Vol. 11 No. 3-text

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Journal of the

Volume 11 No. 3 March 1977

Registered for Posting as a Periodical, Category B Price $1.50THE N.S.W. FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS CLUB
PATRON A. H. Chisholm. O.B.E.
W. Longmore
The object of the Club is promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and the
habitats they occupy.
Annual subscription rates of the Club (due 1st July each year) are:
Single Member (within Co. of Cumberland) $6.00
Single Member (Country and overseas) $5.00
Family Member $7.00
Junior Member $3.00
All members receive a quarterly newsletter and a copy of the quarterly journal “Australian
Birds”. The price of the journal is $1.50 plus postage per issue to non-members. Club badges
are available to club members at $1.30 or $1.50 if posted. The Club holds a meeting and a
field excursion each month.
All correspondence should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary at:
90 Picnic Point Road, Picnic Point. 2213.
All membership fees should be sent to the Hon. Treasurer at:
18 Russell Street, Oatley. 2223.
Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at:
P.O. Box 39, Coonabarabran. 2857.DMZ
Vol. 11, No. 3 March, 1977
This paper records for the first time all birds known to have occurred in the County
of Camden together with essential data on their current status for the purpose of providing
a general survey of the distribution of species against which future changes may be measur-
ed. It is hoped also, that the list will be useful to interested persons in assessing the likeli-
hood of seeing particular birds, where they are most likely to be encountered and at what
times of the year.
Heaviest concentration of human population occurs on the coastal strip, especially
around the Wollongong/Port Kembla complex, the economy of which is based on coal
mining and heavy industry. The rest of the County, except for the extensive and virtually
uninhabited water catchment areas, is rather lightly settled being mainly used for farming
pursuits (dairying, cattle, agriculture).
The precise boundaries of the Illawarra District have been subjected to several diff-
erent interpretations. The area which in recent times has been considered as Illawarra for
ornithological purposes, roughly comprises the coastal plain and escarpment from Stanwell
Park to the Shoalhaven River and includes Comerong Is. Although the extreme northern
part of this area extends beyond the County border, there are logical and obvious reasons
that it should be included in this paper (see map). Comerong Is. is, however, excluded.
A total of 345 species of birds make up the County list at this date.42. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3
The County limits are formed by the Shoalhaven, Wollondilly, Nepean and Cataract Rivers.
From the source of the last, a line to the coast at Bulli Pt. completes the boundary which encl-
oses a total area of approximately 555 000 ha. Lake Illawarra and the Five Is. Group are out-
standing features of the 65 km coastline which takes the general form of sandy beaches with
separating headlands.
The principal geological zones (see map) broadly indicate the type of vegetation to be
expected. The two major formations are the Hawkesbury Sandstone Series and the Wianamatta
Shales. The sandstone gently rises as it extends southward to reach an elevation of about 650 m
in the highest parts of the County. Rather sterile soils support moderate to scattered eucalyptus
forests (dry sclerophyll) and a rich heath flora in suitable locations.
The Wianamatta Shales overlay the Hawkesbury Sandstone and produce extensive areas of
more fertile soils of which the Moss Vale plateau is typical. Each of these zones has certain
characteristic bird species not found in the other.
Underlying the sandstone are the softer shales of the Narrabeen Series and the Coal Mea-
sures which are exposed on escarpments and stream -cut gullies. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll
forest develop on these soils depending on the degree of moisture retention and shelter from
drying winds. These strata weather easily and the width of the fertile coastal plain is determined
largely by the depth which is exposed below the sandstone.
Permian rocks of both sedimentary and volcanic origins complicate the geology of the
lower Shoalhaven and the vegetation is correspondingly diverse though sclerophyll forests pre-
dominate. The valley of the Wollondilly cuts through rocks of Devonian age and is probably
the harshest and driest part of our area.
The mean annual rainfall is 1000-1500 mm for the coastal areas and 650-1000 mm for
the inland. There is no marked seasonal pattern. Mean temperatures for the whole County are
20°-22°C for the hottest month and 8°-13°C for the coldest, though the elevated Moss Vale
plateau usually averages 6°C cooler than elsewhere.
Although most of the County is in an underveloped condition or supports a rural type of
land use that poses little threat to the present bird population, developmental pressures along
the coast are inevitably causing some loss or degradation of habitats with consequent reduction
of species. Tom Thumb Lagoon for example, once a renowned haven for thousands of waders
and waterbirds, has been almost entirely reclaimed for harbour and industrial expansion. Typical
of the factors affecting the status of birds in this region of rapid population growth, not all of
which should be considered inevitable, are (1) intense recreational use of Lake Illawarra and
surroundings, (2) conversion of farmlands and open space to residential zoning, (3) serious
reduction of wetlands by filling with mining and industrial waste, (4) increasing use for leisure
activities, including trail -bike riding, of formerly undisturbed beaches and dunes (affecting Little
Terns, Red -capped Dotterels etc.) and bushlands (affecting Lyrebirds, Emerald Doves etc.,
(5) sand mining of dunes and alluvial deposits.
The several water catchment areas, state forests and forest reserves may be considered as
fairly secure habitat preserves though here the increasing frequency of bushfires, whether caused
by negligence, vandalism or the controversial practice of ‘hazard reduction burning’, is a factor
for concern. The faunal value of some state forests has also been reduced by replacing natural
forests with pine mono -cultures.FO
The Morton National Park standing astride the southern border of the County is the most
extensive permanent reserve while a variety of smaller sanctuaries, parks and reserves provide useful
refuges for many species. A proposal to incorporate the whole of the coastal escarpment in a multi-
purpose regional park, though perhaps a long way from fullfilment, deserves strong support as a
scenic amenity which would also ensure the retention of important samples of rainforest and wet
sclerophyll habitats.
In the total of 345 species, 61 (18%) are seabirds, many of which are permanently or season-
ally present in the coastal seas. The inclusion of the remainder is largely due to the occasional
cyclonic on -shore gale and much enthusiastic beachcombing. The migratory waders (24 species,
7% mainly trans -equatorial) are heavily dependent on the sandflats and shallows of Lake Illawarra
and Shoalhaven Heads for their off-season rehabilitation. The numbers of ducks and other water –
birds can vary greatly in accordance with climatic conditions. Prolonged dry weather inland causes
many to seek a drought refuge in the available coastal wetlands.
The following shows the number of species in broad categories of residential status.
Resident and sedentary (present throughout the year) 125 (36%)
Mainly nomadic (usually present) 68 (20%)
Of rare, unusual or accidental occurrence 86 (25%)
Summer visitors 51 (15%)
Winter visitors 15 (4`)/0
In the preparation of the list I have drawn upon the records of past and present ornithol-
ogists who have made significant observations in the County. These, together with all relevant
published data of which am aware and my own notes covering the past thirty years will
hopefully ensure that there are no serious omissions. Every effort has been made to verify the
authenticity of unusual records and dubious ones have been rejected. One can be certain, however,
that other bird visitors have come and gone undetected and equally certain that additions will be
made to this list in the future.
Text references to The Australian Naturalist, May 1948, refer to a valuable contribution
entitled “Birds of the Illawarra” by E. McNamara. McGill and Lane (Emu 55:49-71) recorded
the birds observed during the 1954 RAOU Camp -out at Mt. Keira and appended the additional
species from McNamara’s list and other district records up to that time which had largely been
collated by the late J. Devitt. Reprints of both the above papers were published in booklet
form by the Illawarra Natural History Society.
References will be found to the following publications using the abbreviations given, foll-
owed by the volume and page number.
Emu: Journal of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union.
AB B: “Australian Bird Bander”, Journal of the Bird Banders’ Association of
AB: “Australian Birds”, Journal of the N.S.W. Field Ornithologists Club.
Birds: Former name of the above journal.
ABW: “Australian Bird Watcher”, Journal of the Bird Observers Club, Vic.
North: “Nests and Eggs of Birds Found Breeding in Australia and Tasmania”.
A. J. North. 2 vols.
Birds of Sydney: K. A. Hindwood and A. R. McGill, 1958.March, 1977 45.
The classification and naming of Australian birds is presently undergoing revision to reflect
more recent knowledge of the evolution and relationships involved. The “Checklist of the Birds
of Australia” Part 1, Non -Passerines (Condon, 1975) is generally accepted as authoritative and has
been followed in this list for the non -passerine species (i.e. Nos. 1 to 223). Part 2 of the Check-
list has not yet been finalised and the “Interim List of Australian Songbirds”, Passerines (Schodde,
1975) has been adopted by this and other journals as being expedient in the present circumstance!
It is followed for the remainder of the list (i.e. Nos. 224 to 345).
For the convenience of those not aware of the changes taking place, an alphabetical index
of common names has been appended wherein will also be found references to several former
common names which are superseded in the Interim List mentioned above:
The following information is given for each species:
Common name.
Scientific name. Trinomials( are only used for subspecies recognizable in the field.
Status. Using one or more of the following abbreviations (V) visitor, can indicate a straggler of
unusual or accidental occurrence (e.g. storm -driven), or a species with some doubt as to its
true status. (SV) summer visitor, (WV) winter visitor, ISM) summer migrant, (WM) winter
migrant, (PM) passage migrant, passes through the County on annual migration, R resident,
present at all times, (B) breeding, regularly or spasmodically.
Abundance. Described as rare (1-10 records), scarce, uncommon, moderately common, common
and very common. Apart from the first category these terms denote relative abundance of
birds in generally similar habitats or species groups, the same term not necessarily indicat-
ing similar absolute numbers throughout the list. The months when seasonal migrants are
present and the sedentary or nomadic status of resident birds are also given.
Preferred habitat. Most terms used are self-explanatory. “Wet sclerophyll” denotes eucalypt
forest, often with closed canopy, rich undergrowth and leaf litter growing in areas of over
1000 mm rainfall. “Dry sclerophyll” denotes eucalypt forest with smaller trees, open canopy
and sparse undergrowth growing in areas of less than 1000 mm rainfall.
Egg -laying period where known, significant records and notes of special interest.
Particular thanks are due to H. Battam, W. Fairs, J. Kershaw, E. McNamara and C. Sonter
who freely supplied notes and observations. Helpful assistance was also received from Mrs. C.
Crowe and P. Davies. The manuscript was critically read by A. R. Sefton, whose past beach-
combing activities have helped augment the seabird tally, and by J. N. Hobbs who also provided
some recent additions from the Shoalhaven district. A. R. McGill and E. S. Hoskin contributed
many important data from their personal notes and the latter also searched the records of the
late K. A Hindwood and A. J. Elliot (Cambewarra) for relevant items. I am especially indebted
to A K. Morris for providing much information, advice and helpful criticism. His “Birds of
Gosford, Wyong and Newcastle” (AB 9:37-76) has been the pattern for the style of the present
J. D. GIBSON 10 Treetop Glen, Thirroul, N.S.W. 251546. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus
V. Rare, nomadic. Lakes including salt water.
Most records from L. Illawarra.

  1. Hoary -headed Grebe Poliocephalus poliocephalus
    VB. Uncommon but occasionally larger aggregations on backwaters of L. Illawarra.
    Nomadic. Inland and coastal dams, lakes and lagoons.
  2. Little Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae
    RB. Common, mainly sedentary. Numbers are sometimes increased by nomadic
    arrivals. Swamps, agricultural dams, lagoons and estuaries.
  3. Fiordland Crested Penguin Eudyptes pachyrhynchus
    V. Rare. Accidental in coastal seas. Breeds N.Z. Specimen from Gerringong
    2/10/38 (EMU 38:377)
  4. Little Penguin Eudyptula minor
    RB. Moderately common. Coastal waters. Several hundred pairs breed on Five Is.
    spring and summer. Banded birds have been recovered up to 150 km north and
    130 km south. Occasionally ashore on mainland beaches during moult. There have
    been mainland nesting records from Bombo/Kiama.
  5. Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans
    WV. Common (June -Sept) in coastal waters, otherwise scarce. Congregates to
    feed on cuttlefish. Banding studies show birds from most sub -antarctic breeding
    islands are represented and individuals return to the same winter foraging areas.
  6. Royal Albatross Diomedea epomophora
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. One caught, banded and released off Bellambi 17/7/60
    (Emu 62:167-8)
  7. Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophrys
    WV. Moderately common June to September in coastal waters, otherwise scarce.
  8. Buller’s Albatross Diomedea bulleri
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Beachwashed specimen at Thirroul 2/5/63 (Emu 64:101)
    only record.
  9. Grey -headed Albatross Diomedea chrysostoma
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Beachwashed specimen at Austinmer 21/6/75 (AB 10:63)
    only record.
  10. Yellow -nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Occasionally identified feeding on cuttlefish with winter
    flocks of D. melanophrys.
  11. White -capped Albatross Diomedea cauta
    WV. Scarce. Coastal waters (May -Nov). Several beachwashed specimens. N.Z. race
    salvini occasionally encountered at sea in late winter.
  12. Sooty Albatross Phoebetria fusca
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Beachwashed specimens from Corrimal 1/8/59 (Emu 61:
    197), Stanwell Park (two) and Bulli 21/6/75 (AB 10:63).
  13. Light -mantled Albatross Phoebetria palpebrata
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. A live adult specimen examined and released at Port
    Kembla 23/6/75 (AB 10:63) only record.March, 1977 47.
  14. Southern Giant -petrel Macronectes giganteus
    WV. Uncommon. Coastal seas mainly in winter. Rarely white -phase individuals are
  15. Northern Giant -petrel Macronectes halli
    WV. Scarce. Coastal seas in winter.
  16. Antarctic Fulmar Fulmarus glacialoides
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. First NSW specimen beachwashed at Thirroul 17/7/54 (Emu
    55:152). One sight record from Stanwell Park 1/1/58 (Birds of Sydney p.22).
  17. Cape Petrel Daption capense
    V. Scarce. Coastal seas. A few beachwashed specimens and sightings (June -Nov).
  18. Great -winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera
    V. Scarce. Coastal seas. Storm casualties have been found in most months though
    usually in summer.
  19. White -headed Petrel Pterodroma lessoni
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Five beachwashed specimens 1950-75 (April -July).
  20. Providence Petrel Pterodroma solandri
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Seven beachwashed specimens to 1975 (Nov -May).
  21. Kerguelen Petrel Pterodroma brevirostris
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Beachwashed examples from Thirroul 17/7/54, Bulli
    31/7/54, Port Kembla 18/10/54 (Emu 55:152-3).
  22. Mottled Petrel Pterodroma inexpectata
    V. Rare Coastal waters. Beachwashed specimens from Port Kembla 10/11/66 and
    Coledale 2/4/67 (ABW 4:16).
  23. Gould Petrel Pterodroma leucoptera
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Subspecies leucoptera (to which the following specimens
    refer) breeds only on Cabbage Tree Is., off Port Stephens. Four storm casualties
    in Feb 1956 between Coledale and Bellambi. Also Bulli 2/1/63, Coledale 2/4/67.
  24. Cook’s Petrel Pterodroma cookii
    V. Rare. Seldom visits Australian waters. Beachwashed at Port Kembla 7/1/67
    (ABW 4:17), second Australian record.
  25. Blue Petrel Halobaena caerulea
    V. Rare. Of accidental occurrence in coastal waters. Specimens from Thirroul
    17/7/54 and Coledale (two) 18/7/54. Several collected on Sydney beaches in the
    same year (Emu 55:154).
  26. Broad -billed Prion Pachyptila vittata
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Two specimens from beaches north of Wollongong during
    abnormal prion mortality in July 1954.
  27. Medium -billed Prion Pachyptila salvini
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Occasionally beachwashed. Comprised 64% of the severe
    prion wreck in July 1954.
  28. Antarctic Prion Pachyptila desolata
    WV. Uncommon. Coastal waters. An infrequent beach derelict depending on
    winter storm severity. Heavier mortalities in 1954, 1955, 1959, 1975.48. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  29. Slender -billed Prion Pachyptila belcheri
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Six beachwashed at Thirroul and Coledale in July 1954.
    One at Bellambi 24/10/59.
  30. Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur
    WV. Moderately common. Small flocks inshore, most numerous in mid -winter. The
    commonest beachwashed prion.
  31. Westland Black Petrel Procellaria westlandica
    V. Rare. Accidental in coastal seas. First Australian specimen at Corrimal 2/1/56
    (Emu 56:211-212). Breeds N.Z.
  32. White -chinned Petrel Procellaria aequinoctialis
    V. Rare. Accidental. Three only Australian specimens up to 1975. One at Port
    Kembla 9/6/63 (Emu 64:72)
  33. Flesh -footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes
    SV. Moderately common. Coastal waters. Most beach derelicts Jan -Mar. Offshore
    feeding flocks noted from Kiama northwards in summer. Breeds Lord Howe Is.
  34. Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus
    SMB. Common. Coastal waters. Returning birds arrive in August. Breeds Five Is.
    (Nov -May). A few banded birds recovered up to 194 km NNE and one from the
    Philippines, 5800 km, 5 months after banding in Dec 1975 (ABB 14:76).
  35. Grey -backed Shearwater Puffinus bulleri
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Beachwashed at Woonona 14/11/54 and Thirroul
  36. Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
    SV and PM. Uncommon. Coastal waters. Rarely observed at sea but beach derelicts
    not infrequent Oct -Jan.
  37. Short -tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris
    SMB and PM. Very common in coastal waters during southward migration (Sept –
    Jan). Heavy mortality in some years. Small breeding colony (less than 100 pairs)
    on Five Is. (Nov -May).
  38. Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus gavia
    V. Common. Coastal waters. Large flocks from June to Dec. Frequently beach –
    washed Oct -Mar. Breeds N.Z.
  39. Hutton’s Shearwater Puffinus huttoni
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. Six beachwashed specimens identified to 1975 (Oct -June).
    Breeds N.Z.
  40. Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis
    V. Rare. Coastal waters. An infrequent casualty during storms. Seven specimens
    recorded to 1975 (Nov -July)
  41. Grey -backed Storm -petrel Oceanites nereis
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. First NSW specimen (3rd Australian) beachwashed at Bulli
    22/6/69 (ABW 4:17-18).
  42. White-faced Storm -petrel Pelagodroma marine
    SMB. Uncommon. Coastal seas. Small nesting population on Five Is. declining.
    Breeds Oct -Feb. Infrequent beach derelicts in spring and summer only.March, 1977 49.
  43. Common Diving -petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. First NSW specimen beachwashed at Bellambi 27/8/61
    (Emu 62:210).
  44. South Georgian Diving -petrel Pelecanoides georgicus
    V. Rare. Accidental occurrence. Only Australian record beachwashed at Bellambi
    28/12/58 (Emu 59:267).
  45. Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Visits L. Illawarra, water storage reservoirs,
    inland rivers and estuarine inlets after dispersing from breeding grounds.
    One banded at Lake Cowal, NSW, recovered two years later at Bulli, 400 km
    east (ABB 4:18).
  46. Australian Gannet Morus serrator
    V. Moderately common. Coastal seas. Present all the year. Occasionally feeding
    flocks of over 100. Beachwashed specimens mainly immatures. Most birds of
    N.Z. origin.
  47. Darter Anhinga melanogaster
    V. Scarce. Swamps, lagoons fresh and tidal creeks. Singly or in pairs.
  48. Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius
    V. Uncommon. Nomadic. Estuaries, tidal creeks, water storage reservoirs, inland
  49. Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    V. Common and nomadic. Inland and coastal waterways, dams and estuaries.
  50. Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
    V. Common, nomadic. Coastal seas, fresh and saltwater lakes and estuaries.
    Occasionally flocks up to 400. Exceptionally numerous spring/summer 1976.
  51. Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
    V. Common, nomadic. Inland and coastal waters, rivers and estuaries. Small to
    large flocks.
  52. Red-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon rubricauda
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Single bird recorded at Five Is. 13/11/55 (Emu 56:198).
  53. White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Beachwashed at Bellambi 1/4/61, Coledale 24/11/61 and
    Bulli 29/3/63.
  54. White -necked Heron Ardea pacifica
    VB. Uncommon and nomadic. More numerous in some years e.g. 1976 when 75
    counted in one flooded paddock near L. Illawarra in Dec. Borders of freshwater
    swamps and flooded fields. Has nested near Moss Vale (1973).
  55. White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae
    VB. Common and nomadic. Population variable in numbers. Freshwater wetlands
    generally, coastal reefs occasionally. Nests irregularly west of L. Illawarra,
    Berrima district etc.50. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  56. Cattle Egret Ardeola ibis
    V. Uncommon but increasing, nomadic. Swamp margins, wet fields, grassy paddocks,
    usually near cattle. Most records from coastal lowlands. First observed Albion Park
    30/8/64. Increasing numbers visit the southern dairying districts near Nowra; an
    estimated 500 present in Sept 1976, most in breeding plumage. All had left by Dec.
    Singly or in flocks.
  57. Large Egret Egretta alba
    V. Common, nomadic. Wetlands generally including tidal inlets. Mainly coastal.
    Usually observed singly.
  58. Little Egret Egretta garzetta
    V. Uncommon and nomadic. Estuaries, inland and coastal lakes and lagoons. Form-
    erly rare. First recorded at Fairy Ck. Wollongong in June 1952.
  59. Plumed Egret Egretta intermedia
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Lake edges, swamps. Single birds usually recorded.
  60. Reef Heron Egretta sacra
    RB, V. Scarce. Rocky coasts and islands, sometimes observed at sea. White phase
    bird recorded at least once. Breeds Stack Is. and probably Five Is.
  61. Mangrove Heron Butorides striatus
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Treelined coastal creeks, mudflats. Breeding records from Mac-
    quarie Rivulet and Duck Ck. (L. Illawarra).
  62. Nankeen Night Heron Nycticorax caledonicus
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Creeks and rivers of the coast and tablelands. Nesting
    on the Wingecarribee R. near Berrima.
  63. Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus
    V. Rare. Nomadic and probably resident. Seldom observed though there are summer
    and winter records. Swamps with good cover.
  64. Black Bittern Dupetor flavicollis
    VB. Rare, nomadic. Timbered creeks near the coast. One recorded at Fairy Ck.
    Wollongong July 1952. Has nested at West Dapto and Jamberoo.
  65. Brown Bittern Botaurus poiciloptilus
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Commoner in drought years. Reedy swamps, overgrown ditches
    with good cover. Mainly coastal but also recorded on Wingecarribee R.
  66. Jabiru Xenorhynchus asiaticus
    V. Rare. Nomadic. Freshwater swamps. A few records since 1957 e.g. Albion Park,
    Gerroa, Commonderry Swamp, Wingecarribee R. Has attempted to nest at Comm-
    onderry Swamp in 1974 (AB 9:81) and just beyond the County boundary near
    Nowra (Emu 63:201-206).
  67. Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus
    V. Rare, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands and nearby paddocks. Flock of 14 recorded
    Wingecarribee R. Nov 1972. Usually singly in flocks of Straw -necked Ibis. More
    likely to be seen in drought years.
  68. White Ibis Threskiornis molucca
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Freshwater wetlands, estuaries and nearby padd-
    ocks. Commoner when dry seasons inland. Over 80 on mangrove mudflats at
    Minnamurra Feb 1976.March, 1977 51.
  69. Straw- necked Ibis Threskiornis spinicollis
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Similar in distribution and occurrence to the
    foregoing species, somewhat less numerous.
  70. Royal Spoonbill Platalea regia
    V. Moderately common. Nomadic. Shallow water of swamp edges, farm dams and
    estuarine inlets. Small flocks (max. 40 Coomaditchee Lagoon, Mar 1965). Nestling
    banded at Sale, Vic. Dec 1974 found at Windang 8 months later (ABB 14:77).
  71. Yellow -billed Spoonbill Platalea flavipes
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Swamp and lake edges. Small groups usually 2-5 birds,
    15 L. Illawarra Feb 1976.
  72. Black Swan Cygnus atratus
    V. Common, nomadic. Also RB in small numbers on reedy lagoons. Over 1000 at
    times on L. Illawarra. Occasionally observed on inshore seas.
  73. Mountain Duck Tadorna tadornoides
    V. Rare. Single record from mudflats in western backwaters of L. Illawarra, 1972,
    and flocks (up to 12 birds) recorded on two occasions at Shoalhaven Heads, Dec
  74. Black Duck Anas superciliosa
    RB. Common and nomadic. Inland and coastal wetlands. Nesting Oct -Mar.
  75. Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
    R. Rare. Could occur on lakes or ponds wherever native ducks gather. Originally
    from escaped stock. Albion Park, male, June 1970, Coomaditchee Lagoon Pt.
    Kembla, pair, Sept 1976.
  76. Grey Teal Anas gibberifrons
    V. Moderately common. Nomadic. Numbers vary with inland seasonal conditions.
    Up to 100 have been observed on suitable swamps but usually less.
  77. Chestnut Teal Anas castanea
    VB. Moderately common. Nomadic. Not so numerous as the Grey Teal. Lagoons
    and estuaries. Nesting west side of L. Illawarra in some years (Feb -Mar in 1976).
  78. Shoveller Anas rhynchotis
    V. Uncommon and nomadic. Freshwater lagoons. First recorded at Albion Park
    Feb 1957. Twenty on Coomaditchee Lagoon Mar 1961.
    80, Pink -eared Duck Malacorhynchus membranaceus
    V. Uncommon and nomadic. Freshwater lagoons. Flocks of up to a dozen have
    been seen in dry years.
  79. White -eyed Duck Aythya australis
    V. Uncommon and nomadic. Inland and coastal dams and lagoons. Most records
    refer to Coomaditchee Lagoon where 30 in May 1960. Usually less than a dozen.
  80. Wood Duck Chenonetta jubata
    RB. Moderately common but scarce in some years. Agricultural dams, occasionally
    lagoons nearer the coast.
  81. Musk Duck Biziura lobata
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Water storage reservoirs, lagoons and coastal lakes. Up
    to 24 have been observed on L. Illawarra.52. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  82. Osprey Pandion haliaetus
    V. Rare. Shoreline, estuaries, storage dams. A pair recorded at Cordeaux in 1936
    (The Aust. Naturalist, May 1948, p.196), and one Shoalhaven Heads, 25 Jan 1977.
  83. Black -shouldered Kite Elanus notatus
    RB. Moderately common. Open country, grassland and crops over the whole County
    especially the coastal plain including well settled areas. Subject to cycles of
  84. Letter -winged Kite Elanus scriptus
    V. Rare. A bird of the inland. Single record of a specimen collected at Wollongong
    June 1893 (Mathews ‘Birds of Australia’ 5:208).
  85. Crested Hawk Aviceda subcristata
    V. Rare. Heavily timbered forests. The only record concerns several birds which
    appeared near Cordeaux about 1880 (The Aust. Naturalist, May 1948, p.196).
  86. Black Kite Milvus migrans
    V. Rare. Single sight record from Camden in April 1954 following an irruption of
    the species into southern Australia from its normal tropical range. (Emu 55:76-7).
  87. Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus
    VB. Uncommon resident. Moderately common in times of drought. Usually near
    water. Has nested L. Illawarra and Wingecarribee R.
  88. Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus
    RB. Uncommon. All types of forested country. Disperses widely after breeding
    season. Nesting Oct -Dec. Visits settled areas for poultry, pigeons.
  89. Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrhocephalus
    RB. Uncommon. Possibly partly migratory. Heavy forest, occasionally hunts in
    settled areas.
  90. Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae
    RB. Uncommon. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll forests in mountainous or hilly
    country especially along coastal escarpment. White phase rarer. Occasionally both
    phases together, apparently paired.
  91. White -breasted Sea -eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
    RB. Moderately common. Fishes in estuaries, lakes, storage reservoirs and coastal
    seas where seabirds are also taken. One or two nest sites are often used repeatedly
    for years. Usually builds in trees, sometimes on escarpment cliffs. Nesting Winge-
    carribee R. near Berrima Nov 1975 (AB 10:67).
  92. Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax
    RB. Moderately common. More often seen in hilly country in the west of the
    County though coastal records are not uncommon.
  93. Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides
    VB. Scarce. Nomadic. Farmlands and forests. Single records from Albion Park,
    Wilton, Robertson and Bowral areas. Several nesting records west of L. Illawarra.
  94. Swamp Harrier Circus aeruginosus
    RB. Uncommon and nomadic. Reedy swamps, lagoons and low-lying grassland.
    Becoming rarer in the County especially on the coast due to reduction of habitat.March, 1977 53.
  95. Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Mountain gullies, escarpment and coastal cliffs. Nests
    between Coalcliff and Nowra but very thinly distributed.
  96. Little Falcon Falco longipennis
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Agricultural land, forest and open country including
    near settled areas on the coast.
  97. Brown Falcon Falco berigora
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. All types of open country from Five Is. to
    inland open forests including farmlands, heath, swamp and seashore.
  98. Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides
    RB. Common, sedentary. Grassland and open country generally. Avoids heavily
    forested regions.
  99. Brush Turkey Alectura lathami
    Formerly RB when it was moderately common in the Illawarra rainforests. Prob-
    ably close to extinction in the County by 1900. Subsequent isolated reports from
    near Shoalhaven R. and Macquarie Pass Oct 1972 (Birds 7:95). Repeated sightings
    of single birds from near Bulli Pass Sept 1976 and Mt. Keira Nov 1975 are almost
    certainly aviary stock known to have escaped on hatching in recent years. Pair
    liberated at Mt. Keira in 1948.
  100. Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Grassland and crops. Numbers fluctuate greatly.
  101. Brown Quail Coturnix australis
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Rank grassy areas bordering swamps, damp heath.
  102. King Quail Coturnix chinensis
    V. Rare. Grassy swamp margins. Included on the basis of an adult male found dead
    at Stanwell Park Mar 1972 near a small tussock -bordered swamp (in Illawarra but
    not County of Camden) and a sighting at Yallah.
  103. Painted Button -quail Turnix varia
    RB. Moderately common. Lightly forested areas, coastal heath. Records from sub-
    urban gardens in Wollongong area Sept -Oct 1974.
  104. Land Rail Rallus philippensis
    R. Uncommon. Swampy localities with dense cover. Well distributed though seldom
  105. Water Rail Rallus pectoralis
    RB. Scarce. Probably also nomadic. Freshwater swamps and tidal creeks with good
    cover. Often falls prey to domestic cats.
  106. Marsh Crake Porzana pusilla
    V. Rare, nomadic. Swampy localities, reedbeds. Specimen brought in by domestic
    cat, Thirroul Oct 1957. Recorded at Wingecarribee Swamp Jan 1961.
  107. Spotless Crake Porzana tabuensis
    R. Scarce, nomadic. Coastal reedbeds and marshy areas. Recorded at Cordeaux.
    Occasional cat -killed specimens in settled areas.
  108. Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Lakes, lagoons, reservoirs, tidal and freshwater
    creeks.54. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  109. Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
    RB. Common. Sedentary, though numbers are often suddenly augmented by nom-
    adic birds. Young birds disperse widely. Reedy swamps and surrounding grassland.
    Nesting Aug -April.
  110. Coot Fulica atra
    RB. Common. Lakes, lagoons and swamps with open water where large congreg-
    ations often occur outside the breeding season. Nesting Sept- April.
  111. Brolga Grus rubicundus
    V. Rare. Shallow swamps and water meadows. Observed on three occasions (poss-
    ibly the same bird) near Wollongong May -June -July 1957, a drought year. (Emu
    58: 394).
  112. Bush Stone -curlew Burhinus magnirostris
    RB. Rare, sedentary. Lightly timbered open country. Avoids heavy forest. Form-
    erly more plentiful.
  113. Painted Snipe Rostratula benghalensis
    V. Rare, nomadic. Irregular. Grassy wetlands. Recorded from western margins of
    L Illawarra Mar 1970 and a male from near Wollongong Feb 1971 (Birds 6:84)
  114. Pied Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus
    V. Rare. Probably sedentary. Estuaries, beaches, tidal mudflats e.g. Shoalhaven
    Heads, L. Illawarra. Attempted nesting recorded at mouth of Macquarie Rivulet.
    Spring and summer records only.
  115. Sooty Oystercatcher Haematopus fuliginosus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal rock platforms, occasionally beaches. About
    five pairs nest on Five Is. County population 15-20 birds. Pairs or small flocks.
  116. Masked Plover Vanellus miles novaehollandiae
    RB. Common, sedentary. Estuaries and mudflats, short grasslands usually near
    water, playing fields etc. Tends to form flocks outside the breeding season. Nesting
    Aug -Nov. Has increased since late 1940’s. (Formerly “Spur -winged Plover”)
  117. Banded Plover Vanellus tricolor
    VB. Rare. Nomadic. Open grassy or bare areas not necessarily near water. Recorded
    from Berry, Nowra, Yallah (Oct 1975). Nested at Oak Flats (1952 and 1953, two
    pairs) and Albion Park (1955).
  118. Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
    SM and PM. Scarce (Oct -Jan). Tidal flats at Shoalhaven and L. Illawarra estuaries.
    Singly and flocks up to 20 in Oct.
  119. Eastern Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica
    SM and PM. Moderately common (Aug -April). Estuaries, tidal flats, samphire swamps,
    short -grassed swampy areas near the coast. Generally a few at L. Illawarra and up to
    100 at Shoalhaven Heads. Some may overwinter.
  120. Hooded Dotterel Charadrius rubricollis
    V. Rare. Ocean beaches. A pair at Shoalhaven Heads in June 1973 is the only
    County record. A resident of more southern beaches.March, 1977 55.
  121. Mongolian Dotterel Charadrius mongolus
    SM and PM. Moderately common (Sept -April). Estuaries, coastal marshes. Usually
    small to medium flocks but up to 100 have been recorded at L. Illawarra and 250
    at Shoalhaven Heads in Jan 1974 (AB 9:85).
  122. Double -banded Dotterel Charadrius bicinctus
    WM. Moderately common. Estuaries, tidal flats, coastal rock platforms, beaches and
    swamps. Jan -Sept. Flocks of up to 120 in mid -winter, a few remain over summer.
    Breeds N.Z.
  123. Large- billed Dotterel Charadrius leschenaultii
    SM. Rare. Estuarine sandflats. Only recorded at Shoalhaven Heads and Windang
    (Oct -April).
  124. Oriental Dotterel Charadrius veredus
    V. Rare. One record from Shoalhaven Heads Nov 1976.
  125. Red -capped Dotterel Charadrius ruficapillus
    RB. Common, sedentary. Estuaries, beaches, dunes and tidal flats, rarely on inland
    rivers. Nests spring and summer. Flocks of over 100 noted at Shoalhaven Heads.
  126. Black -fronted Dotterel Charadrius melanops
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Margins of brackish or freshwater swamps and
    lagoons, stony rivers and streams. Up to 15 have been seen together (March) but
    usually singly or in pairs. Nesting completed by January.
  127. Pied Stilt Himantopus himantopus
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Tidal estuaries, shallow swamp margins, flooded lowlands,
    occasionally coastal rock platforms. At least four pairs nested Dapto Nov 1976.
    Rarely inland, several on Wingecarribee R., Bowral, Oct 1969. Singly, pairs or
    small flocks.
  128. Banded Stilt Cladorhynchus leucocephalus
    V. Rare. Estuaries, sandspits and adjacent ocean beaches, tidal mudflats, shallow
    lagoons. One adult repeatedly seen from Dec 1961 to May 1963, also Jan -Mar
    1965 and May -June 1966; one immature Nov 1973, all at L. Illawarra entrance.
  129. Turnstone Arenaria interpres
    SMV and PM. Uncommon. Some overwinter. Coastal rock platforms and reefs,
    beaches, occasionally estuarine sandflats. Up to 26 at Bellambi Pt. in summer.
  130. Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis
    SMV and PM. Moderately common (Aug -April). Some overwinter. Estuaries, sand
    and mud flats, low rocky headlands and coastal seas when migrating. Usually a
    few at L Illawarra and up to 127 at Shoalhaven Heads.
  131. Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
    SMV and PM. Scarce (Sept -May). Some winter records. Singly or small parties.
    Estuarine flats, coastal rocks, Five Is.
  132. Little Whimbrel Numenius minutus
    V. Rare. Usually prefers estuarine sandflats or short grassland near water. One
    County record from Five Is. Nov 1976.56. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  133. Grey -tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes
    SMV and PM. Uncommon (Sept -April), -so me overwinter. Estuarine sandflats, wave –
    washed rock shelves. Shoalhaven Heads 10 birds max. Occasional records of
    single birds at L. Illawarra entrance.
  134. Wandering Tattler Tringa incana
    SM. Rare. Coastal rock shelves, reefs and islands. A specimen from Five Is. collected
    Feb 1913 is the only County record (Emu 43:274). Some sightings of Grey -tailed
    Tattlers may refer to this species as they are rarely distinguishable in the field.
  135. Common Sandpiper Tringa Hypoleucos
    SM. Rare. Margins of rivers, lakes and marshes. Single birds recorded at Shoalhaven
    R, Jan 1959 (AB 10:9) Minnamurra R. Feb 1974 (AB 10:9), Duck Ck. Jan 1976
    and Macquarie Rivulet Feb 1976. The last two records in the western backwaters
    of L. Illawarra were possibly of the same bird.
  136. Greenshank Tringa nebularia
    SM. Scarce (Sept -Mar). Shallow lake edges, estuaries, marshes. All records refer to
    single birds or small flocks at L. Illawarra or Shoalhaven Heads.
  137. Japanese Snipe Gallinago hardwickii
    SM. Moderately common (Sept -Mar). Margins of swamps, grassy wetlands both
    coastal and inland.
  138. Black -tailed Godwit Limosa limosa
    SM. Scarce (Aug -Mar). Estuarine sandflats. Very few records of either one or two
    birds mainly from L Illawarra entrance.
  139. Bar -tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica
    SMV and PM. Common. Overwinters in reasonable numbers. Estuaries, tidal flats
    and shallow lake edges. Flocks of up to 150 at Shoalhaven Heads and L. Illawarra.
    Larger assemblies were recorded on the former Tom Thumb Lagoon now a devel-
    oped industrial site.
  140. Knot Calidris canutus
    SMV and PM. Moderately common (Sept -April). Some overwinter. Estuaries, tidal
    flats, occasionally sea beaches. Small flocks usually. Up to 150 Shoalhaven Heads
    in Oct on passage.
  141. Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris
    SM. Rare. Estuaries and sandflats. First recorded at L. Illawarra Jan 1956 with
    subsequent records in Oct 1959 (twice) and Jan 1974 (flock of 7) (AB 9:85) all
    in the same area.
  142. Sharp -tailed Sandpiper Calidris acuminata
    SMV. Common (Aug -April). Estuaries, tidal flats, borders of fresh and saltwater
    lakes and lagoons, shallow salt marshes. Flocks of over 300 have been observed on
    former Tom Thumb Lagoon. Flocks of 100 max in recent years.
  143. Red -necked Stint Calidris ruficollis
    SMV and PM. Common (July -April). Some overwinter. Coastal swamps and
    estuarine flats, occasionally freshwater marshes and coastal rock shelves. Small to
    large flocks (up to 500).March, 1977 57.
  144. Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
    SMV and PM. Moderately common. Some overwinter. Tidal sand and mudflats
    around lakes and shallow lagoons, estuaries. Small flocks sometimes up to 100.
  145. Sanderling Calidris alba
    SM and PM. Scarce (Aug -April). Ocean beaches, estuaries, rarely samphire flats.
    Several records from Bellambi, Pon Kembla, Windang and Shellharbour (one to
    four birds). Shoalhaven Heads 17 present Feb 1967.
  146. Broad -billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus
    SM. Rare. Tidal mudflats, beaches and estuaries. Single records from Wollongong
    Oct 1955, Windang and Warrawong (L. Illawarra) Feb 1963, Shoalhaven Heads
    Dec 1976.
  147. Great Skua Stercorarius skua
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Beach washed at Port Kembla 13/12/70, one found alive at
    Bulli 29/8/74.
  148. Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus
    SM. Uncommon. Coastal seas especially around Five Is. where it harries gulls and
    terns for food. Three beachwashed specimens 1966-1975.
  149. Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus
    SM. Moderately common. Habitat and habits as for Arctic Skua. Sometimes rests
    on beaches and floating driftwood. Singly or small flocks up to 10. Two beach –
    washed Jan 1964.
    152 Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae
    RB. Very common. Sedentary and nomadic. Coastal waters, beaches, estuaries and
    most of the coastal plain especially urban and industrial areas, flooded fields and
    garbage dumps. Infrequent inland records from Berrima district. Nests on Five Is.
    Sept -Feb, 18 000 pairs in 1962, increasing. Dispersal after breeding mainly north-
    wards. Five Is. birds have been recovered on coasts of Queensland, Victoria and
    Tasmainia. One reached near Alive Springs NT, 2043 km (ABB 11:41).
  150. Pacific Gull Larus pacificus
    V. Rare, nomadic. Harbours, beaches, L. Illawarra. Six occurrences of one or
    more birds since 1953 at Bellambi, Port Kembla and L. Illawarra. Immatures in
    winter (1953, 1955, 1965m 1973), adults in summer (1959).
  151. Southern Black -backed Gull Larus dominicanus
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Five Is. and adjacent seas, beaches, harbours and
    lagoons. Unknown in Australia before 1943. Three at Windang June 1953 (Emu
    55:98) first County record. Now breeds regularly on Five Is. (Oct -Feb), at least
    four pairs (ABB 8:32-33). Probably increasing.
  152. Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida
    V. Rare, nomadic. Marshes, river inlets, flooded fields. Seven present over flooded
    area near Mullet Ck., Dapto, Dec 1976.
  153. Gull -billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
    V. Rare, nomadic. Lakes and lagoons, river estuaries. Single birds (possibly the
    same one) recorded near Shoalhaven entrance Nov/Dec 1976.58. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  154. Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. L. Illawarra and Shoalhaven Heads, sandspits and sandflats.
    Both adults and immatures occur singly or in small groups in summer and flocks of
    up to 20 (L Illawarra) in winter.
  155. Common Tern Sterna hirundo
    SM. Uncommon. Coastal seas, rock shelves and estuaries. Has been recorded at
    L Illawarra (Parks and Wildlife 1:105) Oct 1972, where also a beachwashed speci-
    men was found 29/11/73 and at Shoalhaven Heads Nov 1976. Usually impossible
    to separate in the field from Sterna striata, some of which may remain into summer.
    Probably more numerous than suspected. Moderately common north of the County
    (Botany Bay, Hunter estuary).
  156. Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea
    SMV. Rare. Coastal seas, estuaries. Storm casualty at Thirroul 28/11/73.
  157. White -fronted Tern Sterna striata
    WMV. Moderately common (Mar -Oct). Coastal seas, beaches and rock shelves, estua-
    rine sandflats. Largest flocks Aug -Oct, max 500 L. Illawarra, Oct 1954. Regularly
    beachwashed in winter and spring. Breeds N.Z.
  158. Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata
    V. Rare. Coastal seas (Nov -Feb). Seven beachwashed 1957-1975, also one storm –
    blown recovery at Bargo Nov 1966. Sight records at Five Is. Nov 1958 (three birds)
    and Thirroul June 1975 (ten birds) during a gale. Breeds Lord Howe Is.
  159. Little Tern Sterna albifrons
    SMB and PM. Moderately common (Sept -May). Coastal seas, estuaries, coastal lagoons,
    beaches, dunes and sandy wastelands. Largest flocks (over 200) at estuaries in Feb.
    Nesting Nov -Jan. Formerly at least seven nesting colonies between Bellambi Pt. and
    Shoalhaven R. now mostly abandoned due to industrial developments and human
    disturbance. Adult banded Port Kembla Dec 1963 recovered at Wamberal NSW,
    Feb 1971 (ABB 9:42).
  160. Crested Tern Sterna bergii
    RB and V. Common, nomadic. Coastal seas, beaches and rock shelves, estuaries and
    harbours. Nests on Five Is. (up to 2000 pairs) from Oct. After nesting disperses
    coastwise in both directions, mostly within 400 km. Nestling banded Five Is. Nov
    1963 recovered Scarborough Q. July 1967 (875 km).
  161. Common Noddy Anous stolidus
    V. Rare. Coastal seas, rock shelves. One collected off Kiama Mar 1937 (Emu 52:157).
    Sight records from Kiama Feb 1954 (Emu 55:69) and Bulli Mar 1957 (Emu 58:30).
  162. Grey Ternlet Procelsterna albivittata
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Specimen found on Windang beach 19/1/75 (AB 10:50).
  163. White Tern Gygis alba
    V. Rare. Coastal seas. Beachwashed at Port Kembla 12/6/67 (ABW 4:17), the second
    Australian specimen.
  164. Purple -crowned Pigeon Ptilonopus superbus
    V. Rare. Rainforest and lantana scrub. Specimen shot at Shellharbour Jan 1939
    (Emu 59:219). No recent records.March, 1977 59.
  165. Wompoo Pigeon Ptilonopus superbus
    Formerly RB. Rainforest. No reports since 1920’s. Described and named from speci-
    men collected at Red Point, Port Kembla, c.1804.
  166. Topknot Pigeon Lopholaimus antarcticus
    V. Moderately common, nomadic. Coastal rainforest and heavily timbered gullies,
    though occasionally observed in drier habitats. Flocks (up to 70) feed on fruiting
    native figs. Scarce in some years.
  167. White -headed Pigeon Columba leucomela
    V. Scarce. Nomadic. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll. Two shot (illegally) near Mac-
    quarie Pass June 1965. One at Thirroul Oct 1972, four at Bulli Aug 1972 (Birds
    7:100) and three N of Sublime Pt. Austinmer Dec 1973 (Birds 8:109). Small
    numbers regularly visit Wongawilli during fruiting of particular native trees.
  168. Domestic Pigeon Columba livia
    RB. Common, sedentary. Urban areas generally, parks and beaches. Nesting Five Is.
    (ABB 5:9) Flocks. Introduced species.
  169. Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinensis
    RB. Common, sedentary. Urban areas generally, orchards etc. Less common away
    from the coast. Singly and pairs. Introduced species.
  170. Brown Pigeon Macropygia amboinensis
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Rainforests and timbered gullies, mainly coastal. Singly
    or in pairs.
  171. Peaceful Dove Geopelia striata
    RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Open forests and agricultural land west of the
    escarpment and wider parts of the coastal plain. Pairs and small flocks.
  172. Diamond Dove Geopelia cuneata
    V. Rare, nomadic. Open woodlands. Road casualty collected at Cambewarra Feb
  173. Bar -shouldered Dove Geopelia humeralis
    V. Rare. Timbered areas. Has been observed at Shoalhaven R. Dec 1966 and on top
    of escarpment near Bulli. Probable sighting of a pair at Douglas Park Oct 1975.
    Recorded on Comerong Is. (Shoalhaven Heads), just beyond County border, in Jan
  174. Evidence of becoming consolidated as it spreads from the north.
  175. Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal rainforest and wet sclerophyll, bush tracks and
    clearings. Has disappeared from many areas which it formerly inhabited. (Formerly
    “Green -winged Pigeon”).
  176. Common Bronzewing Phaps chalcoptera
    R. Uncommon. Probably nomadic. Woodlands generally, rare in rainforest.
  177. Brush Bronzewing Phaps elegans

RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Heavy forest of the coast and inland, heath

lands. Commoner in the eastern parts of the County. Singly or in pairs.

  1. Crested Pigeon Ocyphaps lophotes
    V. Scarce, nomadic. Agricultural and grazing country. Occurs only in the extreme
    northern corner of the County on each side of the Nepean R. Increasing.60. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  2. Wonga Pigeon Leucosarcia melanoleuca
    RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll. Mainly coastal
    but also occurs in the central areas of the County. Nesting from June. Singly or
    in pairs.
  3. Glossy Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus lathami
    RB. Rare. Sedentary. Timbered mountain ranges and drier forests west of the coastal
    escarpment, casuarinas are essential. Specimens in the Australian Museum from Picton/
    Moss Vale (Emu 74:250). Family party of three birds near Werombi 3/1/77. Occas-
    ional sightings of supposed Red-tailed Black Cockatoos, C. magnificus, probably refer
    to this species.
  4. Yellow -tailed Black Cockatoo Calyptorhynchus funereus
    RB, V. Uncommon, nomadic. Timbered mountain country, occasionally in more
    open forest and lightly settled areas. Flocks (up to 50) can appear in any month.
  5. Gang -gang Cockatoo Callocephalon fimbriatum
    RB, V. Uncommon, nomadic. Forests in all parts of the County. Nesting Budderoo
    Plateau Nov 1954 (Emu 55:58) and Meryla. Pairs or small to large flocks.
  6. Galah Cacatua roseicapilla
    RB, V. Moderately common. Open forest, agricultural land, urban fields. An uncomm-
    on visitor to the coast prior to 1960, now regularly seen in flocks (max. 100).
    Nesting reported Sept -Oct.
  7. Sulphur -crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Most timbered areas and surrounding open country. Has
    recently penetrated to the coast in greater numbers. Singly or flocks.
  8. Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematotus
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Flowering eucalypts, coral trees. Formerly a common
    regular visitor. Subject to cycles of abundance the last being a minor irruption dur-
    ing 1971-73.
  9. Scaly -breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus
    V. Rare. Nomadic. Coastal forests. Single birds at Thirroul Oct 1973, most southern
    record, and Douglas Park April 1973.
  10. Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna
    V. Uncommon, nomadic. Eucalypt forests, orchards. Particularly numerous in earlier
    years (North 3:50), now small irregular flocks though larger groups (up to 50) comm-
    only observed in 1972-73 (Birds 7:100).
  11. Little Lorikeet Glossopsitta pusilla
    VB. Moderately common, nomadic. Flowering eucalypts. Nesting has been recorded
    along the Wollondilly R. Small to large flocks.
  12. King Parrot Alisterus scapularis
    R. Moderately common, sedentary. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll of the coast and
    tablelands. Small flocks visit adjacent gardens Jan -Aug.
  13. Cockatiel Nymphicus hollandicus
    V. Rare. Nomadic. Agricultural land, crops, open forest. Small flocks invaded the
    extreme north of the County during 1960, recorded at Douglas Park April 1963.
    Single birds in urban areas probably escapees.March, 1977 61.
  14. Swamp Parrot Pezoporus wallicus
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Moorland and heath. Found only at Barren Grounds
    Nature Reserve and on the Budderoo Plateau west to Carrington Falls. Possibly
    survives in similar habitats on the escarpment plateau. Formerly not uncommon on
    Maddens Plains. Census at Barren Grounds in 1975 revealed 47 adults and immatures
    (AB 10:74). (Formerly “Ground Parrot”)
  15. Budgerygah Melopsittacus undulatus
    V. Rare. Nomadic. Lightly timbered and arid inland areas. Flock of c.50 birds seen
    at Mt. Keira in 1972. Coastal flocks were moderately common during Australia’s
    worst recorded drought 1895-1903.
  16. Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor
    WV. Rare. Nomadic. Flowering eucalypts. Small autumn and winter flocks but appar-
    ently absent in some years. Burragorang Valley Mar 1941, Wilton 1969.
  17. Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans
    RB. Common, sedentary. Forests of the sandstone country, rainforest, coastal vege-
    tation and heath. Visits gardens. Small flocks.
  18. Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius
    RB. Common, sedentary. Open forest, farming areas, grassland. Avoids heavy forest.
    Pairs and small flocks.
  19. Red-rumped Parrot Psephotus haematonotus
    VB. Rare. Nomadic. Agricultural areas and grasslands near open forest. Recorded
    several times in the Werombi area, also near Burradoo and Moss Vale. Flock of 100
    seen at Luddenham, just beyond the County, May 1963.
  20. Turquoise Parrot Neophema pulchella
    V. Rare. Sedentary. Open forest, timbered rocky ridges, grassland. Recent records of
    two birds near Camden, Mar 1975, where it was quite common early this century,
    and one at Cordeaux Nov 1976. Also recorded at Wilton.
  21. Pallid Cuckoo Cuculus pallidus
    SMB. Moderately common (Aug -Mar). Open forest and lightly timbered areas gener-
    ally, heaths above the coastal escarpment.
  22. Brush Cuckoo Cuculus variolosus
    SMB. Moderately common (Oct -Feb). Rainforest, wet sclerophyll, open forest.
  23. Fan -tailed Cuckoo Cuculus pyrrhophanus
    RB. Common. Nomadic in winter. All types of forested country. Silent during
    Jan -Marc
  24. Rufous -tailed Bronze -cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis
    SMB. Moderately common (Sept -Feb). Open forest and various woodland habitats,
    heath, farmlands, urban areas. (Formerly “Horsfield Bronze Cuckoo”)
  25. Shining Bronze- cuckoo Chrysococcyx lucidus
    SMB. Moderately common (Oct -April). Similar habitats to the previous species but
    also penetrates heavier vegetation types. Includes two races C.I. lucidus (rare) and
    CL plagosus (moderately common) which was formerly known as “Golden Bronze
  26. Indian Koel Eudynamys scalopacea
    SM. Rare (Oct -April). Heavy forests, native figs, fruits. Very few records mainly
    Nov -Dec, from Cordeaux, Thirroul, Bowral, Thirlmere, Shoalhaven R. near Nowra and
    Werombi. Probable nesting reported on Wollondilly R. north of Goodman’s Ford.62. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  27. Channel -billed Cuckoo Scythrops novaehollandiae
    SMB. Scarce. Forests and farmlands. Pair seen at Woonona Jan 1962 and Albion
    Park 1973 (Birds 8:112). Regularly recorded on the Wollondilly R. and in the Cord-
    eaux area, usually Oct -Nov. Nested Mt. Kembla 1972.
  28. Pheasant Coucal Centro pus phasianinus
    V. Rare. Grassy swamplands, damp heaths and associated woodland. Recorded west
    of L. Illawarra 1973. Also 5 km N from top of Bulli Pass, Sept 1956. Prior to severe
    bushfires in 1968 was apparently resident in heathlands along the Mt. Keira/Wilton
  29. Powerful Owl Ninox strenua
    V. Rare. Heavily timbered gullies. Probably resident in such habitats west of Mt.
    Kembla where it has often been heard. Reported sightings of a single bird at
    Meryla and a pair near Mittagong.
  30. Spotted Owl Ninox novaeseelandiae
    RB. Moderately common. Forests generally and adjoining settled areas. Pairs.
    (Formerly “Boobook Owl”)
  31. Barking Owl Ninox connivens
    R. Rare. Forests generally favouring lightly timbered types, old buildings. Shoal –
    haven Heads Jan 1970, Morton N.P. 1970 (Birds 5:73). Pair calling at Barren Grounds
    Nature Reserve April -Sept 1973.
  32. Barn Owl Tyto alba
    RB. Moderately common. Nomadic. Timbered and settled areas. Roosts in hollow
    trees, leaft trees, caves, old buildings. Numerous in some years.
  33. Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae
    RB. Scarce. Forests and open country, caves, tree hollows. Nested at Cambewarra
    1934 (Emu 34:196). Road casualty at Macquarie Pass May 1975.
  34. Sooty Owl Tyto tenebricosa
    V. Rare. Rainforest, heavily timbered gullies. Single bird seen at Thirroul Sept 1949
    and April 1950. Also recorded from Berrima.
  35. Tawny Frog mouth Podargus strigoides
    RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Nocturnal. Forests generally and settled areas.
    Singly or in pairs.
  36. Owlet -nightjar Aegotheles cristatus
    V. Rare. Nocturnal. Open forest. Specimen caught in mist net between Cordeaux
    and Cataract Dams Mar 1967.
  37. White -throated Nightjar Caprimulgus mystacalis
    VB. Uncommon. Forested areas with little undergrowth. Summer records only (up
    to April), probably migratory. Nocturnal and crepuscular. Road -killed specimen from
    Mt. Keira, 1956. Nesting Cambewarra Dec 1934 (Emu 35:129).
  38. Spine -tailed Swift Hirundapus caudacutus
    SM. Moderately common (Sept -Mar). Nomadic and competely aerial when present.
    Usually in areas of thunderstorm activity. Small to large flocks.March, 1977 63.
  39. Fork -tailed Swift Apus pacificus
    SM. Scarce. Nomadic, aerial. Sometimes in combined flocks with the previous
  40. Azure Kingfisher Ceyx azureus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal and inland rivers and streams. Singly or in
    220 Kookaburra Dacelo novaeguineae
    RB. Very Common, sedentary. All types of forested country, urban and agricultural
    areas. Singly, pairs or small groups.
  41. Sacred Kingfisher Halcyon sancta
    SMB. Common (Oct -Mar). Some birds overwinter. Open forest, sclerophyll forest
    and adjoining urban areas. Singly or pairs.
  42. Rainbow Bee -eater Merops ornatus
    SMB. Uncommon (Oct -Feb). Open forest, sclerophyll and agricultural country along
    the Shoalhaven, Wollondilly and Nepean river systems. Nesting Douglas Park Nov
    1954, Burragorang Valley Dec 1958. Pairs or flocks.
  43. Dollarbird Eurystomus orientalis
    SMB. Moderately common (Oct- Feb). Sclerophyll forests both coastal and inland
    and adjoining open country. Prefers to rest on dead trees or branches. Pairs or
    small groups.
  44. Noisy Pitta Pitta versicolor
    Probably absent. Rainforest. Only known from two specimens which were shot
    near Wollongong in 1877 and 1883 (North 2:309, Birds of Sydney p. 110). Now
    regularly found only north of Taree.
  45. Superb Lyrebird Menura novaehollandiae
    RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Rainforest, sclerophyll forest, preferring moist
    gullies but found throughout the sandstone regions. Most common in coastal escarp-
    ment forests and adjoining tableland. Nests in winter. First known specimen taken
    near Bargo Jan 1798 (Emu 55:8).
  46. Singing Bushlark Mirafra javanica
    V. Rare. Grassland and crops. Single record from Maldon Nov 1954 (Emu 55:67).
  47. Common Skylark Alauda arvensis
    RB. Uncommon. Open fields and grasslands, flats surrounding lakes and swamps.
  48. White -backed Swallow Cheramoeca leucosterum
    RB, V. Rare. Nomadic. Open forest, farming areas, sandy river banks (for best
    burrows). Nepean and lower Wollondilly river valleys. Nesting Menangle Park Aug
    1940 (Emu 40:306). Recorded at Bent’s Basin Nov 1973.
  49. Welcome Swallow Hirundo neoxena
    RB and PM. Very common. Sedentary. All habitats except heavy forest, particul-
    arly urban and agricultural. Nesting Aug -Dec preferring the shelter of man-made
    structures. Southern migration often observed along the beaches in the latter half
    of August.64. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  50. Tree Martin Cecropsis nigricans
    SMB. Moderately common (Aug -Mar). Some birds overwinter. Open forest and
    settled areas. Nesting Aug -Feb (e.g. in hollow eucalypts at Dapto). Small to large
  51. Fairy Martin Cecropsis ariel
    SMB. Moderately common (Aug -Marl. Open country, rivers and streams. Nests (Aug-
    Janj in colonies, usually under bridges and in culverts. Flocks.
  52. Richard’s Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae
    RB. Common, sedentary. Short grasslands, cultivated areas, swampy flats, playing
    fields and open heathlands. Pairs or small flocks. (Formerly “Australian Pipit”).
  53. Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaehollandiae
    RB, V. Common. All timbered country and urban areas with trees. Also part migrant
    or nomadic, movements not fully understood. Pairs or small flocks.
  54. White -bellied Cuckoo -shrike Coracina papuensis
    RB, V. Scarce. Sclerophyll forest mainly away from the coast. Nesting at Cordeaux
    in 1938-39 and Wilton Nov 1975. (Formerly “Little Cuckoo -shrike”)
  55. Cicadabird Coracina tenuirostris
    SMB. Uncommon (Nov -Feb). Along the ridges of sclerophyll forests in the coastal
    ranges and tablelands. Singly or in pairs.
  56. White -winged Triller Lalage sueurii
    SMB. Uncommon (Sept -Feb). Open forests usually with low shrub layer.
    sandstone forests but found in unusual habitats during passage. Moderately common
    in some years. Pairs, small flocks.
  57. Red -whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Urban and agricultural areas, orchards, black-
    berry undergrowth, edge of rainforest and wet sclerophyll. First recorded Wollongong
    1948, Camden 1956. Introduced. Spreading southwards. Singly, pairs or small groups.
  58. Scaly Thrush Zoothera dauma
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Floors of rainforest and wet sclerophyll with leaf litter.
    Coastal escarpment forests and tablelands. Occasionally visits gardens of adjoining
    urban areas in winter, probably nomadic at this time. Pairs and family groups.
    (Formerly “Ground Thrush”)
  59. Common Blackbird Turdus merula
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Gardens in urban areas and thickets in surrounding
    countryside. With few exceptions (Cordeaux, Barrallier) confined to towns on the
    Moss Vale plateau (Robertson, Moss Vale, Berrima etc.). Pairs and small flocks.
    Introduced. Probably increasing.
  60. Rose Robin Petroica rosea
    RB. Scarce. Rainforest and thickly timbered gullies of the coast and tablelands,
    often nomadic in autumn and winter moving into more open timber, rarely
    gardens. Nesting at Cordeaux Nov 1954 (Emu 55:61).
  61. Flame Robin Petroica phoenicea
    RB. Uncommon. Elevated timbered areas. Disperses to lightly timbered agricultural
    and parklands in winter, occasionally reaching the coast. Nesting Macquarie Pass and
    Carrington Falls Nov 1954 (Emu 55:61). Singly or in pairs.March, 1977 65.
  62. Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor
    RB and WV. Uncommon. Timbered tableland areas in spring and summer, rarely
    on the escarpment slopes. Nomadic in winter when it disperses into more open
    country. Nesting Carrington Falls Oct 1954 (Emu 55:60). Singly or in pairs.
  63. Red -capped Robbin Petroica goodenovii
    R and WV. Scarce, nomadic. Open grassy forests, attracted to casuarinas and mela-
    leucas. Confined mainly to the western parts of the County (shale country). More
    common in winter. Recorded from Burragorang Valley and Bowral (Emu 32:109).
    Singly or pairs.
  64. Hooded Robin Melanodryas cucullata
    R. Scarce. Open forest, partly cleared lands in the drier western parts of the
    County. Found at Wilston, Berrima, Goodman’s Ford etc. and isolated records
    from Cambewarra in 1937-38.
  65. Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis
    RB. Common, sedentary. All types of forest throughout the County. Singly or in
  66. Jacky Winter Microeca leucophaea
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Open forest country, agricultural and parklands
    avoiding thicker forests and heavily settled areas. Singly or in pairs.
  67. Crested Shrike -tit Falcunculus frontatus
    RB. Uncommon, comadic. Sclerophyll forests, both tall trees and regrowth saplings.
    Pairs and small parties.
  68. Olive Whistler Pachycephala olivacea
    V. Rare. Thick forests of the coastal range. Recorded twice at Cordeaux in the
    1930’s (Australian Naturalist, May 1948). A museum specimen was collected at
    Cambewarra Mountain in Nov 1881. (North 2:34)
  69. Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis
    RB. Moderately common. Nomadic. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll during spring
    and summer extending into forest country generally for the rest of the year.
    Singly or pairs.
  70. Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris
    SMB. Common (Oct -May). All types of forest country avoiding only the rainforest
    and densely timbered areas. Singly or in pairs.
  71. Grey Shrike -thrush Colluricincla harmonica
    RB. Common, sedentary. All types of forest country, also parks, golfcourses,
    gardens. Nesting Aug -Jan. Pairs, usually solitary in winter.
  72. Black -faced Monarch Monarcha melanopsis
    SMB. Common (Sept -May). Rainforest and wet sclerophyll forests of the coast and
    nearby tablelands. Nesting Oct -Feb. Singly or in pairs. (Formerly “Black -faced Fly-
  73. Spectacled Monarch Monarcha trivirgatus
    V. Rare. Rainforest, densely timbered gullies. One record only of a bird repeatedly
    observed at West Depto Nov 1975. (Formerly “Spectacled Flycatcher”)66. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  74. Leaden Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula
    SMB. Moderately common (late Sept -April). Timbered areas throughout the county.
    Nesting Oct -Jan. Singly or in pairs. Passage birds frequently seen in suburban gardens
    especially in autumn.
  75. Satin Flycatcher Myiagra cyanoleuca
    SMB and PM. Scarce. Sclerophyll forests of the tablelands. Passage birds mainly by-
    pass the County, to the west. Nesting recorded in the Berrima district, observed at
    Carrington Falls and Barren Grounds, Nov 1954 (Emu 55:60).
  76. Restless Flycatcher Myiagra inquieta
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Open forest, lightly timbered farmlands. Slightly nomadic
    in autumn and winter when it may be found in other habitats. Singly or in pairs.
  77. Rufous Fantail Rhipidura rufifrons

SMB. Moderately common (late Sept -April). Rainforest and wet sclerophyll forest.

Passage birds appear briefly in various habitats open forest, urban gardens etc.
Singly or in pairs.

  1. Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa
    RB. Very common. Nomadic in winter. All types of forest throughout the County,
    spreading into more open country outside the breeding season. Nesting Oct -Feb.
    Singly or in pairs. Small flocks and single birds in winter often assoiated with mixed
    feeding flocks of thornbills etc.
  2. Willie Wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys
    RB. Very common. Sedentary. Open forest, timbered watercourses, farmlands and
    urban areas with trees, golf courses, parks etc. Somewhat nomadic in winter. Singly,
    in pairs or family groups. Often associates with grazing animals.
  3. Spine -tailed Chowchilla Orthonyx temminckii
    RB. Scarce, sedentary. Floors of coastal rainforest. An isolated population at the
    southern limit of its range. Nesting July -Dec. Pairs and family groups. (Formerly
    “Spine -tailed Logrunner”).
  4. Eastern Whipbird Psophodes olivaceus
    RB. Common, sedentary. Low tangled undergrowth of set sclerophyll and rainforests,
    blackberry and lantana thickets, thick creekside vegetation. Often content with small
    residual patches of undergrowth in relatively settled areas. Nesting from July. Pairs
    or small groups but more often heard than seen.
  5. Spotted Quail -thrush Cinclosoma punctatum
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Forests of the sandstone areas specially stony ridges,
    occasionally heathlands and the lightly timbered foothills of the coastal escarpment
    (Albion Park May 1969). Nesting Aug -Oct. Singly, pairs or family groups.
  6. Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
    SMB. Moderately common (Aug -April). Some stay over winter. Reedbeds of swamps
    and rivers throughout the County including small reed patches in settled areas.
    Coastal habitat being steadily reduced by filling of swamps. Pairs, small groups
    after nesting.
  7. Little Grassbird Megalurus gramineus
    RB, V. Uncommon. Sedentary with some nocturnal movements of unknown extent.
    Reedy swamps and lagoons, rank grassland and clumpy vegetation around lake
    margins. Nesting mainly Sept -Dec. Usually heard rather than seen.March, 1977 67.
  8. Golden -headed Cisticola Cisticola exilis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Rank grasslands especially around swampy
    areas and saline backwaters. Commonest along the coastal strip. Nesting Sept -Mar.
    Pairs, small flocks in winter.
  9. Rufous Songlark Cinclorhamphus mathewsi
    SMB. Uncommon. Irregular migrant, variable in abundance. Lightly timbered
    grassland. Nesting at Douglas Park Nov 1975 and along Wollondilly R. Several
    records from Dapto/Albion Park. Winter record near Werombi June 1967.
  10. Brown Songlark Cinclorhamphus cruralis
    VB. Scarce (Sept -Feb). Irregular migrant. Open grassy areas, grazing farmlands,
    crops. Recorded from Maldon Nov 1954 (Emu 55:63), Werombi Sept 1972,
    Berry Dec 1976 (8 birds) and Dapto Nov 1976 where at least two pairs were
    apparently nesting. Nesting Pig Is. in the Shoalhaven R. during 1950’s and Jam-
    beroo 1967.
  11. Superb Blue Wren Malurus cyaneus
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Parks and gardens of settled areas, woodlands and

open country with low undergrowth, tangled creekside vegetation. Nesting Aug

Feb. Small parties.

  1. Variegated Wren Malurus lamberti
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Undergrowth of the sandstone area and
    coastal forest edges, heathlands, creekside vegetation. Nesting Jan. Small parties.
  2. Southern Emu -wren Stipiturus malachurus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal and elevated heathlands, low vegetation border-
    ing margins of undisturbed coastal wetlands. Pairs and small parties.
  3. Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus
    RB. Scarce. Sedentary. Elevated heathlands of the Barren Grounds/Carrington Falls
    area. Also recorded from similar habitat west of Mt. Kembla (Emu 46:260) and
    hillside lantana scrub near Jamberoo (1967). Nesting Aug -Dec. A vulnerable species
    of very restricted distribution subject to habitat reduction from bushfires.
  4. Pilotbird Pycnoptilus floccosus
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Floor of rainforest, thickly timbered gullies and hill-
    sides along the coastal escarpment and feeder creeks to the storage dams. Occasion-
    ally in creekside undergrowth and rocky ridges of the sandstone country. Nesting
    Oct- Mar. Pairs.
  5. Rock Warbler Origma solitaria
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Throughout the sandstone area favouring
    cliffs and rocky outcrops where its nest is attached to the roofs of caves or over-
    hangs. Nesting Aug -Dec. Pairs (mainly) or small groups.
  6. Large -billed Scrubwren Sericornis magnirostris
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Rainforest, wet sclerophyll forest especially tangled
    creekside growth. Pairs or small groups.
  7. Yellow -throated Scrubwren Sericornis citreogularis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Rainforest and wet sclerophyll especially
    along creeks and in the damper situations with ample undergrowth. Ground feeder.
    Singly or in pairs.68. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  8. White-browed Scrubwren Sericornis frontalis
    RB. Common, sedentary. Low undergrowth in all kinds of forest country including
    coastal scrub, creeksides and heathland. Also in thick cover around coastal wetlands.
    Pairs or small groups.
  9. Chestnut-rumped Hylacola Sericornis pyrrhopygius
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Heath country of the coast and tablelands, also low
    thick undergrowth in dry woodlands. Singly, pairs or small groups. (Formerly
    “Heath Wren”)
  10. Speckled Warbler Sericornis sagittatus
    RB. Scarce. Open floor of dry sclerophyll woodland. Recorded from shale country
    mainly on the western side of the County (Paddy’s River, Wollondilly River and
  11. Weebill Smicrornis brevirostris
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Drier sclerophyll forest of the central and
    western regions and isolated patches of similar vegetation on the coastal plain e.g.
    Yallah. Low to moderate tree height preferred. Nesting July -Dec. Pairs and small
  12. Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Rainforest and moist sclerophyll gullies but
    foraging further afield in winter. Nesting from Sept. Pairs and small flocks.
  13. White -throated Warbler Gerygone olivacea
    SMB. Common (Sept -Mar). Open forests generally, avoiding rainforest and heavy
    wet sclerophyll. Spring pass’age birds however may occur in these habitats. Singly
    or in pairs.
  14. Brown Thornbill Acanthiza pusilla
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Wet and dry sclerophyll of the coast and sandstone
    areas with ample undergrowth, mangroves. Becoming rarer towards the west. Nest-
    ing Aug -Dec. Pairs (usually) or small groups.
  15. Buff-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza reguloides
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Drier open forests of the sandstone and
    central plateau, elevated heathy woodland. Occasionally on the coast e.g. Shoal –
    haven Heads. Nesting Aug -Dec. Small flocks (usually) or pairs. Feeds on or near
    the ground.
  16. Yellow-rumped Thornbill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa
    RB. Common, sedentary. Timbered grasslands, open forest and farmlands, hedges,
    parklands. Avoids heavy forest, rare in the northern coastal strip. Nesting from
    July. Mostly in small flocks. Ground feeder.
  17. Yellow Thornbill Acanthiza nana
    RB. Common, sedentary. All types of forest throughout the County especially
    acacias, turpentines, riverside casuarinas. Nesting Aug -Dec. Pairs and small flocks.
    (Formerly “Little Thornbill”)
  18. Striated Thornbill Acanthiza lineata
    RB. Common, sedentary. Sclerophyll forests of the coast and tableland. Often
    with Little Thornbills in mixed feeding flocks favouring eucalypts of sapling height.
    Nesting from July. Pairs and flocks of up to a dozen or more.March, 1977 69.
  19. Southern Whiteface Aphelocephala leucopsis
    V. Rare. Dry timbered grasslands, sparse dry sclerophyll, old orchards etc. Isolated
    records from Wilton, Bullio, Cambewarra (1930’s) and Bundanoon May 1947.
    Likely to occur in the south-western and northern corners of the County. Singly,
    pairs or small flocks.
  20. Varied Sittella Daphoenositta chrysoptera chrysoptera
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Sclerophyll forest of the drier open type. Coastal dune
    forest near Shoalhaven Heads. Small flocks. (Formerly “Orange -winged Sittella”)
  21. White -throated Treecreeper Climacteris leucophaea
    RB. Common Sedentary. All types of forest including rainforest. Spirals up trunks
    and along branches of trees. Singly or in pairs, occasionally in scattered groups.
  22. Red-browed Treecreeper Climacteris erythrops
    R. Uncommon. Sedentary. Thicker damp sclerophyll forest scattered throughout
    the County e.g. Barren Grounds, Picton Lakes, Cataract Dam, Berrima. Forages
    similarly to White -throated but usually at higher levels. Singly or in pairs.
  23. Brown Treecreeper Climacteris picumnus
    R. Uncommon, sedentary. Open forests, semi -cleared land. Prefers rough -baked
    trees but often forages on the ground. Singly or in pairs. Very rare near the coast.
  24. Red Wattlebird Anthochaera carunculata
    RB. Common, nomadic. Open forest and wet sclerophyll following the blossoms.
    Forms flocks in April/May when many move on to the banksia heaths.
  25. Little Wattlebird Anthochaera chrysoptera
    RB. Very common, nomadic. Sandstone heath country, coastal dune forest and
    heath, banksias, sclerophyll forests near the coast and nearby gardens. Nesting
    Aug -Nov. Singly or pairs, flocks in autumn and winter.
  26. Noisy Friarbird Philemon corniculatus
    RB. Uncommon, nomadic. Dry sclerophyll forests of the highlands, rarely on the
    coast. More numerous in western parts of County (Wollondilly R). Nesting at
    Wilton Oct 1975. Pairs, small flocks.
  27. Little Friarbird Philemon citreogularis
    VB. Scarce. Dry sclerophyll forests. Normally a bird of the inland. Several coastal
    records in 1968-69 in Kiama /Jamberoo/Depto area. Nested at Dapto.
  28. Regent Honeyeater Xanthornyza phrygia
    VB. Uncommon, nomadic. Open woodland in the drier areas, banksias, silky oak
    etc. when in flower. Most numerous (flocks of up to 15) along Wollondilly R.
    where nesting has been recorded. Also observed at Wilton Nov 1954 (Emu
    55:66) and early records from Cordeaux. Pairs and small flocks.
  29. Bell Miner Manorina melanophrys
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Sclerophyll forest, tall eucalypts with undergrowth
    usually in damp situations. Colonies are known from Shoalhaven R. near Tallong,
    Wollondilly R. near Barrallier and the Nepean catchment at the northern end of
    the County. Coastal colonies e.g. Wongawilli, existed up to c.1920.
  30. Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Open forest, partly cleared agricultural and
    grazing land. Avoids the sandstone areas and coast north of Wollongong. Main-
    tains loose colonies.70. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  31. Lewin’s Honeyeater Meliphaga lewinii
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Rainforest, wet sclerophyll. Spreads into adjoining
    forest types and gardens in autumn and winter. Singly or pairs, occasionally small
  32. Yellow- faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops
    RB, WV and PM. Very common. Forest country generally, especially creekside
    eucalypts. Coastal and elevated heaths in autumn and winter. Winter visitors and
    passage migrants arrive from the south in April/May using both inland and coastal
    flyways and return Aug/Sept. Pairs, small to large flocks.
  33. White -eared Honeyeater Lichenostomus leucotis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Dry sclerophyll scrub of the shale and sand-
    stone areas, healthy woodlands, stoney ridges. Rarely reaches coastal lowlands.
    Singly or in pairs.
  34. Yellow -tufted Honeyeater Lichenostomus melanops
    RB. Moderately common. Sedentary. Medium to tall eucalypt forest with adequate
    shrub layer. Associates in colonies usually on or near the major rivers especially the
    Nepean and tributaries. Rare or absent from the coastal plain. Banding shows some
    winter movement to heaths on the escarpment.
  35. Fuscous Honeyeater Lichenostomus fuscus
    V. Uncommon. Open forest of the shale country, ironbarks, etc. Probably resident
    in the Bargo area. August nesting recorded at Wilton. Occurs rarely nearer the coast
    in winter, preferring healthy woodland. Singly or small flocks.
  36. White -plumed Honeyeater Lichenostomus penicillatus
    RB. Scarce, sedentary. Forest country along the Wollondilly R, Goodman’s Ford to
    Barrallier and probably downstream to Penrith. Isolated coastal records from Thirroul,
    Mar 1956, and regular sightings from North Wollongong. Usually small flocks.
  37. Black -chinned Honeyeater Melithreptus gularis
    RB. Rare. Open forest of the shale country. Nesting near Wilton Oct 1954 (Emu
    55:66). Probably nomadic in autumn and winter. Pairs, small flocks.
  38. Brown -headed Honeyeater Melithreptus brevirostris
    V. Uncommon. Open dry sclerophyll forests of the shale and sandstone. Occasional
    winter records from coastal heaths and banksias. Pairs, small flocks.
  39. White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus
    RB, WV and PM. Moderately common. Forest country generally. Population aug-
    mented May -Sept by winter visitors and passage migrants from the south. Assoc-
    iates with Yellow -faced Honeyeaters on migration though maintaining separate
    flocks. Pairs, small to medium flocks.
  40. Brown Honeyeater Lichmera indistincta
    V. Rare. Nomadic. Mangroves, woodlands, parks and gardens. Recorded at Thirroul
    Oct 1959 and Oct 1965. Reports from Wollongong Oct -Nov 1965 were also prob-
    ably this species indicating a minor influx. All in suburban gardens. Southern limit
    of distribution.
  41. Crescent Honeyeater Phylidonyris pyrrhoptera
    R. Uncommon, nomadic. Wet sclerophyll especially in the upper gullies of Kangaroo
    Valley and the water catchment reservoirs. Elevated heathlands, banksias, in autumn
    and winter. Pairs or small groups.March, 1 977 71.
  42. New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Heathland, sandstone and coastal dune forest favour-
    ing banksias and melaleucas, urban parks and gardens. Nesting in any month. Pairs
    and small flocks.
  43. White -checked Honeyeater Phylidonyris nigra
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Similar habitat preferences to the previous species with
    which it often associates, though rarely seen beyond the coast and nearby elevated
    heathlands. Singly, pairs or small groups.
    31 2. Tawny -crowned Honeyeater Phylidonyris melanops
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Low heathland with few trees. Moderately common at
    Barren Grounds Nature Reserve, Maddens Plains and similar habitats close to the
    escarpment edge. Pairs and small groups.
  44. Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Forest country where a suitable shrub layer occurs,
    heath, orchards, parks, home gardens. Singly, pairs or small groups.
  45. Scarlet Honeyeater Myzomela sanguinolenta
    SVB. Scarce, nomadic. Eucalypt forests usually when in blossom, also sandstone
    heaths. Flocks have been observed at Nattai R. and north of Shoalhaven Heads.
    Breeding recorded near Wollongong 1950. Pairs and small to medium flocks.
    31 5. White -fronted Chat Ephthianura albifrons
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Coastal samphire flats, lowland with stunted bushes
    and tussocks bordering saline swamps and lagoons. Pairs and small flocks. Industrial
    and urban expansion are reducing available habitat.
    31 6. Mistletoebird Dicaeum hirundinaceum
    RB. Common, nomadic. All forest types whereever parasitic mistletoe occurs. Feeds
    almost exclusively on the fruits of these plants. Pairs, small flocks.
  46. Spotted Pardalote Pardalotus punctatus
    RB. Common. Partly nomadic or migratory. Outer foliage of most forest areas,
    parks, gardens. Nests in earth banks, occasionally tree hollows. Pairs or small flocks.
    Large flocks move northward in April/May.
  47. Straited Pardalote Pardalotus striatus
    (The following three birds, formerly regarded as separate species are now considered
    conspecific under Pardalotus striatus. Being morphologically distinct when closely
    observed however, they are here listed separately under their subspecific names).
    Pardalotus striatus striatus
    WV. Uncommon. Sclerophyll forests. Breeds mainly in Tasmania, moves up the east
    coast in winter, in varying strength. Fairly regularly seen in the Werombi area and
    in heathy woodland west of Mt. Keira. Specimen from Mt. Keira Aug 1951.
    Relative abundance not exactly known due to confusion with the following two
    pardalotes. (Formerly “Yellow -tipped Pardalote”)
    Pardalotus striatus ornatus
    RB. Moderately common. Open forests of the coast and highlands, rare in sand-
    stone areas. Nests in tree hollows or earth banks. Pairs or small flocks. (Formerly
    “Eastern Striated Pardalote”)72. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
    Pardalotus striatus substriatus
    V. Uncommon. Open forest in central and western parts of the County. Considered
    by observers in these areas to be resident and breeding. (Formerly “Striated Par-
  48. Silvereye Zosterops lateralis
    RB, WV and PM. Very common. All types of forest country, orchards and farm-
    land, urban parks and gardens. Southern birds from as far as Tasmania winter in
    the County (April -Sept) or pass through to the north. Residents nesting Oct -Feb.
    One banded Mt. Keira April 1968 recovered near Wonthaggi, Vic, Jan 1971 (ABB
    9:43). Pairs and small to large flocks.
  49. European Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Grasslands, parks, agricultural and urban areas
    throughout the County. Small to large flocks. Introduced.
  50. House Sparrow Passer domesticus
    RB. Very common. Sedentary. Urban areas and farmland, wherever human settle-
    ment is established. Flocks. Introduced.
  51. Red-browed Firetail Emblema temporalis
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Edges and clearings of forests, scrubby vegetation
    bordering swamps and creeks, parks and gardens. Partly nomadic in autumn and
    winter. Nesting Oct -Feb. Flocks up to 100. (Formerly “Red-browed Finch”)
  52. Beautiful Firetail Emblema bella
    RB. Scarce. Sedentary. Low heathlands, banksias. Restricted to suitable heath
    patches close to the coastal and Kangaroo Valley escarpments. Nesting recorded
    at Barren Grounds Nature Reserve. Small flocks.
  53. Diamond Firetail Emblema guttata
    RB. Uncommon. Open forest and partly cleared lands, usually near water,
    orchards. Formerly numerous around foothills of coastal escarpment. Lightly
    distributed throughout the County, commonest in the west (Wollondilly R) and
    north. Small to large flocks.
  54. Zebra Finch Poephila guttata
    RB, V. Uncommon. Grasslands with clumpy bushes, grazing country. Flock of
    400 at Douglas Park June 1956. Nesting recorded at Bass Pt. Numbers probably
    influenced by inland drought conditions. Usually small flocks.
  55. Double -barred Finch Poephila bichenovil
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Open forest, creeksides, grasslands and
    orchards of the coast and tablelands. Pairs and small flocks.
  56. Chestnut -breasted Mannikin Lonchura castaneothorax
    R. Uncommon. Agricultural areas, grassy swamplands, low-lying wasteland with
    rank vegetation. Small numbers have been repeatedly seen in the Port Kembla
    area, small to large flocks on Nepean R. from Douglas Park northwards. Early
    records from Kiama. (Formerly “Chestnut -breasted Finch”)
  57. Common Starling Sturnus vulgaris
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Open forest, agricultural and urban areas. Forms
    large flocks and occupies communal roosts in autumn and winter. Introduced.March, 1977 73.
  58. Common Myna Acridotheres tristis
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Cities and towns, dumps, roadsides. Spreading
    southward along the highways from County of Cumberland. First appeared in Woll-
    ongong district 1961. Small flocks, pairs. Introduced and increasing.
  59. Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus
    RB. V. Moderately common. Most forest types, creek and riverside vegetation. cas-
    uarinas, white cedars. Nesting recorded at Yallah. Nomadic in autumn and winter,
    may be partly migratory. Singly, pairs or small flocks.
  60. Green Figbird Sphecotheres viridis
    VB. Scarce. Rainforest and coastal scrubs. Also found in isolated native fig trees
    in coastal parks and settled areas. Nesting in beachfront figs at Shellharbour Dec
  61. Summer records from Kiama, single bird Bulli Pass April 1976. Probably
  62. Spangled Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus
    WM. Scarce. Coastal forests, dune forests, settled areas, flowering coral trees. Most
    records are of passage birds Feb -April. One on Five Is. April 1970. Singly, pairs
  63. Satin Bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus
    RB. Common. Sedentary. Rainforest, wet sclerophyll, occasionally more open
    country. In autumn and winter flocks forage locally in urban areas, orchards etc.
    Small groups, flocks up to 20 or 30, the latter containing never more than 2 or
    3 blue- black males.
  64. Green Catbird Ailuroedus crassirostris
    RB. Uncommon, sedentary. Rainforest of the coastal escarpment and the head of
    Kangaroo Valley, occasionally visits adjoining wet sclerophyll forest and home
    gardens with flocks of Satin Bowerbirds.
  65. White -winged Chough Corcorax melanorhamphus
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Dry sclerophyll forests and lightly timbered open
    country of the tablelands rarely approaching the coast. Ground feeder. Flocks,
    up to 20 birds.
  66. Australian Magpie Lark Grallina cyanoleuca
    RB. Very common. Sedentary. Open forest, farmlands, urban areas, roadsides,
    borders of swamps and lagoons. Nesting Aug -Feb. Pairs, small flocks in autumn
    and winter.
  67. Masked Woodswallow Artamus personatus
    SMB. Rare, nomadic. Open forest and farmlands. Occurs in small numbers within
    foraging and breeding flocks of White-browed Woodswallows.
  68. White-browed Woodswallow Artamus superciliosus
    SMB and PM. Uncommon, nomadic. Open forest and farmlands. Flocks of passage
    birds usually seen Oct -Nov. Large invasions occur every few years when it usually
    nests in the County. Movements are extensive but little understood. Small to large
  69. Black -faced Woodswallow Artamus cinereus
    V. Rare. A bird of the drier inland. Six seen by several observers in the extreme
    west of the County near Barrallier, Jan 1975.74. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
  70. Dusky Woodswallow Artamus cyanopterus
    RB. Moderately common, nomadic. Lightly timbered and open country throughout
    the County, heathland with trees. Perches on dead treetops, overhead wires etc.
    Nests in loose communities, forms larger flocks in autumn and moves generally
  71. Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquatus
    RB. Moderately common, sedentary. Most timbered, agricultural and settled areas.
    Nesting Sept -Dec. Singly or pairs, often family groups after nesting.
  72. Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicen tibicen
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Open forest and farmlands, parks, suburban areas
    with trees, roadsides, pairs, flocks.
    The white -backed form, Gymnorhina tibicen hypoleuca, is rare and sedentary and
    interbreeds with the nominate race. Individuals and pairs have been observed in
    various parts of the County. Formerly moderately common at Wilton, now appar-
    ently absorbed into the G. t. tibicen population. Latest record Orangeville July
  73. Pied Currawong Strepera graculina
    RB and WM. Very common. Partial migrant. Forested areas throughout, also agri-
    cultural and urban areas in winter. Forms flocks in autumn augmented by birds
    from higher country to the SW. Birds banded at Austinmer recovered within one
    year at Nethercote NSW 320 km south, and Penrose 80 km SW (ABB 4:19).
  74. Grey Currawong Strepera versicolor
    RB. Uncommon. Sedentary. Forest country of the central plateau, sandstone
    forests, edges of wet sclerophyll near the coast. Usually singly or in pairs, occas-
    ionally flocks in autumn when it also forages in more open country. Flock of 12
    at Wilton April 1976.
  75. Australian Raven Corvus coronoides
    RB. Very common, sedentary. Most habitats including timbered areas (except
    heavy forest), grazing land, urban rubbish dumps, beaches and roadsides. Loose
    flocks travel daily between foraging and roosting areas. Nesting from July. Singly,
    pairs and flocks.March, 1977 75
    Albatross, Black-browed Page 46 Coucal, Pheasant Page 62
    Buller’s 46 Crake, Marsh 53
    Grey -headed 46 Spotless 53
    Light -mantled 46 Cuckoo, Brush 61
    Royal 46 Channel -billed 62
    Sooty 46 Fan -tailed 61
    Wandering 46 Golden Bronze Cuckoo 61
    White -capped 46 Horsfield Bronze Cuckoo 61
    Yellow- nosed 46 Pallid 61
    Bee -eater, Rainbow 63 Rufous- tailed Bronze 61
    Bittern, Black 50 Shining Bronze 61
    Brown 50 Cuckoo -shrike, Black -faced 64
    Little 50 Little 64
    Blackbird, Common 64 White -bellied 64
    Bowerbird, Satin 73 Curlew, Eastern 55
    Bristlebird, Eastern 67 Currawong, Grey 74
    Brolga 54 Pied 74
    Bronzewing, Brush 59 Darter 49
    Common 59 Diving -petrel, Common 49
    Budgerygah 61 South Georgian 49
    Bulbul, Red -whiskered 64 Dollarbird 63
    Bushlark, Singing 63 Dotterel, Black -fronted 55
    Butcherbird, Grey 74 Double -banded 55
    Button -quail, Painted 53 Hooded 54
    Catbird, Green 73 Large -billed 55
    Chat, White -fronted 71 Mongolian 55
    Chough, White -winged 73 Oriental 55
    Chowchilla, Spine -tailed 66 Red -capped 55
    Cicadabird 64 Dove, Bar -shouldered 59
    Cisticola, Golden -headed 67 Diamond 59
    Cockatiel 60 Emerald 59
    Cockatoo, Gang -gang 60 Peaceful 59
    Glossy Black 60 Spotted 59
    Sulphur -crested 60 Drongo, Spangled 73
    Yellow -tailed Black 60 Duck, Black 51
    Coot 54 Mountain 51
    Cormorant, Black 49 Musk 51
    Little Black 49 Pink -eared 51
    Little Pied 49 White -eyed 51
    Pied 49 Wood 51March, 1977 77.
    Eagle, Little Page 52 Greenshank Page 56
    Wedge-tailed 52 Gull, Pacific 57
    White -breasted Sea- 52 Silver 57
    Egret, Cattle 50 Southern Black -backed 57
    Large 50 Harrier, Swamp 52
    Little 50 Hawk, Crested 52
    Plumed 50 Heron, Mangrove 50
    Emu -wren, Southern 67 Nankeen Night 50
    Falcon, Brown 53 Reef 50
    Little 53 White-faced 49
    Peregrine 53 White -necked 49
    Fantail, Grey 66 Honeyeater, Black -chinned 70
    Rufous 66 Brown 70
    Fantail -warbler, Golden -headed 67 Brown -headed 70
    Figbird, Green 73 Crescent 70
    Finch, Chestnut -breasted 72 Fuscous 70
    Double -barred 72 Lewin’s 70
    Red-browed 72 New Holland
    Zebra 72 Regent 69
    Firetail, Beautiful 72 Scarlet
    Diamond 72 Tawny -crowned
    Red-browed 72 White-cheeked
    Flycatcher, Black -faced 65 White -eared 70
    Leaden 66 White-naped 70
    Restless 66 White -plumed 70
    Satin 66 Yellow -faced 70
    Spectacled 65 Yellow -tufted 70
    Friarbird, Little 69 Hylacola, Chestnut-rumped 68
    Noisy 69 Ibis, Glossy 50
    Frogmouth, Tawny 62 Straw -necked
    Fulmar, Antarctic 47 White 50
    Galah 60 Jabiru 50
    Gannet, Australian 49 Jacky Winter 65
    Godwit, Bar -tailed 56 Kestrel, Nankeen 53
    Black -tailed Godwit 56 Kingfisher, Azure 63
    Goldfinch, European 72
    Sacred 63
    Goshawk, Brown 52 Kite, Black 52
    Grey 52 Black -shouldered 52
    Grassbird, Little 66 Letter -winged 52
    Grebe, Great Crested 46 Whistling 52
    Hoary -headed 46
    Little 4678. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
    Knot Page 56 Pardalote, Eastern Striated Page 71
    Knot, Great 56 Spotted 71
    Koel, Indian 61 Straited 71,72,
    Kookaburra 63 Yellow- tipped 71
    Lark, Australian Magpie 73 Parrot, Ground 61
    Logrunner, Spine -tailed 66 King 60
    Lorikeet, Little 60 Red-rumped 61
    Musk 60 Swamp 61
    Rainbow 60 Swift 61
    Scaly -breasted 60 Turquoise 61
    Lyrebird, Superb 63 Pelican, Australian 49
    Magpie, Australian 74 Penguin, Fiordland Crested 46
    Black -backed 74 Little 46
    White -backed 74 Petrel, Blue 47
    Mallard 51 Cape 47
    Mannikin, Chestnut -breasted 72 Cook’s 47
    Martin, Fairy 64 Gould 47
    Tree 64 Great -winged 47
    Miner, Bell 69 Kerguelen 47
    Noisy 69 Mottled 47
    Mistletoebird 71 Northern Giant 47
    Monarch, Black -faced 65 Providence 47
    Spectacled 65 Petrel, Southern Giant 47
    Moorhen, Dusky 53 Westland Black 48
    Myna, Common 73 White -chinned 48
    Nightjar, White -throated 62 White -headed 47
    Noddy, Common 58 Pigeon, Brown 59
    Oriole, Olive -backed 73 Crested 59
    Osprey 52 Domestic 59
    Owl, Barking 62 Green -winged 59
    Barn 62 Purple -crowned 58
    Boobook 62 Topknot 59
    Masked 62 White -headed 59
    Powerful 62 Wompoo 59
    Sooty 62 Wonga 60
    Spotted 62 Pilotbird 67
    Owlet -nightjar 62 Pipit, Australian 64
    Oystercatcher, Pied 54 Richard’s 64
    Sooty 54 Pitta, Noisy 63March, 1977 79.
    Plover, Banded Page 54 Short -tailed Page 48
    Eastern Golden 54 Sooty 48
    Grey 54 Wedge-tailed 48
    Masked 54 Shoveller 51
    Spur -winged 54 Shrike- thrush, Grey 65
    Prion, Antarctic 47 Shrike -tit, Crested 65
    Broad -billed 47 Silvereye 72
    Fairy 48 Sittella, Orange -winged 69
    Medium -billed 47 Varied 69
    Slender -billed 48 Skua, Arctic 57
    Quail, Brown 53 Great 57
    King 53 Po marine 57
    Painted Button- 53 Skylark, Common 63
    Stubble 53 Snipe, Japanese 56
    Quail -thrush, Spotted 66 Painted 54
    Rail, Land 53 Songlark, Brown 67
    Water 53 Rufous 67
    Rainbowbird 63 Sparrow, House 72
    Raven, Australian 74 Sparrowhawk, Collared 52
    Robin, Eastern Yellow 65 Spinebill, Eastern 71
    Robin, Flame 64 Spoonbill, Royal 51
    Hooded 65 Yellow -billed
    Red -capped 65 Starling, Common 72
    Rose 64 Stilt, Banded 55
    Scarlet 65 Pied 55
    Rosella, Cromson 61 Stint, Red -necked 56
    Eastern 61 Stone -curlew, Bush 54
    Sanderling 57 Storm -petrel, Grey -backed 48
    Sandpiper, Broad -billed 57 White-faced 48
    Common 56 Swallow, Welcome 63
    Curlew 57 White -backed 63
    Sharp -tailed 56 Swamphen 54
    Scrubwren, Large -billed 67 Swan, Black 51
    White-browed 68 Swift, Fork -tailed 63
    Yellow -throated 67 Spine -tailed 62
    Sea -eagle, White -breasted Tattler, Grey -tailed
    Shearwater, Flesh -footed 48 Wandering 56
    Fluttering 48 Teal, Chestnut
    Grey -backed 48 Grey
    Hutton’s 48 Tern, Arctic 58
    48 Caspian 5880. AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 11 (3)
    Common Page 58 Wagtail, Willie Page 66
    Crested 58 Warbler, Brown 68
    Gull -billed 57 Clamorous Reed 66
    Little 58 Reed 66
    Sooty 58 Rock 67
    White 58 Speckled 68
    Whiskered 57 White -throated 68
    White -fronted 58 Wattlebird, Little 69
    Ternlet, Grey 58 Red 69
    Thornbill, Brown 68 Weebill 68
    Buff-rumped 68 Whimbrel 55
    Little 68 Little 55
    Striated 68 Whipbird, Eastern 66
    Yellow 68 Whistler, Golden 65
    Yellow-rumped 68 Olive 65
    Thrush, Ground 64 Rufous 65
    Scaly 64 Whiteface, Southern 69
    Treecreeper, Brown 69 Woodswallow, Black -faced 73
    Red-bro wed 69 Dusky 74
    White -throated 69 Masked 73
    Triller, White -winged 64 White-browed 73
    Tropicbird, Red-tailed 49 Wren, Heath 68
    White-tailed 49 Superb Blue 67
    Turkey, Brush 53 Variegated 67
    Turnstone 55′ 47,
    Gibson, J. D. The Birds of the County of Camden
    (Including the Illawarra District) .. 41
    Systematic List 45

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