands. Sometimes roosts in reedbeds or in exotic trees. Nesting

Oct Dec. Introduced.

  1. Indian Myna Acidotheres tristis
    RB. Uncommon, but this bird is often overlooked by observers. Recorded regularly
    St Albans – Wisemans Ferry and in the Newcastle area. Introduced.
  2. Southern Figbird Sphecotheres vieilloti
    V. Scarce. Rainforests and riparian forests where they feed on fruit. Often visits fig
    trees well isolated from any forests, i.e., Kooragang Is, Newcastle and at Terrigal.
    Small flocks.

330. Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus

SMB. Common (Aug March), some overwinter. Wet eucalyptus forests and stream –
side vegetation (i.e., casuarinas) throughout the county. Singly or in pairs.

331. Spangled Drongo Dicrurus bracteatus

WM. Scarce (Jan Oct). Dune forests, suburban parks and garden and coastal
forests generally. Recorded singly at Newcastle (1965-69), Toowoon Bay (1957) and
Wattagan (1971), regular winter visitor to Maitland.

  1. Magpie Lark Grallina cyanoleuca

RB. Very common, sedentary. Agricultural areas, suburban parks and gardens, margins

of wetlands. Nesting Sept Jan. Pairs during the breeding season, may flock late summer
to early winter (Emu 34:200-209). Banding has indicated resident status at Stradbroke,
with recoveries up to four years.

  1. White -winged Chough Corcorax melanorhamphus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests and adjacent agricultural areas.
    Generally common in the Upper Hunter, Wollombi and MacDonald Valleys, east to
    Kurri and Doyalson but rare to absent on the coastal strip. Small flocks when breeding,
    large flocks in autumn and winter.

334. White -breasted Wood -swallow Artamus leucorhynchus

SMB. Rare (Sept March). Mela/euca and casuarina swamps of the coastal region.
Formerly bred at Newcastle (1839) and Ash Is (Kooragang, 1861). Has bred at Wyong
from 1960 to 1973/74, nesting December. (Birds 4:28-29).

335. White-browed Wood -swallow Artamus superciliosus

SMB & PM. Scarce, nomadic (Oct Feb). Agricultural areas adjoining forests and

woodlands. Nesting Oct Feb at Somersby 1923, Gosford 1926, Tumbi 1957 and
Maitland 1968. Small to large flocks.76. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 9 (3)

336. Masked Wood -swallow Artamus personatus

SMB. Rare, nomadic (Oct Feb). Agricultural areas and open forests. Small flock
accompanied the White -bowed Wood -swallows at Somersby 1923 and at Maitland
1968, nesting November.

337. Dusky Wood -swallow Artamus cyanopterus

SMB. Moderately common (Sept May). Dry sclerophyll forests throughout the
County, often at the forest edge. Small flocks when breeding, larger at other times.
Wint -e r flocks wander, and movements are not known or understood. Nesting
Oct Nov.

  1. Pied Currawong Strepera graculina
    RB & WM. Very common, also partial migrant. Eucalyptus forests, where it nests in
    spring; parks and gardens, agricultural areas and forests, generally in autumn and
    winter. Winter migrant to towns in the Hunter Valley. One banded at Jilliby recovered
    five years later at Howes Valley, 40 km west. (ABB 9:19).
  2. Pied Butcher -bird Cracticus nigrogularis
    R. Uncommon. Agricultural lands, particularly grazing areas with scattered timber.
    Singly or in pairs. Moderately common in the Hunter and Wollombi Valleys east to
    Newcastle, and south to Dooralong, rare elsewhere.
  3. Grey Butcher -bird Cracticus torquatus
    RB. Common, sedentary. All f -o rested areas, and agricultural lands with scattered
    clumps of trees. Nesting Sept Nov. Singly or in pairs, during winter immatures
    disperse into more open country.
  4. Black -backed Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen
    RB. Very com -m on, sedentary. Agricultural lands, suburban gardens and parklands.
    Nesting Aug Dec. Pairs or small flocks.
  5. Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassiorostris
    RB. Uncommon. Rainforests and wet gullies. Nesting December. Pairs or small
    flocks, resident status confirmed by banding at Tumbi and Kincumber with recover-
    ies up to nine years later. Recorded only in the Wattagan-Gosford-Kincumber area
    and is threatened by urban development.
  6. Satin Bower -bird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus
    RB. Common, adult males probably sedentary but females and juveniles wander in
    autumn and winter. Wet sclerophyll and rain forests, visiting orchards and gardens
    for fruit. Small to large flocks; recoveries up to 15 km from banding site.
  7. Regent Bower -bird Sericulus chrysocephalus
    RB. Moderately common. Rainforests and wet gullies. Small flocks with larger flocks
    outside the breeding season. Commonest in the Gosford-Kincumber-Wyong area,
    visiting gardens for food. Nesting Jan. Resident at Tumbi and Kincumber with
    recoveries up to seven years.
  8. Raven Corvus coronoides
    RB. Very common, sedentary. All habitats but favours beaches, roads and agricult-
    ural areas. Patrols roads for road -kills and beaches for dead seabir-ds and fish. At least
    one pair resident on Lion Is. Pairs and small flocks. Nesting July November.
  9. Tree Sparrow Passer montanus
    V. Rare. Orchards and farmlands. One adult male at Mangrove Mountain on 21/12/1974
    (J. Burfoot pers.com.).CONTENTS
    Morris, Alan K The Birds of Gosford, Wyong and Newcastle
    (County of Northumberland) .. 37
    Systematic List


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