Vol. 19 No. 3-text

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Journal of the
Vol. 19, No. 3 May 1985
ISSN 0311-8150
Registered by Australia Post – Publication No NBH0790THE N.S.W. FIELD ORNITHOLOGISTS CLUB
PATRON A.R. McGill, 0 A.M.
D. Turner
The object of the Club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and the
habitats they occupy.
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Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at: Dept. of Ornithology, Australian Museum, 6-8
College Street, Sydney 2000MOS
Volume 19, No. 3 May, 1985
On 25 April 1982 S.J. Davies, Grafton District Ranger, NPWS, and visited Long Hole Lagoon at
Crowsnest Swamp near Tucabia, NSW, in order to check a report that Cape Barren Geese were
present at the lagoon. A search failed to locate any of these geese but we did see three black and
white birds perched on fence posts in shallow water, which on closer examination proved to be
Magpie Geese Anseranas semipa/mata. A local duck shooter later informed us that seven of
these geese were the birds mistakenly reported as Cape Barren Geese.
Details were reported in a local newspaper, the Grafton Daily Examiner for 3 May 1982,
which resulted in further reports of Magpie Geese in the Clarence Valley. Ten were seen
perched in Forest Red Gums Eucalyptus tereticornis at Sportsmans Creek by T. and J. Harrison
on 2 May 1982. Duck shooters reported 60 at nearby Everlasting Swamp on 6 May. We visited
this swamp on 7 May and saw a flock of 27 Magpie Geese which circled over a large lake and
landed in a grove of Swamp Oaks Casuarina glauca. Another observer reported a flock of 70-80
Magpie Geese seen flying down the Clarence River at Grafton on 6 May. As the observer was
relatively inexperienced and the birds were observed only with the naked eye some doubt must
be placed on this record.42 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 1913/
On 22 July 1982 a flock of 38 geese was reported at Cowans Pond near Grafton. The birds
remained at this site, where counted them regularly over subsequent months (they had not
been present on my last previous visit on 27 June). By 5 September the flock had risen to 49, but
decreased to 38 on 13 September. Between 18 September and January 1983 between 27 and
34 birds were present, but after 19 January counts did not exceed 17 birds (Fig. 1). The geese
apparently attempted to breed at this pond during June -July 1983: although no eggs were seen
the behaviour of two trios strongly suggested nesting. This behaviour ceased following heavy
On 21 November 1982, 31 geese were feeding in a paddock near some cattle a short
distance from Cowans Pond. When approached they took off and flew to the edge of the pond
and landed in shallow water, where some pointed their heads into the air in a manner similar to
that of defensive bitterns. This posture would probably render them almost invisible in tall
rushes, although these birds were in a relatively open situation. Despite their large size and
boldly patterned plumage Magpie Geese can often be hard to see, especially from the air.
Precise counting of individuals in a flock can be difficult as some birds may “disappear”
amongst aquatic vegetation. During a flight over Cowans Pond in February 1983, for example,
only 5 of a flock of 13 were observed.
Table I Historic and recent records of Magpie Geese in New South Wales and south-eastern
c 1942 a few at Long Hole Lagoon, Crowsnest Swamp Mr Friar
1945 1 at Sportsmans Creek, near Lawrence T. Harrison
28 Dec 67 9 birds in flight, Lake Bathurst A. Coleman &
J. Harrison
12 July 71 2 at the Driftway near Cowal Heron 1973
28 Mar 73 20 at Barren Box Swamp, Griffith I. Robertson per
A.K. Morris
c 1974 1 at Sportsmans Creek, near Lawrence T. Harrison
Feb 78 at Cawndilla Channel, Kinchega NP Lindsey 1979
31.5.78 1 at Woodville, near Maitland for 2 weeks A. D’Ombrain
28 Jul 80 3 at Beresfield P.A. Bourke per
E.S. Hoskin
25 Aug 82 11 at Kyogle Lindsey 1984
c. Dec 82 2 flying N over Gosford (honking) (unconfirmed) G. Stapleton
May -June 83 37 in Brisbane Valley at several locations C.J. Corben
May -Jun 83 c. 50 N. of Brisbane T. TallierAUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 43
Table Historic and recent records of Magpie Geese In New South Wales and south-eastern

26 Jul 83 A.K. Morris

mid Aug 83 10 at Carmel Lagoon, Terridgerie E of Baradine D. Johnston
25 Sep 83 9 at swamp near Grafton A.R. McGill
10-11 Oct 83 9 at Sandy Camp, Macquarie Marshes NR T. Korn
late Oct 83 Pair on Dangars Lagoon near Uralla M. Maher et al.
late Oct 83 8 birds, 2 pairs nesting in northern Macquarie
Marshes L. Ahearn
Oct -Nov 83 At Clifden near Grafton G. Holloway
4 Nov 83 4, 2 adults and 2 young in Cumbungi swamp on J. Hardy,
“Wandoona” station, W of Moree. Owner claimed L. Llewellyn,
birds had bred there R. Wade
8 Nov 83 2 in lignum swamp of northern Narran Lake J. Hardy,
L. Llewellyn,
R. Wade
18 Nov 83 11 at Hilldrop Motel, Waterview Heights near
Grafton G. Holloway

  • Nov 83 17 near Redcliffe, SE Old, absent early Dec. C.J. Corben
    29 Nov 83 18 at Buckinguy Swamp, southern Macquarie J. Hardy,
    Marshes L. Llewellyn
    Dec 83 left Hilldrop Motel, Waterview Heights G. Holloway
    Dec 83 nest with 10 eggs at Dromana HSD 60 km W R. Aldis per
    of Moree A.K. Morris
    Jan 84 left Brisbane valley C.J. Corben et. al.
    25 Jan 84 7 at Macquarie Marshes T. Korn per
    A.K. Morris
    Jan 84 max. 18 at Macquarie Marshes L. Ahearn
    12 Feb 84 7 at Macquarie Marshes T. Korn
    28 Feb 84 3 at Lytton HSD near Barham E.B. Thomas
    3-4 Mar 84 2 at Warrawidgee 15 km W of Griffith J. Brickhill
    Mar -Apr 84 c. 10 at Spencer, at the junction of the Hawkesbury
    River and Mangrove Creek (unconfirmed) local resident
    Jul 84 7 at Waterview Heights near Grafton G. Holloway
    14 Jul 84 4 at Seaham Swamp near Newcastle G. Albrecht &
    M. Maddock per
    W.P. Barden
    31 July 84 1 6- 1 7 at Waterview Heights A. Love
    6 Sep 84 21 at Waterview Heights near Grafton G.P. Clancy
    3 Nov 84 19 at Waterview Heights near Grafton G.P. Clancy
    3 Feb 85 4 at Seaham Swamp per A.K. Morris44 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19(3)
    In the spring of 1983 Cowans Pond became covered in Water Hyacinth Eichhornia
    crassipes; the geese then abandoned the site and have been seen only once there since (in
    March 1984, see Fig. 1). However, the geese did not move very far, as 11 were seen for a few
    weeks in November 1983 at nearby Waterview Heights to the west of Cowans Pond. They left
    this site in early December but turned up during July 1984 at another pond at Waterview



1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1983 1984
Figure 1. Results of regular counts of Magpie Geese at Cowans Pond, Grafton, NSW from July
1982 to mid -1984, based on the highest count in each calendar month (the ordinate number
of birds, the abscissa time in months). No Magpie Geese were present on an earlier visit on 27
June 1982, and none have been reported there since March 1984.AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 45
These reports indicate that, although showing some local mobility, a flock of Magpie Geese
was present in the Grafton region from April 1982 until at least November 1984. At first this
population totalled at least 49 and possibly as high as 80 birds, but some elements of the flock
dispersed, perhaps out of the area completely, sometime during the winter of 1983, and local
counts thereafter did not exceed 21 birds. In addition to the observations in the Clarence Valley,
a number of sightings were made in other areas of New South Wales and in southern
Queensland. These are shown in Table I, together with all previous records for this century,
published or unpublished, that have been able to trace.
Between 1958 and 1982 there were only nine records of the species in New South Wales,
the largest flock numbering twenty. The recent reports discussed here constitute the most
significant occurrence of the species since its extirpation in the State earlier this century. Frith
(1968) states: “Before 1900 geese were much more widely distributed than they are today. The
northern distribution was as it is now, but breeding colonies existed down the east coast and in
parts of the south and east. Breeding occurred on the Clarence River, New South Wales,
Darlington and Westernport, Victoria, and Bool Lagoon, South Australia, at least. Inland
breeding occurred near Moree, New South Wales, on the lower Lachlan and Murrumbidgee
River. The birds in the more southern colonies were shot for food and poisoned in large numbers
when they invaded crops and their habitat was altered or destroyed by grazing animals and
drought. The geese had disappeared from Victoria and South Australia by 1911 and soon
afterwards in the other southern regions. Today they are only seen there as very rare vagrants
from the north.”
It is intere-sti ng that two of the recent breeding records were at locations where the species
formerly bred the Clarence Valley and near Moree. The spate of records in New South Wales
over the past two years or so raises the possibility that the Magpie Goose may have made a
permanent comeback to the State.
wish to thank the following who contributed records for this report: R. Estreigh, J. Hardy, J. and
T. Harrison, D. Hobcroft, G. Holloway, E.S. Hoskin (Keith Hi ndwood Bird Recording Service), D.
James, T.R. Lindsey (NSW Field Ornithologists’ Club), A.K. Morris, D. Secomb, C. Tonkin and
Frith, H.J. 1968. Waterfowl in Australia. Angus & Robertson: Sydney
Heron, S.J. 1973. Record of the Magpie Goose in central New South Wales, Emu 73: 28
Lindsey, T.R. 1979. N.S.W. Bird Report for 1978. Aust. Birds 14:1-22
Lindsey, T.R. 1984. N.S.W. Bird Report for 1982. Aust. Birds 18: 37-69
G. P Clancy, Dharug National Park, Mill Creek, Spencer Road, Wisemans Ferry NSW 225546 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3)
On 19 May 1984 stopped my vehicle some distance west of Parkes, NSW to watch two adult
Spotted Harriers Circus assimilis hawking over a paddock full of long grass and wheat stubble.
Both birds continued for some time their characteristic lazy flight, making occasional shallow
dives to the ground without success. Twice saw them flush Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis
and once a Brown Songlark Cinclorhamphus crura/is. They criss-crossed the paddock half a
dozen times, no more than two metres above the top of the vegetation.
At last one bird slowly drifted down into the long grass and disappeared from view for about
two minutes. When it emerged it appeared to be carrying a small mouse Mus musculus and this
was confirmed as it flew overhead. The bird continued across the road to a large Grey Box
Eucalyptus microcarpa and as it landed noticed another brown harrier (i.e. in immature
plumage) on a dead limb nearby. Directly below it another three heads could be seen sticking
out of a large nest, on the edge of which the adult had landed. The nest was situated in the
topmost canopy of the tree about 14 metres above the ground and was almost blocked from
view by a large clump of dense foliage.
watched the adult dismember the mouse and feed it to the young in the nest, all of which
were giving a begging call. The immature outside the nest continued begging loudly to try to
attract the feeding adult’s attention, only stopping as the adult left. With four hungry mouths to
feed a mouse does not go far and it was not long before the adult left to resume its hunting. By
that time the other adult also approached the nest with an unidentifiable small bird considered
to be a Richard’s Pipit Anthus novaeseelandiae. This was fed to the brown bird outside the nest,
who enthusiastically plucked the feathers from the prey and greedily consumed it. The adult
lazily rejoined its mate in the paddock.
An examination of pellets under the nest provided some clues to what the young were
being fed. The major contents (estimated at about 80%) appeared to be mice; other prey seemed
to be birds and a small quantity of insects.
This breeding appears to be well outside the usual breeding period of July to December
(Frith 1969; Morris, McGill & Holmes 1981), although Cupper & Cupper (1981) found a nest
with eggs in April.
Immatures with adults in family parties were observed throughout the Parkes district on a
number of occasions from April through to July, thus raising the possibility that off-season
breeding was more widespread in the area than the isolated instance reported here suggests.AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 47
However, it is also possible that these immatures were “hangers-on” from the previous normal
breeding season. During June and July adults were also observed in courtship flights and nest
building even though immature birds were still in attendance. It is interesting to note that family
parties of Black -shouldered Kites Elanus notatus which included obviously immature birds
were also observed throughout the district during the same period. In order for breeding to
occur there must be factors operating to provide the stimulus, and food supply is known as a
proximate factor for some raptors (Newton 1979). Obviously the fact that this district, from
March to June, was hav-in g a minor quail population explosion followed by a major mouse -and
to a lesser degree, rat plague (which was still in progress in October 1984) would have
provided suitable conditions for breeding.
Cupper, J. & L. Cupper. 1981. Hawks in focus. Mildura (privately published)
Frith, H.J. (ed.). 1969. Birds in the Australian high country. Reed: Sydney
Morris, A.K., A.R. McGill & G. Holmes. 1981. Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSW Field Ornith.
Club: Sydney
Newton, I. 1979. Population ecology of raptors. Buteo Books: Vermilion, South Dakota
N. W. Schrader, 2 Elizabeth Street, Parkes NSW 2870
The Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus is common even in urban areas ove-r much of
coastal eastern Australia, but displays do not appear to have been described in detail none is
mentioned by Forshaw (1981) and Lendon (1973) merely alludes to “droll antics”. At Narrabeen
Lake, Sydney, NSW on 21 April 19841 observed behaviour in this species which interpret as a
courtship display. watched the display at a distance of about one metre.
At approximately 16:00 hrs three Rainbow Lorikeets flew onto the rail of a third -storey
balcony of an apartment block near the lake. One bird left again almost immediately. Of the
remaining pair, one was slightly the larger and had a brighter red breast than the other; I
assumed this to be the male and the other a female (although this assumption may be incorrect
because, while males average slightly larger than females (Foreshaw, /oc. cit., the sexes are
otherwise almost identical). The two birds perched side by side about five centimetres apart and
the male sidled towards the female, who retreated at the same rate along the rail.48 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 1913)
The male craned its neck upwards. His nape feathers were raised and his contour plumage
fluffed. He abruptly lowered his head then raised it, simultaneously raising his body on his legs
in a bobbing motion. He opened his bill (the tongue could be seen moving) and uttered a
coughing note resembling a snort or a sudden expiration of breath. He then rotated his head
through approximately 180 degrees, twisting his neck so that the bill was pointing almost
vertically upwards, the body leaning forwards and slightly down. could see nibbling motions of
the open bill but the bird was silent. He paused in this position for about one second, then
rotated his head back to the normal position. He then craned his neck again and repeated the
The cough was repeated at a rate of about two times per second, always while sidling after
the retreating female but never with the head upside down. The female jumped over the male
half -way through the first display. The duration of the observation was about thirty seconds,
during which time the display was repeated four or perhaps five times. From time to time the
pair touched bills, nibbling, and always as the male held his head upside-down in the rotated
position. Suddenly both birds flew away together, believe with the female leading though
could not be certain. Certain abnormalities of the eye were noted during the display but was
unable to describe them precisely.
Lorikeets regularly come to this balcony to be fed, and have seen displays similar to that
described on a number of occasions. During July and August 1984, saw these displays
frequently; my observations indicate that the elements of the display are consistently repeated
in the sequence described above, although occasionally the bird will abort the display before he
begins coughing. The behaviour of the female is more variable, and there is often no detectable
response to the display. On these subsequent occasions took particular note of changes in the
eye. The iris (of the presumed male) dilates, the periophthalmic ring appears swollen, and the
eyeball protrudes noticeably, these changes taking place abruptly at the point in the display at
which the bird bobs and begins coughing. The eye returns to normal during the display, but
could detect no consistency in the precise point at which this happens. I thank Dr C.E. Cannon –
for commenting on an earlier draft of this note and for calling my attention to the significance of
changes in the eye; also thank G.M. and G.E. Griffiths for their help in preparing this note.
Forshaw, Joseph M. 1981. Australian Parrots (2nd ed.). Landsdowne Editions, Melbourne
Lendon, Alan H. 1973. Australian Parrots in field and aviary. Angus and Robertson, Sydney
Rae Griffiths, 31/11 Devitt Street, Narrabeen NSW 2101AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19131 49
Every year throughout autumn and winter large flocks of Black -faced Cuckoo -shrikes Coracina
novaehollandiae, often accompanied by smaller numbers of Little Cuckoo -shrikes C. robusta, visit
the Clarence Valley, New South Wales. These flocks feed largely on the fruit of the Camphor Laurel
Cinnamomum camphora, which is abundant in the region. Spangled Drongos Dicrurus hottentotus
also occur in the same area at the same time, but this may not be coincidental as the movements of
the latter may be linked to those of the cuckoo -shrikes.
On 15 March 1978Isaw about eight Black -faced Cuckoo -shrikes, one Little Cuckoo -shrike and
two Spangled Drongos associating together as a feeding flock at South Grafton. On 27 June 1978
one of two drongos present at South Grafton pursued a Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike which had food in
its bill. noted a similar occurrence at the same place on 5 May 1979 and again at Susan Island on 5
July 1982.
Other species of cuckoo -shrikes may also be involved. At approximately 12:30 hrs on 22 March
1983 saw three drongos near a female Cicadabird C. tenuirostris in the trees at Macquarie Nature
Reserve, Port Macquarie. Later in the day, two of six drongos present at the reserve appeared near a
small creek at the same time as a pair of Cicadabirds, and shortly before an adult Black- faced
Cuckoo -shrike arrived. Nearby, two Barred Cuckoo -shrikes C. lineata were feeding on the fruits of a
Port Jackson Fig Ficus rubiginosa, using a Red Bloodwood Eucalyptus gummifera as a look -out point;
they were joined by a Spangled Drongo as I watched.
have noted similar occurrences in the past, and on checking my notebooks since 1978 found
twenty-six instances in which Spangled Drongos and cuckoo -shrikes occurred together. These were
not merely at the same place on the same day, but were recorded consecutively. All of these
observations were in the Grafton region or at Port Macquarie on the North Coast of New South
Wales, and nineteen (c. 73%) were in the months May -August. Black -faced Cuckoo -shrikes were
involved in 23 instances, one case involved Little Cuckoo -shrikes, and two cases involved Barred
Cuckoo -shrikes. In at least twelve cases, some degree of association (i.e. in the same or neighbouririg
trees, travelling together, or interspecific aggression) was specifically noted at the time. Mostly the
instances involved single drongos, but in seven cases, two, three or more individuals were involved.
It is difficult to see how such a hypothesis might be tested, but these observations seem to me to
indicate a more intimate association than might be expected by chance alone. It also seems unlikely
that they merely reflect coincidental similarities, during the winter, in habitat preference and diet
among the species involved.50 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3)
Drongos are noted for their pugnacious disposition, and kleptoparasitism has been recorded in
several species (e.g. Ali & Ripley 1972). have seen Spangled Drongos attack Brown Goshawks
Accipiter fasciatus and other raptors; and have also seen them pursue cuckoo -shrikes and Figbirds
Sphecotheres viridis, apparently with intent to rob them of food. Nevertheless, adventitious piracy of
this kind need not necessarily imply the degree of commensalism suggested by my observations.
suspect that Spangled Drongos habitually associate with wandering parties of cuckoo -shrikes
during the non -breeding season. Vaurie (1964) noted that several species of drongos are known to
attend mixed feeding parties of other birds in Africa, and Bell (1967) recorded that Spangled Drongos
habitually attend foraging parties of the New Guinea Babbler Pomatostomus isidori.
Ali, S. & S.D. Ripley. 1972. Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan, vol 5, Oxford Univ. Press: Oxford
Bell, H.L. 1967. An association between two New Guinea bird species. Emu 67: 95-98
Vaurie, Charles. 1964. article -Drongo-, in A.L. Thompson (ed.). A new dictionary of birds. Nelson: London
Greg P. Clancy, Dharug National Park, Mill Creek, Spencer Road, Wisemans Ferry NSW 2255
On 24 February 1985, a Streaked Shearwater Calonectris leucomelas joined a number of
seabirds feeding on offal thrown off the stern of our vessel, the Sandra K, a 15 -metre charter
fishing boat, idling over about 60 fathoms of water some 12 km east of Wollongong, NSW. The
bird remained off the stern, at times as close as 2-3 m, for about 10 minutes, during which
period it was closely studied and a number of colour photographs were taken. Two of these are
reproduced at Plates 4 & 5, and they clearly show enough of the diagnostic features of the
species (in particular the white face, streaked crown and mainly white underwings) to obviate the
need for a detailed description here.
This appears to be the first documented record in the Illawarra region, although am aware
of at least one (subsequent) specimen from the region, and a number of earlier sight records off
the NSW coast generally. The Streaked Shearwater was unrecorded in the State until 1979
(Morris, McGill & Holmes, 1981. A handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSWFOC: Sydney), or
indeed in Australia (except for one very old and unsatisfactory record) before 1975 (Lane, 1983.AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19(3) 51
W. Aust. Naturalist 15: 148). The species is now recorded regularly (e.g. Carter 1983, Aust. Bird
Watcher 10: 113-121; Barton 1985, Aust. Seabird Grp Newsl. No. 21 16: pers. obs). Whatever
its cause, the spate of records around Australia over the past decade is a remarkable
phenomenon, and a thorough review would be of considerable interest.
Alan McBride, 3/108 Cabramatta Road, Mosman NSW 2088
The White -necked Petrel Pterodroma (external cervica/is has only been recorded in Australian
waters in the past few years, during which period there has been a number of sight records from
New South Wales, Victoria and Queensland. A report on these sightings is in preparation by
Kevin Bartram and Chris Corben. This note describes the first specimen of this species from

  • The bird was found dead apparently killed by a car by Greg Clancy on 9 April 1983 in
    the Cooperbung Range, along the Pacific Highway between Telegraph Point and Kempsey,
    NSW (approximately 31° 17’S, 152° 49’E). It was received by the Australian Museum on 14
    November 1984 through the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, and identified by Kevin
    Bartram and Anita Smyth. Measurements and soft -part colours, taken by Ian McAllan, are as
    follows: weight 270 gm, total length 357 mm, wing 290 mm, tail 130 mm, tarsus 35.5 mm, total
    culmen 41 mm; bill black, legs pale pink, feet and webs pale pink basally and black distally. Its
    sex could not be determined and there was no sign of moult. The specimen was prepared by
    Walter Boles as a skin/skeleton combination with one wing, one leg, the pygostyle and
    complete skull retained with the skin; the remaining bones (including a complete wing and leg),
    were skeletonized. The skin of the throat was badly damaged and most of this area is missing
    from the specimen. The remainder of the skin is in good condition. It is held in the Australian
    Museum ornithological collection, registration number 0.58135.
    This petrel is represented by two forms, cervicalis and externa, inhabiting respectively the
    western and eastern fringes of the Pacific Ocean. These are generally considered conspecific
    though the validity of this treatment is questionable. Our specimen exhibits the diagnostic
    characters of the form cervica/is (Plates 1 and 2): white collar, black cap, grey wedge-shaped
    tail, dark rump, dark ‘W’ across the extended upper wings and back (Harper & Kinsky 1978;
    Harrison 1983). There is a black bar along the leading edge of the underwing extending from the52 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19(31
    base of the outer primary to the carpal joint and beyond across the secondary coverts about
    halfway to the elbow joint. In P. (externa) externa, the black on the leading edge of the
    underwing is confined to a small patch at the carpal joint (Loomis 1918). The two outer tail
    feathers are white with light grey mottling and have white shafts: in P. (external externa all tail
    feathers (Godman 1910) and shafts (Loomis 1918) are dark. The upperparts of this specimen
    are darker than either live birds observed by Kevin Bartram or the descriptions in Harper &
    Kinsky (1978) and in Harrison (1983), but the area is not as dark as the cap. The feathers of the
    collar are not all pure white, some having light grey terminal margins which give this area a
    slightly scalloped appearance. At each side of the breast is an extension of the dark feathering of
    the mantle, reminiscent of that of a Gould’s Petrel P lelicoptera (see Plate 2: lateral view). This
    is reduced to distinct scallop -shaped edges to the feathers as it approaches the midline of the
    breast but these markings end well before this point. The secondaries are fresh and grey,
    contrasting with the worn, brownish secondary coverts. The tail feathers, particularly the
    central pair, are abraded at the ends. The remainder of the plumage, including the upperparts,
    appears fresh, showing little wear.
    The measurements of this individual fall outside the range of 14 cervicalis specimens from
    the Kermadec Islands: wing 301-322.5 mm, tail 132-142 mm, tarsus 40-46 mm (Falla 1976).
    Six specimens in the American Museum of Natural History, New York, collected at sea about 48
    km east of Banks Island, Vanuatu, on 29 January 1927, are uniformly smaller (Falla 1976).
    However, Fella also gave measurements of one male which agree well with our specimen: wing
    275 mm, tail 125 mm, tarsus 36 mm. These minor but apparently consistent anomalies in size
    suggest that the Australian specimen possibly came from the Vanuatu region. It would be of
    interest to confirm from which locality or localities the birds which have appeared in Australian
    waters originated.
    We are grateful to Anita Smyth, David Eades, T.R. Lindsey, Ian McAllan and Wayne
    Longmore for discussion and assistance with different aspects of this work and to Kate Lowe for
    taking the photographs which accompany this report.
    Falla, R.A. 1976. Notes on the gadfly petrels Pterodroma externa & P. e. cervicalis. Notornis 23: 320-322
    Godman, F. du C. 1910. A Monograph of the Petrels (Order Tubinares). Part V, pp. 297-381. London:
    Harper, P.C. & F.C. Kinsky. 1978. Southern Albatrosses and Petrels. Wellington: Victoria University Press
    Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds. An Identification Guide. London: Croom Helm
    Loomis, L.M. 1918. Expedition of the California Academy of Sciences to the Galapagos Islands, 1905-1906.
    xii, A review of the albatrosses, petrels, and diving petrels. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (4th ser.) 2 (2): 1-187
    Walter E. Boles, Australian Museum, 6-8 College Street, Sydney NSW 2000
    Kevin Bartram, 74 Andrew Street, Prahran Vic 3181
    Greg P. Clancy, NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, Dharug National Park, Mill Creek,
    Wisemans Ferry NSW 2255photo: Kate Lowe, Australian Museum
    Plate 1: Dorsal aspect, first Australian specimen of the White -necked Petrel Pterodroma
    (external cervicalis.photos: Kate Lowe, Australian Museum (top);
    Alan McBride, Nat. Photo. Index (lower)
    Plate 2: Lateral view, first Australian specimen of the White -necked Petrel Pterodroma
    (externa) cervicalis.
    Plate 3: White -necked Petrel Pterodroma (externa) cervicalis; off Sydney Heads, NSW, 26
    February 1983..
    photos: AAllaann McBride, Nat. Photo. Index
    Plates 4 & 5: Streaked Shearwater Ca/onectris leucomelas; off Wollongong, NSW, 24 February
    1985.photos: Brian King (QId Nat. Parks & Wildl. Service); Nat. Photo. Index
    Plates 6 & 7: Herald Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniania heraldica; over breeding ground at Raine
    Island, Qld, April 1984 (top) and July 1982 (bottom)AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 1913) 53
    At about 10.00 hrs (eastern summer time) on 30 October 1982 an unusual Pterodroma petrel
    appeared near our vessel the Kariong, a 15 m charter fishing boat. We were on the edge of the
    continental shelf approximately 36 km east of Sydney, NSW. Water depth was 150 fathoms, air
    temperature was 22° C and seas were slight on a low swell with a light northerly wind. Visibility
    was good, with a cloud cover of light haze. Sea mist was present well to the south and along
    inner coastal waters. Other observers present were J.J. Francis, D. Secombe, T. Dymond, and
    D. James.
    The bird appeared from the east, flying in typical Pterodroma fashion, and approached to
    within 50 m of the boat. It lingered briefly off the stern with a small group of seabirds including
    Wedge-tailed Shearwaters Puffinus pacificus, Short -tailed Shearwaters P. tenuirostris, Sooty
    Shearwaters P. griseus, Providence Petrels Pterodroma solandri, and Great -winged Petrels P.
    macroptera which had been attracted to offal thrown overboard. It was in sight for a total time of
    about three minutes affording very good views. A description was noted as follows:
    Flight: high arcing flight similar to that of Providence Petrel but rather less impetuous, recalling
    White -headed Petrel Pterodroma
    Size: appeared slightly smaller than Providence and Great -winged Petrels which were present
    for comparison.
    Upperparts: head, back and upperwing uniform dark brown or grey -brown, upperwing without
    any trace of white on the primary shafts.
    Underparts: white with a broad dusky collar across the upper breast estimated at about 6 cm in
    width. The collar faded gradually onto the white breast (i.e. without any abrupt
    demarcation). The chin, throat and lower cheeks were white, also gradually shading to the
    dusky collar and sides of the face. Undertail coverts dark. Colour of legs and feet not noted.
    Underwing: the base of all primaries were white as were the greater underwing coverts. A
    narrow dark line dissected the basal primary patch and the greater coverts. Near the
    trailing edge of the wing this white area showed a very slight tapering towards the body,
    stopping approximately 5 cm from the body (i.e. almost to the axillaries). The dark
    dissecting line appeared longer than in P. solandri. The marginal coverts were white and
    the axillaries were dark.54 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19(3)
    Immediately upon our return, the observation was discussed with T.R. Lindsey, who prepared a
    sketch that was modified on the spot until all were satisfied that it presented a reasonable
    likeness of the bird we saw; special attention was given to pattern, shape and attitude. The
    resulting sketch is reproduced at Figure 1, together with a rough field sketch drawn by one of us
    at the time of observation.
    Figure 1. Sketches of a Herald Petrel off Sydney Heads, NSW, 30 October 1982: a thumbnail
    sketch made at the time of the observation and an “identikit” drawing prepared later
    (reproduced directly from the original sketches)AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 1913) 55
    We identified the bird as a Herald Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana. Several Pterodromas
    show an obvious pale area towards the tip of the underwing, but this area is dissected by a
    distinct dark line only in the Kermadec, Herald and Providence Petrels (Harper & Kinsky 1978,
    Harrison 1983). Several Providence Petrels were available for immediate comparison, but in
    any event this species is ruled out by its dark underparts and the fact that the white is restricted
    to the greater primary coverts and does not extend onto the secondary coverts as in our bird; this
    last feature is however characteristic of P. arminjoniana. In the Kermadec petrel the white
    underwing patch is normally restricted to the primaries, but the diagnostic feature of this
    species is its white primary shafts, which are conspicuous in all phases, even at some distance
    (Harrison, 1983; see also discussion in Eades & Rogers 1982). We saw no trace of white on the
    upperwing of our bird, although we were aware of the significance of the feature and it was
    specifically sought. Further, this species has a characteristically lazy, graceful flight which does
    not match well with our impression of the flight style of this bird.
    The report has been accepted by the RAOU Records Appraisal Committee (Case No. 51, T.R.
    Lindsey, in litt.). It appears to be the second record of the Herald Petrel for New South Wales, the
    only previous report being one seen off Ballina in May 1979 (Izzard & Watson 1979; Morris,
    McGill & Holmes 1981), although a specimen was found at Burleigh Heads, Old, just north of
    the border between the two States, in January 1971 (Vernon & McKean 1972). The species has
    recently been confirmed breeding on Raine Island on the Great Barrier Reef (King 1984). We
    thank C.J. Corben, T.R. Lindsey and M.J. Carter for their helpful comments on earlier drafts of
    this paper.
    Eades, D.W. & A.E.F. Rogers, 1982. Comments on the identification of the Magenta Petrel and similar
    species. Notornis 29: 81-84
    Harper, P.C. & F.C. Kinsky, 1978. Southern albatrosses and petrels. Melbourne: Price and Milburn
    Harrison, P. 1983. Seabirds: an identification guide. A.H. & A.W. Reed, Sydney
    Izzard, J. & W.D. Watson. A sight record of the Herald Petrel off northern NSW. Aust. Birds 15: 5
    King, B. 1984. The Herald Petrel Pterodroma arminjoniana heraldica breeding on Raine Island, Q1d. Emu 84:
    Morris, A.K., A.R. McGill & G. Holmes. 1981. Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSW Ornith. Club,
    Vernon, D.P. & J.L. McKean. 1972. A specimen of the Herald Petrel from Queensland. Emu 72: 115
    Alan McBride, 3/108 Cabramatta Road, Mosman NSW 2088
    Dion Hobcroft, c/o Dept. of Agriculture, Dempster Street, Esperance WA 645056 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3)
    While studying the impact of the Common Starling Sturnus yulgaris on two Hunter Valley
    vineyards kept a list of all birds seen in and near the two vineyards. The study was carried out
    from June 1980 to February 1981 on the Fordwich and Spring Mountain Estates of Saxonvale
    Wines Ltd, near Broke in central eastern New South Wales. Fordwich Estate is completely
    surrounded by agricultural and grazing land, with the nearest uncleared woodland about a
    kilometre away. About ten kilometres to the south-east of Fordwich Estate, Spring Mountain
    Estate is also surrounded by pasture except for about one -sixth of the boundary which adjoins
    dense open forest at the foot of a spur of the Brokenback Range. Both estates have dams and are
    near semi -permanent streams. In addition to the areas planted with vines, Fordwich includes
    several rocky outcrops with scattered trees (mostly kurrajongs and eucalypts), patches of rough
    grass, and lawns and gardens around the winery, houses and out -buildings. Spring Mountain
    also includes rough grassed areas, and a wedge of rocky woodland extends into the vineyard
    along a natural drainage line.
    Monthly records were kept, and a total of 74 species were seen: 57 on Fordwich and 53 on
    Spring Mountain with 37 species common to both estates. At least 18 species bred within the
    estates. The only introduced birds present were the Common Starling and European Goldfinch.
    Birds listed in Table are assigned the codes A, B, or C. Those assigned the code letter A fed
    predominately in those parts of the vineyards which were planted with vines, though not
    necessarily on grapes or grape seeds. Code B species fed entirely or predominately within the
    estates, but not necessarily in those parts which were planted with vines. All A and B species
    were regarded as resident within the vineyard except for Australian Ravens and Silvereyes
    which flew in from the woodland to feed each day, and the Tawny Grassbird which was a late
    arrival. Birds coded C, although using the vineyards for varying periods of time, either ranged
    more widely than the vineyard boundaries in feeding, were restricted to the wooded part of
    Spring Mountain, or were nomads. Some were residents. Those species marked with an
    asterisk (*) were recorded as attacking grapes at least occasionally. Scientific names of birds
    discussed appear in the table.
    In addition to the species listed in Table 1, several species of waterbird were usually
    present on the water -storage dams on the two estates, but were not included in the study.
    Waterbirds frequenting the two storage dams at Fordwich were Pacific Black Duck Anas
    superciliosa, Grey Teal Anas gibberifrons, Hardhead Aythya australis, Purple Swamphen
    Porphyrio porphyrio, and Hoary -headed Grebe Poliocephalus poliocephalus. A Little Pied

Cormorant Pha/acrocorax melanoleucos was seen there in June 1980 and a flock ofAUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 57

Table Saxonvale bird community, June 1980 February 1981
(months indicated by initial letter at head of column)
species code Fordwich Spring Mt.
Egretta sp. (probably intermedia)
White-faced Heron
Ardea novaehollandiae
Straw -necked Ibis
Threskiornis spinicollis
Black -shouldered Kite
Elanus notatus
Wedge-tailed Eagle
Aquila audax
Spotted Harrier
Circus assimilis
Peregrine Falcon
Falco peregrinus
Brown Falcon
Falco berigora
Little Falcon
Falco longipennis
Australian Kestrel
Falco cenchroides
Stubble Quail
Coturnix novaezelandiae
Masked Lapwing
Vanellus miles
Black -fronted Plover
Charadrius melanops
Crested Pigeon
Ocyphaps lophotes A
Sulphur -crested Cockatoo
Cacatua galerita
Cacatua roseicapilla
Australian King Parrot
Alisterus scapularis
Eastern Rosella
Platycercus eximius A58 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3)
Table 1. Saxonvale bird community (continued)
species code Fordwich Spring Mt.
Red-rumped Parrot
Psephotus haematonotus A
Pallid Cuckoo
Cuculus pallidus
Horsfield’s Bronze -cuckoo
Chrysoccocyx basalis
Spine -tailed Swift
Hirundapus caudacutus
Laughing Kookaburra
Dacelo novaeguineae
Rainbow Bee -eater -x
Merops ornatus C x
White -backed Swallow _
Cheramoeca leucosternum
Richards’ Pipit
Anthus novaezeelandiae x

Welcome Swallow x— —x
Hirundo neoxena B x x
Fairy Martin
Cecropis ariel
Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike
Coracina novaehollandiae
Scarlet Robin
Petroica multicolor
Hooded Robin
Melanodryas cucullata
Jacky -winter
Microeca leucophaea
Rufous Whistler
Pachycephala rufiventris
Satin Flycatcher
Myiagra cyanoleuca
Restless Flycatcher
Myiagra inquieta
Grey Fantail
Rhipidura fuliginosa
Willie Wagtail
Rhipidura leucophrys A x xAUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 59
Table 1. Saxonvale bird community (continued)
species code Fordwich Spring Mt.
Tawny Grassbird
Megalurus timoriensis
Golden -headed Cisticola —
Cisticola exilis B x
Superb Fairy -wren —
Malurus cyaneus x x
Speckled Warbler
Chthonicola sagittata
White -throated Warbler
Gerygone olivacea
Yellow-rumped Thornbill —- x— —x —
Acanthiza chrysorrhoa B x x
Red Wattlebird
Anthochaera carunculata
Little Wattlebird
Anthochaera chrysoptera
Striped Honeyeater
Plectorhyncha lanceolata
Noisy Friarbird
Philemon corniculatus
Noisy Miner
Manorina melanocephala C x x
Yellow -faced Honeyeater
Lichenostomus chrysops
White -plumed Honeyeater
Lichenostomus penicillatus
Eastern Spinebill
Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
Dicaeum hirundinaceum
Striated Pardalote
Pardalotus striatus
Zosterops lateralis A
European Goldfinch
Carduelis carduelis
Red-browed Firetail
Emblema temporalis60 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (31
Table 1. Saxonvale bird community (continued)
species code Fordwich Spring Mt.
Zebra Finch
Poephila guttata A
Double -barred Finch — —-
Poephila bichenovii A X X
Common Starling —
–xxxx— -X
Sturnus vulgaris C X X X
Magpie -lark – — —
Grallina cyanoleuca A X X
Dusky Woodswa flow
Artamus cyanopterus C
Grey Butcherbird
Cracticus torquatus B
Pied Butcherbird
Cracticus nigrogularis
Australian Magpie
Gymnorhina tibicen A
Pied Currawong
Strepera graculina C
Australian Raven
Corvus coronoides
approximately 80 Plumed Whistling -duck Dendrocygna eytoni were seen daily during a field
trip 8-10 November 1980. They were not seen on the previous visit (ending 20 October) nor on
the following one (beginning 29 November). However, conversation with the vineyard staff
suggested that the whistling -ducks had used the dam as a day refuge for several weeks. Pacific
Black Duck were present on the storage dam at Spring Mountain throughout the study period
but no other species was seen there.
The species listed as breeding were those seen attending nests or feeding newly -fledged
young within the estates. Birds which bred in the area of natural woodland on the Spring
Mountain Estate were not observed. Welcome Swallows nested in the buildings; other species
nested in both native and exotic trees and shrubs and the Cisticolas in a heap of vine prunings.
While the vines were in fruit Common Starlings, Australian Ravens, Noisy Friarbirds, Noisy
Miners, Black -faced Cuckoo -shrikes, Pied Currawongs, and Australian King Parrots fed onAUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 61
grape-s The Common Starling was regarded as a major pest but Australian Ravens, Silvereyes
and in some years only Pied Currawongs were the only native species to be regarded as
pests. Of these, the Silvereye was the most serious because of its habit of piercing grapes while
feeding, which results in the juice trickling down the bunches thus encouraging fungal attack.
The difference in the composition of the two communities reflects the difference in the
proximity of the two vineyards to uncleared woodland or open forest as well as the surrounding
land -use. Silvereyes, Hooded Robins, Mistletoebirds and most of the honeyeaters were seen
only on Spring Mountain which was connected to the open forest by a corridor of woodland
along a drainage line. Sulphur -crested Cockatoos and Red-rumped Parrots preferred the more
open environment at Fordwich, which was also more frequently visited by raptors. Apart from
the ubiquitous Australian Kestrel, Brown Falcons and a Peregrine Falcon were each seen once
at Spring Mountain. Although Fordwich had the highest number of species seen (57, compared
with 53 at Spring Mountain)this is probably due to the open nature of the surrounding land and
the more regular shape of the vineyard allowing more of the species present to be seen, and
may not indicate any real difference in number of species present.
The significant point to be made from this very limited study is that 72 native species have
adapted successfully, at least to some degree, to the very disturbed environment offered by the
vineyards and that only one introduced species has established itself: this is the Common
Starling, which is regarded as a major pest. Of the seven native species which attacked grapes
only two were perceived as pests. The significance of this disturbed agricultural land as a
habitat for native birds in the Hunter Valley should not be overlooked as more of this region is
taken over for mining and industrial development.
I thank Saxonvale Wines Limited for unlimited access to their vineyards during this study.
Janice Backhouse, Department of Ecosystem Management, University of New England,
Armidale NSW 235162 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 1913)
PIGEONS AND DOVES OF AUSTRALIA by H.J. Frith, illustrated by B. Temple Watts and
F. Knight, 1982. Rigby Adelaide. pp 304, col pll 7, b&w photos 80, 62 p illustrations, 285 x
210 mm, $35.00
The wealth of information on Australian pigeons provided in this book is exceptional. Dr
Frith was chief of the Division of Wildlife Research, CSIRO from 1965-1981, and is the author of
four well-known and widely read natural history books (The Mallee Fowl, Waterfowl in
Australia, Kangaroos (with John Ca laby) and Wildlife Conservation); he also edited Birds of the
Australian High Country. Although perhaps most widely known for his work on waterfowl,
pigeons were his first love. He started out as a pigeon shooter, then became a pigeon observer,
and finally a research zoologist in pigeon biology and behaviour. He spent many years preparing
the information for this book, and the results of all his experience with pigeons, particularly the
rainforest species, have been incorporated in its pages. Dr Frith died just before its publication,
and it is unfortunate that he is no longer with us to receive just praise for his efforts.
The book is exceptionally well -illustrated. It con-ta ins seven colour plates, the first six by
Betty Temple Watts and the seventh by Frank Knight this plate was completed later than the
others and illustrates a number of pigeons in juvenile plumage, the information for which was
not available earlier. There are also 19 plates of black and white line drawings illustrating
display postures; 70 black and white photographs of pigeons, their habitats, displays, nests and
eggs; as well as 19 sonograms and 24 distribution maps. Mr Knight’s paintings and drawings
are excellent, and show considerable expertise in capturing the style and colour of birds; as Dr
Frith says, “Frank Knight is becoming one of Australia’s foremost wildlife artists”.
Dr Frith takes an independent line in nomenclature. He says that generally he followed
Condon’s Checklist of the birds of Australia. Part (1975, RAOU: Melbourne) but detected four
1 I
scientific names and two English names differing from that work. Similarly he differs from the
1969 Index of Australian bird names (CSIRO: Canberra) in three scientific and four English
names. But it is with the 1977 Recommended English names for Australian birds (Emu 77,
Suppl) that the greatest variance occurs, with differences in five scientific names and twelve
English names. In scientific nomenclature, for example, he uses Macropygia phasianella rather
than the more usual Macropygia ambionensis and Geophaps as a generic name, now generally
submerged in Petrophassa. D-r Frith says that his arrangement seems to reflect the affinities of
some pigeons more closely time and more research will tell.
In examining the book, paid particular attention to distributional information given for
species occurring in New South Wales, comparing it to that given in Morris, McGill & Holmes,
1981 (A Handlist of birds in New South Wales. NSW Field Ornith. Club: Sydney); comment isAUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3) 63
here restricted to those species for which status and distribution differs between the two
The Wompoo Pigeon is generally accepted as uncommon rather than “rare” in NSW, and
occurs in small numbers in at least ten national parks as well as several state forests and other
reserves. The distribution of the Red -crowned Pigeon is given: “partial migrant, occurring as far
south as Port Stephens, vagrant further south”, but no mention is made of the eight published
records (since 1969) extending south to Montague Island. At some of these localities the birds
may be regular (eg, Tuggerah Peninsular and Wattagan Mountains). For the Purple -crowned
Pigeon he writs: “only a vagrant in NSW”, but again, since 1965 there have been nine records
from Sydney alone, as well as records from several other localities; taken together, these
records suggest regular occurrence rather than vagrancy, particularly in autumn. A second
NSW record of Torres Strait Pigeon is given, one shot by R. Frith (his father?) at Nimbin in 1916.
Frith paints a gloomy picture of the current status of the Topknot Pigeon, but it is not as
uncommon as he infers and is in fact being seen in increasing numbers (although not the
20,000 in one valley mentioned for the 1930s); for example, in August 1982 saw a flock of
200′ passing over the town of Clunes, and there are other similar records. The White -headed
Pigeon is listed as “uncommon, south to Hunter River”, but the species is regularly recorded
from June -December in flocks of up to 28 birds in the wet gullies of Sydney’s northern suburbs
and there is a 1976 record at Nowra, indicating a possible expansion of range. The western
limits of range of the Spotted Dove are given as Bathurst and Orange, but it has now colonised
the towns of Cowra, Mudgee, Parkes and Dubbo. The Bar -shouldered Dove is described as
“vagrant in western NSW where its population is little understood”, but in the past eight years
of residence at Coonabarabran found this bird resident in the foothills at the Nandewar and
Warrumbungle Range and in the Pilliga Scrub. It is also resident around Cobar (Aust. Birds
12:74), the Euabalong-Mt Hope area and the Cocoparra Ranges. Whether it has been
overlooked in the past or the range temporarily contracted in the 1940s and 50s is not known. A
good summary of the past status in NSW of the Flock Pigeon is provided, including breeding
records prior to 1932 at Condobolin, Mossgiel, Nyngan and Milparinka, but recent records at
Ivanhoe and Tilpa (1973), Sturt NP (since 1974) and Wanaaring (1981) are not mentioned.
Overall the distribution information is accurate but any recent observations in journals such as
this one, tended to have been ignored.
The need for conservation of habitat for native pigeons is a constant theme of the book.
Speaking about the fruit pigeons, he says that their conservation requires the early protection of
the remaining areas of rainforests and the suppression of illegal shooting. Regretfully he died
before the NSW Premier announced (in December 1982) the incorporation of the remaining
78,000 ha of rainforest in State Forests into new or existing National Parks. This action,
together with a National Parks & Wildlife Service rainforest regeneration project on the
Richmond plateau and the promotion of rainforest regeneration projects by local tree societies
on the far north coast, hopefully ensures a better future for this group of pigeons. Elsewhere the64 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS 19 (3)
conservation of habitat in western NSW for the grassland pigeons, e.g. Flock Pigeon, Squatter
Pigeon and Diamond Dove, has been helped by the establishment of a number of large parks
and reserves including Sturt (304,000 ha), Nocholeche (74,000 ha), Mootwingie (54,000 ha)
and Yathong (107,000 ha). It is noteworthy that Flock Pigeons have been regularly sighted at
Sturt NP since 1974. Dr Frith has certainly played a part in promoting public awareness of the
need for habitat reserves. Speaking as a wildlife ranger of 20 years standing. I am convinced
that shooting no longer plays a significant part in reducing native pigeon numbers.
This is a most comprehensive book and represents the sum total of knowledge about
Australian pigeons up to the present. While the price is sufficiently high enough for me to stop
short of recommending its purchase to everyone, do most heartily recommend all people
interested in Australian birds to read and study its contents. The book is a fitting tribute to a most
accomplished scientist and writer.
Contributors are requested to observe the following points when submitting articles and notes
for publication.

  1. Species, names, and the order in which they occur are to be in accordance with” Handlist
    of Birds in New South Wales”. AK. Morris, A R. McGill and G. Holmes 1981 Dubbo:
  2. Articles or notes should be typewritten if possible and submitted in duplicate. Double
    spacing is required.
  3. Margins of not less than 25mm width at the left hand side and top, with similar or slightly
    smaller at the right hand side of pages.
  4. No underlinings and no abbreviations except as shown in the examples.
  5. Photographs should be glossy finish and not too small.
  6. The Style Manual, Commonwealth Government Printing Office, Canberra (1966) and
    subsequent editions will be the guide for this Journal.
  7. Diagrams should be on plain white paper drawn with india ink Any lettering is to be
    ‘professional style’ or lightly pencilled.
  8. Dates must be written “1 January 1975” except in tables and figures where they may be
  9. The 24-hour clock will be used, times being written 06:30, 18:30 for 6.30 a.m. and
    6.30 p.m. respectively.
  10. Mr, Mrs, Dr are not followed by a full stop.
  11. In text, numbers one to ten are spelt numbers of five figures or more should be grouped in
    threes and spaced by a thin gap. Commas should not be used as thousands markers.
  12. References to other articles should be shown in the text-‘…B.W. Finch and M.D. Bruce
    (1974) stated…” and under heading
    Finch, B.W. and M.D. Bruce 1974 The Status of the Blue Petrel in Australian Waters
    Aust. Birds 9, 32-35
  13. Acknowledgements to other individuals should include Christian names or initials.Volume 19, No. 3 May 1985
    Clancy, Greg P. Recent records of Magpie Geese in New South Wales 41
    Schrader, N.W. Out of season breeding of the Spotted Harrier 46
    Griffiths, Rae Courtship display of the Rainbow Lorikeet 47
    Clancy, Greg P. An association between the Spangled Drongo and
    cuckoo -shrikes 49
    McBride, Alan A Streaked Shearwater off Wollongong, New South Wales 50
    Boles, Walter E. First Australian specimen of the White -necked Petrel 51
    Kevin Bartram &
    Greg P. Clancy
    McBride, Alan A Herald Petrel off Sydney, New South Wales 53
    & Dion Hobcroft
    Backhouse, Janice The bird communities of two Hunter Valley vineyards 56

Morris, A.K. Pigeons and Doves of Australia 62

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