Vol. 23 No. 1-text

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Journal of the
Volume 23, No.1 September 1989
President P.Davie
Vice -President S.Fairbairn
Secretary S.Stephens
Treasurer R.Morrow
Assistant Secretary N.Maxwell
Minutes Secretary J. ronside
Activities Officer A.O.Richards
Conservation Officer E.Karplus
Editor,Australlan Birds A.K.Morris
Production R.Browne
Editor,Newsletter T.Karplus
Records Officer R.M.Cooper
Committee Members J.Melville
The object of the club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and the
habitats they occupy.
Annual subscription rates of the Club (due October each year) are:
Adult Member $25.00
Junior Member (up to 17 years) $10.00
All members recieve a newsletter and a copy of the quarterly journal ‘Australian Birds’. The price
of the journal is $5.00 plus postage per issue to non members. Club badges are available to club
members at $2.50 or $3.00 if posted. The club holds a meeting and a field excursion each
All correspondence should be addressed to the Hon. Secretary and all membership fees should
be sent to the Hon. Treasurer at: PO Box C436,Clarence St,Sydney NSW 2000.
Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at: Wombat St. Berkeley Vale. NSW. 2259.
1Volume 23, (1) September 1989
Terry Lindsey took over the editorship of Australian Birds in 1982 and has presided over the
publication of Volumes 17 through to the recently completed Volume 22. Prior to that he had
been responsible for compiling the N.S.W. Bird Reports, which are published as part of
Australian Birds. The 8th Report, for 1977, was produced in association with Alan E.F. Rogers;
Reports 9 to 15 were edited entirely by Terry Lindsey.
Terry took over at short notice both Australian Birds and the Bird Reports thus enabling
the Club to maintain continuity of publication. From the beginning he has adopted a rigorous
approach to editing and nothing was printed until it met his exacting standards. Terry handled
every aspect of the production from receipt of manuscripts through to delivering the finished
work to the printer, and it is difficult to comprehend how a busy professional artist and author
managed to cope for so long. The Club owes a debt of gratitude to Terry Lindsey not only for
the amount of work that he has performed but for the consistent standard of excellence that he
has maintained.
September 1989 Page 1NESTING OF THE AUSTRALIAN GREBE, Tachybaptus novaehollandiae
S. Merchant, P.J. Fullagar and C.C. Davey.
Dann’s (1981) account of the breeding of the Australian Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae in
Wyperfeld NP, north-western Victoria, is the only systematic description for the species that we
can find. SM recorded the breeding of seven pairs on Newstead Pond, South Head, Moruya (35
deg. 56 min.S, 150 deg. 06 min. E) from, 24 Sept. to 28 Nov. 1988, inspecting nests every 2-4
days except between and 13 Oct. and between 17 and 28 Nov. PJF and CCD observed one
pair breeding on the main dam, CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, at Gungahlin, ACT, in 1982.
Dann’s observations were In 1976 on lakes that had been filled for the first time since 1957;
Newstead Pond is a natural pond of fluctuating level and the CSIRO dam is permanent with little
fluctuation in level. Though in many respects our observations confirmed those of Dann, there
are some interesting comparisons.
Newstead pond is about 1.7 ha (Fig.1), in a natural hollow with internal drainage,
surrounded by housing development but zoned by the Eurobodalla Shire Council as a public
reserve. The broader western end is deeper (>1 m) than the eastern (<1 m). Grassy banks
slope Into the water on all sides and continue out to form a shallow zone of emergent water
plants, occupying most of the eastern bay and 0-20 m wide elsewhere. In Sept. the zone of
emergents was largely occupied by Tall Spike Rush Eleocharis sphacelata and dead tall annual
herbs that had grown on exposed mud during the previous dry year. Later other plants
appeared including Water Ribbons Triglochin procera. By late Nov. this vegetated zone was
much more dense than in Sept.
At Gungahlin the dam is roughly 0.25 ha and 1 m deep, shallower on the N side and with
a small island. The banks are mostly grassy with some exotic plantings of willow, elm and poplar
trees mainly along the southern side bordering a driveway.
There was one pair on the dam at Gungahlin. At Newstead Pond seven pairs occupied
areas round the edge. There was probably another female because two clutches were laid in
the same nest at the same time though It was not certain that there was a third bird in the area.
No birds were marked so that identification of pairs and their nesting areas rested only on
behaviour and the location of nests. The pond was divided into nesting areas defined by the
mid lines between nests. These perhaps roughly corresponded with territorial boundaries
because the birds in nesting areas defended them against next-door neighbours but pairs from
opposite sides of the pond appeared to meet rarely; there may have been a neutral zone in the
middle of the open water. If these nesting areas represented territories, the larger ones (4000-
5000 sq m) were In the eastern part of the pond In shallow water among much emergent
vegetation. Those round the deeper water of the western part were quite small (1200-2000 sq
m) in comparison.
Page 2 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Figure 1. Sketch map of Newstead Pond to show distribution of Australasian Grebe nest
sites in 1988.
Nests at Newstead Pond were not aged exactly because they were not inspected daily,
the laying routine and Incubation period are not certain because hatching is asynchronic.
However the start of clutches could be estimated to within 5-7 days. First clutches were started
about 4, 10, 20, 20 Sept. and 4, 7, 20 Oct. Second clutches or replacements were started about
13, 16, 25 Oct. and 1, 11 Nov. The two third clutches, both inaccessible, before 17 Nov. On 28
Nov. there were no occupied nests and no territorial disputes or breeding displays were seen.
There appeared to be fewer birds on the Pond than usual and breeding was probably over for
the season.
At Wyperfeld, laying started mostly in late Jan. (earliest only two weeks after filling of the
lake), almost five months later than at Newstead. Clearly on temporary waters the birds breed
opportunistically, whereas on permanent waters their breeding season may usually be during
spring, as would be expected. North (1914) also gave examples of opportunistic breeding. This
would explain the wide range of breeding months (Aug. to April) that is reported in the literature
(Campbell 1900; Gosper 1981; North 1914) and the claim that the species has a protracted
breeding season like other primitive species of grebe (Tachybaptus. Podilymbus,Rollandia.
J.Fjeldsam pers comm.) Judged by the events at Newstead a population on permanent water at
any one locality does not start clutches over a longer period than 10 to 12 weeks.
September 1989 Page 3NESTS AND NEST SITES
Nests K and 0 (Fig. 1) were in isolated clumps of Eleocharis outside the zone of
emergents and were not Inspected. Particulars of all other nests, within that zone, agree with
those given by Dann (1981) except that they were composed of Triglochin, were generally
nearer the shore (average 11 m; 5-25) and in shallower water (average c90 cm; 75-110), all of
which is attributable to differences In habitat. The nests largely decomposed by the end of
incubation and disappeared soon after the young left or a clutch was lost. The only nest used
for a second time (c -d of Pair 1) had to be rebuilt for the second clutch.
The laying routine was not established. One nest at Newstead had two eggs on 15 and
17 Oct. and four on 28 Oct. Another was empty on 10 Oct., had three eggs on 14 Oct. and five
on 17 Oct. A fourth had two eggs on 17 Oct., four on 20 Oct. and five on 24 Oct. Thus in the
first, third and fourth nests laying was not daily but in the second it might have been so. Laying
was probably irregular at intervals of 24 to 72 hours. When laid the egg was pure white but
became heavily stained brown within 24-48 hours.
With the uncertainty about laying routine it is hard to recognise complete clutches
acceptably on the criterion of the same number of eggs on visits at longer intervals than the
laying Interval. One certainly cannot accept a nestful of all brown eggs as a complete clutch
(Dann 1981). However SM recorded clutches of 2, 3, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 5 and 5 at Newstead using the
criterion with discretion. Nest M of Pair 2 was exceptional. It was found with eight eggs on 15
Oct. The number of eggs was reduced to four between 27-31 Oct. On 31 Oct. a nearby adult
was carrying young on its back and probably they had hatched from the four missing eggs. On
2 Nov. the nest was empty except for fragments of eggshell. Probably two separate clutches
each of four eggs had been laid in the nest by two females though no more than two birds were
ever seen together in the nesting area. However the incubating bird usually leaves the nest
before it can be seen by an observer and quickly vanishes as also does its mate.
All pairs at Newstead except Nos 2 and 6 laid second clutches or replacements and
Pairs and 3 made third attempts. The only observation of the interval between the departure of
young from the nest and the start of the next clutch was for Nests C -D of Pair 1. The last egg of
the first clutch hatched between 24 and 27 Sept. The second clutch was started about 13-15
Oct. when the young from the first clutch were about three weeks old, feathering well and
starting to feed independently.
Dann (1981) listed 81 clutches from his own observations and from the RAOU Nest
Record Scheme ranging in size from one to nine. He attributed differences between his own
findings and those of the NRS to doubt whether all brown eggs in a nest represented a complete
clutch, to a possible high rate of predation at Wyperfeld or to a lower clutch size at Wyperfeld.
From experience at Newstead all clutches In the NRS over six (c/7 x 6, c/8 x 1, c/9 x 1)
and possibly even the 12 clutches of six were probably the result of two females laying in the
Page 4 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1same nest. Moreover Dann’s records of c/1 x 5 were probably observations of the last egg of a
clutch left in the nest after the other eggs had hatched, as happened in Nest C of Pair at
Newstead, and once at Gungahlin (see below). If we exclude his clutches of 1, 7, 8 and 9 and
add the clutches from Newstead the average size is 4.1; if we also exclude c/6 it is 3.7.
In three nests at Newstead the incubation period was for at least 14-18 days. In another
nest (F) it lasted for at least 23 days. At Gungahlin birds first sat on 3 Jan. and the eggs hatched
on 22 Jan. Probably the incubation period Is between 20 and 25 days and may differ between
eggs. At Newstead It was certain only that one brood of 3-4 was reared to independence (Nest
C of Pair 1).
At Gungahlin a nest (c/4) near the south bank of the dam was filmed from 30 Nov. to 13
Dec. that Is for 10 days before hatching and 3 days after the birds left the nest. A Nalcom super –
8 cine camera was used with a timing device that sampled at 12 min intervals for about half a
second during daylight hours. The film showed that a bird was incubating for at least 85% of
daylight. Seventy percent of the occasions showing the nest without a bird incubating were for a
single sample. This shows that incubation is almost continuous and that change-overs are
quick. We know that Grebes do not feed in darkness and that their first feed occurs about half
an hour after sunrise (PJF & CCD). We can assume that incubation continues through the night
much as In daylight but we cannot confirm that change-overs do occur at night. Eggs were
always covered before the bird left the nest and no frames showed an Incubating bird shading
the eggs. Change-overs were distributed equally throughout daylight but the number could not
be computed from our data. On the day of hatching attendance at the nest by adults decreased
notably and ceased the morning following. Chicks were brooded on the nest for the night of
hatching and no longer.
Dann (1981) drew attention to the heat of the nest and eggs and the differential between
it and the water (see also Serventy & Whittell (1976)). SM also noted a difference and PJF and
CCD made accurate measurements at a nest on the N side of the island on the dam at
Gungahlin In January 1982. A 6V Grant recorder was used to measure temperatures min. by
min. at the eggs, in the surface water and in the air (shaded). Figure 2 shows the mean value
hourly for each probe. There were four eggs in the nest when probes were inserted on 18 Jan.
(point 1). The nest was next inspected on 19 Jan. still with four eggs (point 2). Water level was
lowered on 20 Jan. exposing the probe intended to record water temperature and from then on
readings from this probe coincided with ambient shade temperatures (point 3). Temperatures of
the nest remained remarkably uniform at about 34 deg. C up to this point and indeed until the
morning of the 21 Jan. Water temperature followed the ambient temperature but at night did not
fall so much. It was between and 6 deg.0 lower than that of the nest. Daily maxima increased
on the 20 and 21 Jan. and remained high on 22 and 23 Jan. These maxima coincided with
Increased nest temperatures which suggested that the grebe was not able to maintain even
Incubation temperature when ambient exceeded 34 deg. After midday of 21 Jan., which was
very hot, the nest temperature fluctuated more widely until the afternoon of 23 Jan. (point 4)
when there was one egg in the nest and a Grebe with a chick on back came off the nest and
joined the other Grebe which had two chicks on back. The following day four chicks were seen
September 1989 Page 5with the two adults. During the night of 22-23 Jan., when no doubt the first three eggs hatched,
temperature In the nest fluctuated more widely than before and at midnight reached its
minimum. There is no evidence to support the idea that decomposition of nesting material
enhances the temperature of incubation. The difference between temperature of the nest and
the water can be attributed to the incubating bird.
24.00 19 January 24.00 20 January 24.00 21 January 24.00 22 January 24.00 23 January 24.00
Figure 2. Temperatures recorded at the nest of Australasian Grebe, Gungahlin ACT in January

  1. Continuous line represents the mean hourly temperature recorded from a probe within
    the egg chamber. Dotted line is the temperature from a probe in the water beside the
    nest and dashed line is the ambient temperature recorded from a probe in air but shaded.
    Further details of events at the four points indicated along the top are given in the text.
    Campbell, A.J. 1900. Nests and Eggs of Australian Birds. Sheffield:privately
    Dann, P.1981. Notes on the nest and eggs of the Australian Grebe in north-western Victoria.
    Corella 5: 34-36
    Gosper, D.G. 1981. Survey of birds on floodplain-esturine wetlands on the Hunter and
    Richmond Rivers in N.S.W. Corella 5: 1-18
    North, A.J. 1914. Nests and Eggs of birds found breeding in Australia and Tasmania. Spec. Cat.
    Aust. Mus.
    Serventy, D.L. & Whitten, H.M.1976. (5th Edn). Birds of Western Australia. Perth: Univ. of W A
    S.Marchant. P 0 Box 123. Moruya, NSW 2537.
    P.J.Fullagar & C.C.Davey, CSIRO Wildlife and Ecology, P 0 Box 84. Lyneham ACT 2602.
    A.K Morris
    Straddling the entrance to Port Botany, on the central coast of New South Wales, Botany Bay
    National Park (34 deg. S 151 deg. 11 min. E) marks the entrance to Botany Bay and the
    industrial and urban areas of southern Sydney.
    This park, like S\ -1.-2y Harbour National Park, 10 km to the north, is characterised by
    sandstone headlands risir_, to front the Pacific Ocean, with gentle slopes and beaches Inside
    the harbour. The Park also contains some old aeolian sand dunes that previously rose to 60m
    but now have been reduced in height by some undesirable human activity. There are only two
    units. The northern section stretches from Little Bay to Cape Banks, Henry Head and La
    Perouse Peninsular including Bare Island. This section is badly degraded and considerably
    damaged by urban, industrial and military activity but contains many historic features. In
    contrast, the southern headland stretching from Captain Cook’s Landing Place at Kurnell to
    Cape Solander and Boat Harbour, is in a more natural condition and contains sections of
    bushland in the condition as described by Sir Joseph Banks in 1770.
    Much of the environment has been severely modified from the beginning of European
    settlement In 1788. However, since 1967 when the southern headland came under the control of
    the National Parks and Wildlife Service, and 1985 when the northern natural areas were gazetted
    as National Park, measures have been put in place, such as weed control,(particularly Bitou
    Bush Chrysanthemoides moliferna), sand dune restoration, and control of excessive bushfires,
    that continue to Improve and enhance the natural environment. The Park was gazetted on 18
    January 1988, In time for the BI -Centenary and consists of former reserved land including the
    1985 Botany Bay National Park (Congwong Bay and Henry Head sections), Captain Cook’s
    Landing Place, Bare Island and La Perouse Monument Historic Sites.
    The areas surveyed for birds includes the headland of Cape Banks, Bare Island, Henry
    Head and La Perouse Peninsular, Congwong Bay,and Kurnell to Sutherland Point, Cape
    Solander, Cape Bailey and Potter Point. It Includes lands at Little Bay, Boat Harbour Reserve,
    Calsil dunes and certain wetlands around Kurnell proposed to be added to the Park. All in all an
    area of 600 ha. The park environment may be conveniently divided into seven major categories
    (1) coast and marine; (2) the Bay adjoining the Park; (3) foreshores; (4) heathlands; (5)
    eucalyptus woodland (6) dune scrub; (7) wetlands (perched dune swamps on both headlands
    but more extensive on the southern side); and (8) lawns, picnic areas and modified
    environments around historic structures.
    Of the Park’s total area of 600 ha, heathlands make up to 40% dunes about 24%
    ; ;
    woodlands about 10%; wetlands about 2%; and modified habitats about 26%.
    Between 1950 and 1988, a total of 192 species of birds have been recorded in Botany
    Bay National Park. Of these, 140 are either resident, migrants, or at least annual visitors; the
    remainder (50) are either of vagrant or accidental occurence. Forty one species breed, of which
    September 1989 Page 7Figure 1. Map showing general location
    of Botany Bay NP NSW.
    hifalineux Pt
    Pt.4 Henry Heo
    Kufne 13″°’ BOTANY
    Long Nose Pt.
    pot ter pt.
    …offekeries 7
  • Reef
    seven are introduced exotics; another five are suspected of breeding while at least a further five
    species are known to have formerly bred within the Parks boundaries although not within the
    Park for several decades. Very little information,even in the form of tentative estimates, is
    available for absolute population levels for most birds within the Park.
    The list presented is thought to be reasonably complete, at least as far as the resident
    avifauna in recent decades is concerned. However a number of species have surely been
    extirpated within the Park since the time of first settlement In the late 18th century. Such species
    as Painted Quail, Superb Lyrebird, Spotted Quail Thrush, Pilotbird, Rock Warbler, Red-browed
    Trecreeper, White -fronted Chat, Eastern Bristle bird, and Satin Bowerbirds are all common in
    similar habitats elsewhere in the near Sydney Region, and may or once did occur in the area
    now incorporated in Botany Bay National Park.
    As might be expected introduced species such as Feral Pigeons, Common Starlings,
    Common Mynas, House Sparrows and Spotted Doves, are abundant, the European Blackbird is
    common in the dunes and the Bitou Bush groves on the northern headland and Bul Bul are
    Page 8 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1present in modified habitats. Dominant native species include the Welcome Swallow, Little
    Wattlebird, New Holland Honeyeater, Superb Fairy -wren, Silvereye and Pied Currawong. The
    lack of extensive heathlands and woodlands on the northern headlands results in some species,
    common on the southside (eg. Brown Thornbill, Variegated Fairy -wren, White-browed Scrub –
    wren, Red Wattlebird) to be absent while the wetlands on the southside are more extensive and
    thus attract many more waterbirds.
    The Park list includes 19 species of pelagic seabirds (mainly albatrosses, petrels and
    shearwaters) that rarely enter the Bay but can readily be seen from various lookouts over the
    Pacific Ocean particularly Cape Solander. Waterbirds, waders and raptors are far more plentiful
    than in Sydney Harbour National Park. Nine bird species are regular breeding summer
    migrants, normally arriving in September or October and leaving in March or April. A further 30
    species are regular winter migrants. These include the Double -banded Plover and the White –
    fronted Tern from New Zealand; Golden Whistler, Rose Robin, Yellow -faced Honeyeater and
    White-naped Honeyeater presumably from the mountain ranges to the south-west of Sydney;
    the Spangled Drongo from the north; and about 20 regular seabird migrants from the sub –
    antarctic Islands and Antarctica Itself.
    Twenty-seven species Including the Arctic Jaeger, Pomarine Jaeger, Common Tern,
    Little Tern, Spine -tailed Swifts and twenty-two waders are regular migrants from the northern
    hemisphere. These, together with such species as the Wedge-tailed and Short -tailed
    Shearwaters, which winter In the northern hemisphere, are among the 70 species listed in the
    Japan -Australia and China -Australia Migratory Bird Treaties and are thus included in the
    Endangered Species Schedules of the National Parks and Wildlife Act,1974. A further two
    species, the Regent Honeyeater and the Peregrine Falcon are listed in the ‘Threatened Fauna”
    category of the Endangered Species Schedules, both are rare in the park.
    In the systematic list that follows, the species, names and order in which they occur are
    In accordance with Morris, McGill and Holmes (1981 Handlist of Birds in New South Wales.
    NSWFOC: Sydney). Each species (except accidentals and vagrants) is assigned to one or
    more of the seven categories, and its occurence and status within the park is summarised
    according to the following criteria:
    Resident – always present (does not necessarily imply breeding).
    Migrant – regularly occuring, but only at certain periods of the year.
    Visitor – relatively frequent In occurence, but Irregular or unpredictable.
    Vagrant – very rare and Irregular in occurence; less than one record per year.
    Accidental – only two or three occurences on record.
    Abundant – Consplclous, normally present in substantial numbers.
    Common – maybe confidently anticipated on any given visit though not necessarily in large
    Uncommon – often seen but in small numbers.
    Rare – only a few individuals, or seen only a few times per year.
    According to these criteria, and disregarding vagrants and accidentals 67 species are
    resident, 37 are migrants, and 53 are visitors (comparable numbers for Sydney Harbour National
    September 1989 Page 9Park are 53, 21,and 39). Forty five species are common/abundant, 58 uncommon, and 79 are
    rare (Sydney Harbour National Park 46, 36 and 33). About 69 species occur regularly along the
    coast, in the Bay or along Its foreshores; some 23 species occur on the heaths, 48 in woodland,
    30 species in freshwater wetlands, while at least 13 species are frequently recorded in disturbed
    habitats. Other than seabirds most species are generalists, few being entirely restricted to any
    one of these environments.
    Since most species occur in two or more habitats, each species in turn was assigned an
    abundance category (absent, rare, uncommon, common or abundant) within each of the seven
    habitat categories – that is, a given species might be scored as abundant in forest, uncommon in
    woodland and absent on heath. The result of this analysis is crude, and based on essentially
    subjective assessment, but several tentative observations suggest themselves. Forest,
    woodland and disturbed habitats support the richest avifauna in terms of species and in number
    of Individuals. A number of native species are able to maintain substantial populations In
    severely modified environments within the park.
    Penetration of exotic species seems much less than might be expected, being largely
    limited to foreshores and disturbed habitats. Twenty-nine species that occur in parks and other
    highly modified habitats (category 8) score either common or abundant, yet only seven of these
    (about 21%) are Introduced species. Feral Pigeons and Common Mynas are abundant along
    harbour foreshores and cliffs, and European Blackbirds are common in dunes around
    Congwong Bay however most exotic species score less than uncommon in any habitat other
    than category 7.
    The 41 breeding species constitute about 38% of the total species list, disregarding
    vagrants and accidentals. This total is made up mainly of woodland, forest and heathiand birds.
    Most other species (raptors, waders, aquatic and marine species) use the park in varying
    degrees for foraging, loafing and roosting, but not for breeding. Breeding activity In heathiand
    may Increase with Improved management. In woodland and similar habitats, three factors may
    affect the level of breeding activity within the park viz. habitat modification may have depressed
    overall breeding activity from the primeval level; consistent human disturbance may also depress
    it; and the relative absence of predators (but foxes and feral eats, though controlled, are not
    uncommon within the park) may increase it. The intrusion of e;otic species such as Common
    Mynas and House Sparrows may also interfere with the breeding activities of native species. It
    would be interesting to know more of the effects of these factors, both individually and in
    Situated in the heart of a major industrial and urban area, the main functions of Botany
    Bay National Park are to provide human recreation opportunities and the protection of the
    region’s historic and scenic amenities. To an extent unusual in national parks, it is subjected to
    almost constant human disturbance at a very high level, thus offering some unusual insights Into
    the nature of the Impact of human activities on avian populations. Several bird species are
    known to have Increased markedly In the Sydney metropolitan area (and hence presumably also
    within the park) in recent decades (eg Sacred ibis, Noisy Miner, Crested Pigeon, Galah), while
    others (eg Jacky Winter) have decreased. However, very few precise data are available.
    Page 10 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Coast and
    Woodlands X251,25<250Q.–..”-*–‘-‘-”4:1::-‘sA:::i:Fe1 III Abundant
    Wetlands ‘z’sios<1,–..–.R.,r.,:;.7.-..,r….1 Uncommon
    Modified IlrOVXr.E5A
    10 70 30 a0 30 00 70
    Figure 2. Analysis of the avifauna of Botany Bay NP showing number of species grouped according
    to abundance category for each habitat type.
    Australasian Grebe Tachybaptus novaehollandiae
    Uncommon; visitor. Freshwater wetlands at Kurnell and Boat Harbour. Breeds, eggs
    Little Penguin Eudyptula minor
    Uncommon; Resident. Present throughout the year in waters around the Park, more
    often heard than seen. Max. 10 16/5/87 In Pussycat Bay.
    Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans
    Common; winter migrant. Recorded offshore Apr -Sep. Best place Cape Solander and
    Cape Banks.
    Black-browed Albatross Diomedea melanophrys
    Common; winter migrant. Recorded offshore Apr -Sep. Best place Cape Solander and
    Cape Banks. Commonest albatross in vicinity of park.
    Yellow -nosed Albatross Diomedea chlororhynchos
    Uncommon; winter migrant. Least common albatross seen from Botany Heads. Mostly
    Jul -Sep.
    Shy Albatross Diomedea cauta
    Relatively common; winter migrant, Jul -Sep. Offshore of Botany Heads.
    Southern Giant Petrel Macronectes giganteus
    Common; winter migrant. Regularly observed offshore, mostly during August.
    Northern Giant Petrel Macronectes halli
    Rare; winter visitor. Offshore waters. Single 26/6/83.
    Cape Petrel Daption capense
    Uncommon; winter visitor. Occasionally seen offshore from Cape Solander in small
    Great -winged Petrel Pterodroma macroptera
    Rare; summer visitor. Offshore. One seen Boat Harbour 19/11/77.
    September 1989 Page 11Fairy Prion Pachyptila turtur
    Uncommon; winter visitor. Occasionally In large flocks offshore, Cape Solander and in
    Botany Heads.
    Flesh -footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes
    Uncommon; summer visitor, Oct -Mar. Small to large flocks off Botany Heads.
    Wedge-tailed Shearwater Puffinus pacificus
    Common; summer migrant, Aug -Apr. Commonest shearwater off Botany Heads,
    sometimes follows boats into the Bay.
    Sooty Shearwater Puffinus griseus
    Rare; summer visitor. Odd birds seen off Botany Heads, and Cape Solander-Merries
    Short -tailed Shearwater Puffinus tenuirostris
    Abundant; summer migrant, Sep -Apr. Present in large numbers during southwards
    migration. Often enters into Port.
    Fluttering Shearwater Puffinus gavia
    Uncommon; visitor. Most records for summer, offshore Botany Heads.
    Grey -backed Storm -Petrel Oceanites nereis
    Rare; visitor. Several seen off Cape Solander, July 1984.
    Common Diving Petrel Pelecanoides urinatrix
    Rare; winter visitor. Two seen off Malabar, July 1969.
    Australian Pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus
    Rare; visitor. Usually seen flying in and out of Botany Bay, particularly south to Five
    Islands where they breed.
    Australasian Gannet Morus serrator
    Common; visitor. Recorded offshore, mostly winter, Apr -Aug. Also enters into Botany
    Bay. One bird banded In New Zealand was recovered at Kurnell.
    Brown Booby Sula leucogaster
    Rare; visitor. One off Cape Solander 26/4/82.
    Great Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo
    Common; resident. Feeds in bays and harbour, roosts on rocks.
    Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax varius
    Moderately common; resident. Feeds in bays and harbour, roosts on rocks. Nests in
    Woolooware Bay.
    Little Black Cormorant Phalacrocorax sulcirostris
    Uncommon; visitor. Least common cormorant, feeds in small flocks. Congwong Bay
    Aug -Oct 1986. Nested In freshwater swamp, Kurnell in 1970’s.
    Little Pied Cormorant Phalacrocorax melanoleucos
    Common; resident. Feeds along shore lines, roosts on rocks. Nested in freshwater
    swamp, Kurnell 13/2/19, 1965-70 and five nests 14/11/87.
    White-tailed Tropic Bird Phaethon lepturus
    Rare; visitor. Single Boat Harbour 27/12/78.
    White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae
    Moderately common; resident. Feeds on rock shelves at low tide but also feeds In wet
    depressions in heath and golf courses following rain.
    Page 12 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Cattle Egret Ardeola ibis
    Rare; visitor. Freshwater wetlands, two Kurnell 14/11/87.
    Great Egret Egretta alba
    Rare; visitor. Freshwater wetlands. Occasional visitor to Kurnell swamps.
    Eastern Reef Heron Egretta sacra
    Uncommon; resident. Occasionally seen on northern headlands but pair regular from
    Cape Solander to Merries Reef. Breeding suspected near Malabar June 1961.
    Australasian Bittern Botaurbs poiciloptilus
    Rare; visitor. Reed swamps. Single, Kurnell 31/8/40.
    Glossy Ibis Plegardis falcinellus
    Rare; visitor. Freshwater swamps. Single, Kurnell 15/3/69
    Royal Spoonbill Platalea regia
    Uncommon; visitor. Freshwater swamps. Small number occasionally visit Kurnell
    Black Swan Cygnus attratus
    Uncommon; visitor. Often flies over but rarely lands. Two at sea by Merries Reef
    15/11/84. Also nested in freshwater swamps at Kurnell.
    Australian Shelduck Tardorna tardonoides
    Rare; visitor. 19 off Boat Harbour 6/1/83.
    Pacific Black Duck Anas superciliosus
    Common; visitor. Frequents freshwater wetlands at Kurnell.
    Chestnut Teal Anas castanea
    Frequents freshwater wetlands at Kurnell, where breeding has
    Osprey Pandion halietus
    Rare; visitor. Coastal beaches and reefs. Single bird, January 1973.
    Black -shouldered Kite Elanus notatus
    Uncommon; visitor. Heaths and grassy areas, feeding on mice and grasshoppers.
    Possibly nested 1986 at Congwong Bay.
    Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus
    Uncommon; resident. Pair nest at Sans Souci and these birds occasionally feed out over
    Botany Heads and the Park. Rare over northern headlands.
    Brown Goshawk Accipites fasciatus
    Uncommon; winter visitor, Apr -Sep. Eucalyptus woodlands particularly in the Congwong
    Dunes and Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrhocephalus
    Rare; visitor. Woodland. Single bird Coast Hospital,1956.
    Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae
    Rare; visitor. Woodland and forest. Single bird Kurnell 15/5/81.
    White -bellied Sea -Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster
    Uncommon; resident. Breeds Towra Point feeds out over Botany Heads. Previously
    nested where Carbon Black Factory now stands.
    Swamp Harrier Circus approximans
    Rare; visitor. Tall heath and wetlands Cape Solander – Boat Harbour, one Little Bay,
    September 1935.
    September 1989 Page 13Peregrine Falcon Falco pergrinus
    Rare; visitor. Heaths, dunes, rocky coasts and woodland.
    Australian Hobby Falco longipennis
    Rare; vagrant. Heath and woodland. One Congwong Bay 1/6/85.
    Brown Falcon Falco berrigora
    Uncommon; visitor. Wetlands and heathlands. Cape Solander – Boat Harbour, and one
    Little Bay 14/6/53.
    Australian Kestrel Falco cenchroides
    Common; resident. Heathlands and dunes. May nest on cliff ledges.
    Ringnecked Pheasant Phasianus colchis
    Rare; resident. An aviary escapee that is regularly observed in the Congwong Bay –
    Henry Head area. Only males have been seen.
    Stubble Quail Coturnix pectoralis
    Rare; vagrant. Heathlands and grasslands. One In dunes near Boat Harbour, August
    Brown Quail Coturnix australis
    Common; resident. Regularly sighted in heath, dunes and grasslands from Yena Picnic
    Area to Boat Harbour. No records for northern headlands.
    Painted Button -quail Turnix varia
    Rare; vagrant. One dead at Boat Harbour 13/12/52, nested in dunes September 1949.
    Formerly may have been more common.
    Australian Spotted Crake Porzana fluminea
    Rare; visitor. Up to 3 present in Kurnell Swamp in early 1970’s.
    Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa
    Common; resident. Freshwater wetlands near Kurnell.
    Swamphen Porphyrio porphyrio
    Common; resident. Freshwater wetlands near Kurnell.
    Eurasian Coot Fulica atra
    Uncommon; visitor. Freshwater wetlands.
    Sooty Oystercatcher Haematopus fuliginosus
    Uncommon; resident. Singles or pairs feeding on rocks Henry Head to Congwong Bay.
    Pairs to small flocks, max 12, from Potter Point to Merries Reef.
    Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles
    Common; resident. Seashore, golf courses and grasslands. Breeds Aug -Oct at Henry
    Head and Kurnell.
    Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
    Rare; visitor. Single birds Boat Harbour 15/12/50, 26/12/78, & 13/4/79.
    Lesser Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica
    Common; summer migrant, Sep -Apr. Small numbers 1-5 on exposed rocks Henry Head
    to Cape Banks. Regulary 20-30 Boat Harbour. Up to 120 recorded on passage In March.
    Mongolian Plover Charadrius mongolus
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Sep -Apr. 20-30 frequent rock platforms Potter Point to
    Boat Harbour. Numbers are declining.
    Double -banded Plover Charadrius bicinctus
    Uncommon; winter migrant, Feb -Aug. 40-60 frequent rock platforms and reefs, Potter
    Point – Boat Harbour. Occasionally present in other suitable habitats.
    Page 14 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Large Sand Plover Charadrius leschenalti
    Rare; summer visitor. Reefs and rock platforms. Single birds, Boat Harbour, since 1949.
    Red -capped Plover Charadrius ruficapillus
    Uncommon; resident. Small numbers (2-10), sandy spits, rock platforms and margins of
    wetlands. Breeds, nesting Boat Harbour, 1948-53.
    Black -fronted Plover Charadrius melanops
    Rare; visitor. Margins of freshwater wetlands on southern headlands.
    Inland Dotterel Peltohyas australis
    Rare; vagrant. Single bird Boat Harbour 12/8/87.
    Pled Stilt Himantopus himantopus
    Rare; vagrant. Coastal reefs. Five at Boat Harbour 3/10/53.
    Ruddy Turnstone Arenaria interpres
    Uncommon; resident. Observed singularly or in small numbers on rock shelves, can be
    expected In all suitable areas. Max 110 Boat Harbour in summer, 20-30 in winter.
    Eastern Curlew Numenius madagascariensis
    Rare; visitor. Flocks migrating south past Cape Banks 10/8/86. Occasionally single bird
    at Boat Harbour.
    Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus
    Rare; summer migrant, Oct -Apr. Irregularly recorded on tidal rocky shores.
    Wood Sandpiper Tringas glareola
    Rare; visitor. Freshwater wetlands. Single, Kurnell Swamp, Jan 1980 and Feb 1982.
    Grey -tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes
    Uncommon; resident and summer migrant. Rocky shores and reefs.
    Wandering Tattler Tringa incana
    Rare; summer vagrant. Since 1970 recorded only on two occasions 20/12/70 & 27/3/73
    both at Boat Harbour.
    Common Sandpiper Tringa hypoleucos
    Rare; summer vagrant. Freshwater swamps. Single Kurnell Nov -Dec 1976.
    Greenshank Tringa nebularia
    Rare; vagrant. Coastal rock platforms. 2 Boat Harbour 15/11/58.
    Japanese Snipe Gallinago hardwickii
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Oct -Mar. Freshwater wetlands at Kurnell and the
    Cemetery Swamp, Cape Banks.
    Bar -tailed Godwlt Limosa lapponica
    Rare; summer migrant. Occasionally at Boat Harbour. Large flocks occur in Botany Bay.
    Red Knot Calidris canutus
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Sep -Dec. Coastal rock platforms. Only Boat Harbour, max
    7 birds.
    Great Knot Calidris tenuirostris
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Oct -Mar. Coastal rock platforms. Only recorded Boat
    Harbour, max 3 birds.
    Red -necked Stint Calidris ruficollis
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Sep -Apr. When up to 100 birds frequent the rocky shores
    and reefs at Boat Harbour. Smaller numbers elsewhere Including a small flock at Henry
    Head 17/1/70.
    September 1989 Page 15Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea
    Rare; summer migrant. Occasional visitor to Boat Harbour. Larger flocks occur
    elsewhere In Botany Bay.
    Sanderling Calidris alba
    Rare; summer migrant, Sep -Apr. Sandy beaches at Boat Harbour. Prior to 1970 regularly
    present but since then only 1 or 2 birds for only a day per annum.
    Broad -billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus
    Rare; summer visitor, Nov -Mar. Coastal rock platforms. Only recorded Boat Harbour.
    Ruff Philomachus pugnax
    Rare; vagrant. A reeve at Kurnell Swamp.
    Great skua Stercorcarius Skua
    Rare; winter visitor, Jun -Aug. Occasionally seen off Botany Heads.
    Arctic Jaeger Stercorcarius parasiticus
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Oct -Mar. Harasses gulls and terns. Botany Heads and
    Botany Bay.
    Pomarine Jaeger Stercorcarius pomarinus
    Uncommon; summer migrant, Oct -Mar. Harasses larger seabirds and scavenges off
    Botany Heads.
    Pacific Gull Larus pacificus
    Rare; vagrant. Rocky shores and reefs at Boat Harbour – only immature birds recorded.
    Only one recorded since 1970 viz. 21/8/84.
    Kelp Gull Larus dominica
    Uncommon; visitor. Immatures roosting Culwee Point 20/9/86 & December 1986 and an
    adult same place 18/10/86. Regular at Boat Harbour.
    Silver Gull Larus novaehollandiae
    Abundant. Feeding offshore, roosting on rocks, at La Perouse and Captain Cook’s
    Landing Place grasslands.
    Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida
    Rare; vagrant. Freshwater marshes. 5 at Boat Harbour 3/10/77, one dead Boat Harbour
    Gull -billed Tern Gelochelidon nilotica
    Rare; visitor. Coastal beaches and reefs. One Cape Solander.
    Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia
    Rare; occasional visitor. Rocky shores. One 23/1/71 & two 27/10/73 at Boat Harbour.
    More common at Towra Point NR.
    Eastern Common Tern Sterna hirundo
    Common; summer migrant, Oct -Mar. Feeding in the bays, roosting on the rocks.
    Normally In flocks 50-100, but 1000 at Boat Harbour on at least two occasions.
    Arctic Tern Sterna paradlsea
    Rare. Rocky shores and reefs. Single Boat Harbour 23/10/82.
    White -fronted Tern Sterna striata
    Uncommon; winter migrant, Jun -Oct. Rocky shores and reefs, rarely inside Botany Bay.
    Small flocks 4-10 birds mostly Cape Solander and Boat Harbour.
    Sooty Tern Sterna fuscata
    Rare; vagrant. Occasional birds are washed ashore at Bate Bay or found roosting at
    Boat Harbour after rough weather, mostly during summer.
    Page 16 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Little Tern Sterna albifrons
    Uncommon; summer vagrant, Sep -Apr. Inshore waters. Roosts on sandspits Inside
    Botany Bay and at Boat Harbour. Formerly bred at latter place prior to 1949/50. Small to
    large flocks of non -breeding birds max 200 on 22/10/77.
    Fairy Tern Sterna nereis
    Rare; winter vagrant. Coastal rock platforms, only recorded at Boat Harbour, 5 birds
    Crested Tern Sterna bergii
    Common; resident. Feeding in the bays and offshore, roosting on the rocks.
    Common Noddy Anous stolidus
    Rare; vagrant. Single Boat Harbour 28/2/54.
    White Tern Gygis alba
    Rare; vagrant. One seen from Cape Solander 6/7/81, others have been seen offshore
    between Sydney and Wollongong.
    Feral Pigeon Columba livia
    Common; resident. Roosts and nests on cliffs, feeds in carparks and in picnic areas.
    Spotted Dove Streptopelia chinenesis
    Common; resident. Present in woodland, tall heath and edges. Feeds in picnic areas.
    Crested Pigeon Ocyphaps lophotes
    Rare; visitor. Recently recorded at Captain Cook’s Landing Place. Woodlands and picnic
    Galah Cacatua roseicapilla
    Uncommon; resident. Small flocks feed on golf course and on the lawns at La Perouse
    Monuments and Captain Cook’s Landing Place. Also fed on Bogong Moths washed up
    at Boat Harbour Oct -Nov 1973.
    Little Corella Cacatua sanguinea
    Rare; visitor. Seven birds feeding with Galahs as above.
    Sulphur -crested Cockatoo Cacatua galerita
    Uncommon; resident. Small flocks pass over, some feed on golf courses and adjacent
    areas, as well as at Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Rainbow Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus
    Uncommon; visitor. Flowering Eucalypts and tall coastal heath. Small flocks.
    Scaly -breasted Lorikeet Trichoglossus chlorolepidotus
    Rare; vagrant. Eucalyptus woodland. Single at Captain Cook’s Landing Place, 31/8/57.
    Musk Lorikeet Glossopsitta concinna
    Rare; vagrant. Occasional visitor. Flowering Eucalypts and woodland.
    Swift Parrot Lathamus discolor
    Rare; winter visitor, Jun -Sep. Last record 30/8/75. Small flocks woodland.
    Crimson Rosella Platycercus elegans
    Common; resident. Present in Eucalyptus woodland at Congwong Bay and woodland
    adjoining Royal NSW Golf Course. Common and breeding at Captain Cook’s Landing
    Eastern Rosella Platycercus eximius
    Common; resident. Eucalyptus woodlands on southern headlands, absent from
    northern headlands. Breeds.
    September 1989 Page 17Pale -headed RoseIla Platycercus adscitus
    Rare; resident. Small numbers present at Captain Cook’s Landing Place, presumably
    aviary escapees.
    Pallid Cuckoo Cuculus pallidus
    Rare; visitor. One Kurnell 30/11/82.
    Black -faced Cuckoo -shrike Coracina novaehollandiae
    Common; resident. Woodland. Breeds.
    Red -whiskered Bulbul Pycnonotus jocosus
    Common; resident. Feeds on introduced plants including Bitou Bush and Lantana fruits.
    Probably breeds.
    Blackbird Turdus merula
    Common; resident. Golf Course, heathiand and woodland. Also feeds on Bitou Bush
    and Lantana fruits. Only on northern headlands.
    Rose Robin Petroica rosea
    Rare; winter visitor, Apr -Aug. Woodland and forest. Single or in pairs.
    Scarlet Robin Petroica multicolor
    Rare; vagrant. Pair at Kurnell 23/7/43.
    Eastern Yellow Robin Eopsaltria australis
    Common; resident. Tall heath and woodland particularly Congwong Bay to Henry Head
    and Captain Cook’s Landing Place. Breeds.
    Rufous Whistler Pachycephala rufiventris
    Common; summer migrant, Sep -Mar. Woodland. Breeds.
    Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis
    Uncommon; winter visitor, Apr -Aug. Woodlands and dune scrub. Mostly Congwong Bay
    and Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Grey Shrike -thrush Colluricincla harmonica
    Common; resident. Woodlands and forests. Absent northern headlands.
    Black -faced Monarch Monarcha melanopsis
    Rare; summer visitor, Oct -Mar. Wet forests.
    Leaden Flycatcher Myiagra rubecula
    Rare; summer visitor, Oct -Mar. Forests and woodlands.
    Grey Fantail Rhipidura fuliginosa
    Uncommon; visitor. Woodland. Mostly Congwong Bay and Golf Course forests and
    Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Willie Wagtail Rhipidura leucophrys
    Common; resident. All habitats but mostly woodland and picnic areas. Breeds.
    Eastern WhIpbird Psophodes olivaceus
    Uncommon; resident. Wet heath, woodland and dense scrub. Absent northern
    Clamorous Reed Warbler Acrocephalus stentoreus
    Uncommon. Freshwater wetlands. Absent north headlands.
    Tawny Grassbird Megalurus timoriensis
    Rare; vagrant. One Kurnell Refinery Swamp 6/3/82.
    Little Grassblrd Megalurus gramineus
    Uncommon; resident. Freshwater wetlands and margins. Absent northern headlands.
    Page 18 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Golden -headed Cisticola Cisticola exilis
    Common; resident. Rank grasslands and wetlands.
    Brown Songlark Cinclorhamphus cruralis
    Rare; vagrant; grasslands. One near Boat Harbour 9/10/80.
    Superb Fairy -wren Malurus cyaneus
    Abundant; resident. Heathland and forest edge. Breeds.
    Variegated Fairy -wren Malurus lamberti
    Common; resident. Heathlands and dense undergrowth. Absent from northern
    Southern Emu -wren Stipiturus malachurus
    Common; resident. Coastal heaths and dunes. Absent from northern headlands, but
    recorded Little Bay up to 1935. Breeds.
    Eastern Bristlebird Dasyornis brachypterus
    Rare. Probably now absent. Tall heath. Little Bay 1921 last record.
    White-browed Scrub -wren Sericornis frontalis
    Common; resident. Tall heaths and undergrowth. Absent from northern headlands, but
    recorded breeding Little Bay up to 1935. Breeds southside.
    Chestnut-rumped Heathwren Hylacola pyrrhopgia
    Rare; vagrant. One woodland, Captian Cook’s Landing Place, 9/6/62.
    Brown Warbler Gerygone mouki
    Uncommon; resident. Tall forest, only recorded Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Brown Thornhill Acanthiza pusilla
    Uncommon; resident. Tall heath and woodland. Absent from northern headlands but
    recorded Little Bay up to 1935.
    Buff-rumped Thornhill Acanthiza reguloides
    Rare; vagrant. Small group in forest, Kurnell 30/6/43.
    Yellow-rumped Thornhill Acanthiza chrysorrhoa
    Uncommon; resident. Open woodland. Only recorded Captain Cook’s Landing Place,
    but recorded Little Bay up to 1929.
    Yellow Thornbill Acanthiza nana
    Uncommon; resident. Woodland and tall heath. Congwong Bay to Henry Head, and
    southern headlands. Breeds.
    Varied Sittella Neositta chrysoptera
    Rare; vagrant. Flock in woodland Kurnell, 23/7/43.
    Red Wattle -bird Anthochaera carunculata
    Uncommon; resident. Open woodland and forest. Only recorded Captain Cook’s
    Landing Place.
    Little Wattle -bird Anthochaera chrysoptera
    Common; resident. Eucalyptus woodland and tall heath. More common on southern
    headlands. Breeds.
    Noisy Frlarbird Philemon corniculatus
    Uncommon; visitor. Possible winter migrant. Woodland and forest. Only Captain Cook’s
    Landing Place.
    Regent Honeyeater Xanthomyza phrygia
    Rare; visitor. Small numbers Captain Cook’s Landing Place 21/8/73 and May -Jul. 1974.
    September 1989 Page 19Noisy Miner Manorina melanocephala
    Common; resident. Forest and woodland. Breeds. Only recorded Captain Cook’s
    Landing Place.
    Yellow -faced Honeyeater Lichenostomus chrysops
    Common; winter migrant, Jul -Sep. Banksia heathlands and woodlands.
    White- plumed Honeyeater Lichenostumus penicillatus
    Rare. Small numbers In Eucalyptus woodland 1/6/85 at Congwong Bay possibly
    Increasing but overlooked.
    White-naped Honeyeater Melithreptus lunatus
    Rare; winter migrant, Jul -Sep. Heathland and woodlands. Congwong Bay 16/5/87. More
    common southern headlands.
    New Holland Honeyeater Phylidonyris novaehollandiae
    Abundant; resident. Heathlands and woodlands. Breeds.
    Tawny -crowned Honeyeater Phylidonyris melanops
    Rare; visitor. Low heathlands. Congwong Bay Sep. 1986 but common resident coastal
    heaths, Cape Solender to Boat Harbour. Recorded Little Bay 1929-1935. Breeds.
    Eastern Spinebill Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris
    Uncommon; resident. One feeding in Xanthorrhoeas 17/1/70 at Congwong Bay. More
    common in woodland and tall heath on southern headlands.
    Scarlet Honeyeater Myzomela sanguinolenta
    Rare; visitor. Woodland, Casuarinas and forests. Only southern headlands.
    White -fronted Chat Ephthianura albifrons
    Uncommon; resident. Saltmarsh dune scrub and wetlands. Only southern headlands
    but previously recorded breeding Little Bay 1929-1935.
    Mistletoebird Diaceum hirundinaceum
    Uncommon; resident. Woodland and forest. Only southern headlands.
    Spotted Pardelote Pardalotus punctatus
    Uncommon; resident. Eucalyptus woodland and forest. Breeds.
    SlIvereye Zosterops lateralis
    Abundant; resident and winter migrant. Heathlands and exotic weeds. Breeds.
    House Sparrow Passer domesticus
    Abundant; resident. All disturbed habitats. Nests in huts at Boat Harbour.
    Red-browed Firetail Emblema ternporalis
    Common. Heathlands and forest edge. Breeds.
    Star Finch Neochima ruficauda
    Rare; vagrant. One present near Cape Banks Cemetery with Red-browed Firetails on
    10/4/86. Presumed aviary escapee.
    Zebra Finch Poephila guttata
    Rare; vagrant; now absent. Nesting Little Bay 19/10/29.
    European Starling Sturnus vulgaris
    Abundant; resident. Favours Golf Course, grasslands and Bitou Bush.
    Common Mynah Acridotheres tristls
    Abundant; resident. All disturbed areas. Nests In huts in Boat Harbour.
    Figbird Sphecotheres viridis
    Rare; visitor. Pairs in fig trees, Captain Cook’s Landing Place 15/10/82.
    Page 20 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Olive -backed Oriole Oriolus sagittatus
    Rare; Occasional visitor. Woodland and forest. Only southern headlands.
    Drongo Dicrurus hottentottus
    Uncommon; winter visitor, Feb -Oct. Woodland and tall heath. One 1/6/85 at Congwong
    Bay but common at Captain Cook’s Landing Place.
    Magpie -lark Grallina cyanoleuca
    Common; resident. Picnic areas and grassland around Kurnell only. Two Boat Harbour
    14/10/50. Breeds.
    Dusky Woodswallow Artamus cyanopterus
    Rare; visitor. Woodlands. Only southern headlands.
    Grey Butcherbird Cracticus torquartus
    Uncommon; resident. Woodland and forests. Only southern headlands. Breeds.
    Australian Magpie Gymnorhina tibicens
    Common; resident. Open forest and picnic areas. Breeds.
    Pled Currawong Strepera graculina
    Common; resident and winter migrant. Woodland and forests. Breeds.
    Australian Raven Corvus coronoides
    Common; resident. All habitats. Breeds.
    The following birds have been found beach -washed at Bate Bay in the vicinity of Boat
    Harbour, none have yet been observed either in the Park or from the capes and headlands.
    Blue Petrel Halobaena caerula – 23/10/54
    Wilson’s Storm Petrel Oceanites oceanicus – 31/10/54, 10/11/63
    White-faced Storm Petrel Pelagodroma marina -27/11/43 many since
    Little Shearwater Puffinus assimilis – 5 specimens
    Grey -backed Shearwater Puffinus bulleri -31/10/43
    Flesh -footed Shearwater Puffinus carneipes – 9 specimens

Westland Petrel Procellaria westlandica 6/12/59

Gould’s Petrel Pteradroma leucoptera – 3 records

Blue -footed Petrel Pteradroma cookii 29/1/55

Black -winged Petrel Pteradroma nigripennis 2/2/64

Broad -billed Prion Pachyptila vittata 23/1/71

Medium -billed Prion Pachyptila salvini – 24/7/48
Slender -billed Prion Pachyptila belcheri – 9/7/73
Antarctic Prion Pachyptila desolata – many records
Barn Owl Tyto alba – 17/10/70
Australian King Parrot Alisterus scapularis – 19/10/53
Alan K. Morris, 1 Wombat St, Berkeley Vale. 2259.
In the article “Some Noteable Records from Cocoparra NP NSW” by B. Lepschi, Aust. Birds
22.Nos. 3&4 August 1989, the observations were made in 1985 not 1986 as It appears.
R. Pogany
While driving to Sydney along the Barrier Highway on 15 October 1987 stopped 69 km east of
Broken Hill. Originally stopped to observe Australian Pratincoles Stiltia isabella and Banded
Plovers Vanellus tricolor seen at the side of the road. Their presence was explained by the fact
that they were feeding on newly hatched (1st instar) Australian Plague Locusts.
The vegetation was a saltbush/bluebush mixture. Bushes were 1-1.3m tall and many
bushes were present making reasonably dense cover. The vegetation was quite lush and with
water having collected in low lying depressions it was clear the area had received a fair amount
of rain. Also had driven through heavy rain (which was fast approaching).
Many species of birds were feeding on the abundant supply of locusts including a flock
of 30+ chats. (Exact numbers were hard to judge as at any one time only about a dozen birds
were visible on the tops of bushes and bare ground. The rest were at the base of the vegetation
feeding where the locusts were most numerous). The flock was a mixed flock of predominantly
Orange Chats Ephthianura aurifrons and Crimson Chats Ephthianura tricolor of both sexes. had
already observed several pairs of both species closely before my attention was caught by one
Individual bird.
This bird was bright yellow and evenly yellow over the head,throat,breast and abdomen
(as distinct from a typical male orange chat which is orange -yellow on the crown and breast
changing to yellow on the abdomen). Also this bird only had a small black half circle crescent at
the base of the throat/top of the breast interface in the centre.
At the time thought this bird to be an unusual male Orange Chat as field guides depict
male Yellow Chats Ephthianura crocea with a distinct black breastband extending to the wings.
However on returning home and consulting a variety of references In particular the photos of a
Yellow Chat In the second edition of the Reader’s Digest Complete Book of Australian Birds
(1986) I realised that the bird I had observed was a male Yellow Chat.
None of the field guides depict a male Yellow Chat like this photograph and only Slater
(1987) in the Slater Field Guide to the Australian Birds indicates in the text that the black band is
variable “broad in the north, narrow In central Australia”. It Is not clear whether this variability
refers to the width or depth of the band.
Consultation with the skins available at the Australian Museum was of no assistance as
the sample was too small. However discussions with J. McKean (the only person who knew
who had reasonable field experience with this species) confirmed that the black area on a male
Page 22 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1Is not always a black breastband but Is highly variable ranging from a breastband > semi-
circular crescent > circular area and is not geographically distributed.
For all the above reasons I believe this to be the second record of a Yellow Chat in New
South Wales (The first being in 1987 at Kinchega National Park in association with Orange
Chats, Aust. Birds 14:19). Kinchega N.P. would only be a distance of 70-80km south of this
R. Pogony 7/180 Pacific Highway, Roseville NSW 2069.
E.S. Hoskin
It seems to be generally assumed that no bond of any kind exists between the adult Horsfield’s
Bronze -Cuckoo Chrysococcyx basalis, and their offspring (the species being a brood -parasite),
but the following observation might be interpreted as challenging this assumption.
In Centennial Park, Sydney, NSW, on 3 January 1985, I observed a Horsfield’s Bronze –
Cuckoo able to fly but still being fed by its foster -parents, a pair of Superb Fairy -wrens Malurus
cyaneus. In order to test the reaction, whistled the call of an adult Horsfield’s Bronze -Cuckoo.
The young cuckoo flew towards me from 16 metres away, and attempted to land on my head. In
an excited manner, It flew to a tree near to me, continuously uttering a soft, high-pitched,
trisyllabic fledgling begging call – two high notes and one lower, somewhat similar to the call of
the Varied Sittella Neositta chrysoptera. It flew back to Its foster -parents on two more occasions
and each time I called it back with my mimicry. This excited behaviour continued until I left the
area about five minutes later.
There was no response to my imitation from any adult cuckoos in the vicinity, although
have in the past found that adult Horsfield’s Bronze -Cuckoos generally respond strongly to my
mimicry. Adult Horsfield’s Bronze -Cuckoos were known to be present elsewhere in the park, and
during the following two weeks, adults were heard calling and other young cuckoos were being
fed by Yellow-rumped Thornbills Acanthiza chrysorrhoa and Yellow Thornbills A.nana, involving
three separate host pairs.
E.S. Hoskin, 44 Patricia Street, Eastwood NSW 2122.
WHERE TO FIND BIRDS IN AUSTRALIA by John Bransbury, 540 pp.,
Century Hutchinson Australia Ply Ltd, Hawthorn, Victoria 1987, $A35.
This Is the first one volume book that has been published for visitors and residents of Australia to
assist birdwatchers to locate known bird -watching spots and to advise what birds can be
expected to occur. In reviewing this book have examined it in respect to its accuracy and
September 1989 Page 23relevance to New South Wales, and its usefulness In other states where have used the book to
visit known bird spots.
The book is divided into eight major chapters, one for each state or territory. Each
chapter is sub -divided into sections dealing with different regions. Fifty three regions have been
covered for Australia and Its territories. The Regions considered in New South Wales are :-
Sydney and Its environs, Far West, Snowy Mountains, Mid -north Coast, New England, North-
west Slopes and Plains, and Lord Howe Island. In all but Capital City sections, sites are grouped
where possible to form holiday units, providing the visitors with a wide range of habitats and
birds. The book is written to be used in the field in conjunction with a Pizzey or Slater Field
guide, and for each State, the major ornithological groups and contact addresses are given.
For New South Wales, 54 specific sites are dealt with but some major habitat/climate
zones have been excluded viz the North Coast, South Coast, mid -west and Riverina. Basically
this means that the Hawkesbury Sandstone parks surrounding Sydney get extensive coverage
to the detriment of the North Coast rainforest, the South Coast heaths and forests, and the dry
forests, mallee and wetlands of the western slopes and plains. Never -the -less the details for the
Regions covered are spot on, accurate and helpful. They provide information on camping,
picnic areas, amenities and accommodation as well as the bird species known to occur and
what highlights to expect.
In 1988 my family used the book when we holidayed in South-east Queensland
particularly in respect to the Fraser Island – Cooloola Coast Region. We found the information
provided correct and very worthwhile. Similarly the information provided on the Kimberley
Region, another location recently visited by me, was accurate and so would be very useful to
visitors to that Region.
The only drawback to the book is as said before, that it does not cover, and space would
not permit it to cover, all known bird -watching spots! So if you are planning some out-of-state
trips to say Northern Victoria and the Murray Region, or the Victorian West Coast, West
Queensland and the Channel Country, Tasmania’s northern coastline, South Australia’s Eyre
Peninsular, the interior of Western Australia or middle Northern Territory, this book will be of no
use to you! Overall though, there is good coverage of Australia’s best known bird watching
The book is available from all bookshops at $35.00 and is a worthwhile purchase for the
glove box, to accompany your road atlas and your field guide.
Alan K. Morris
Page 24 Australian Birds Vol 23 No 1NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS
Contributors are requested to observe the following points when submitting articles and notes
for publication.

  1. Species, names, and the order in which they occur are to be in accordance with
    “Handlist of Birds in New South Wales”. A.K.Morris, A.R.McGill and G.Holmes 1981
    Dubbo: NSWFOC
  2. Articles or notes should be type written if possible and submitted In duplicate. Double
    spacing is required.
  3. Margins of not less than 25mm width at the left hand side and top, with similar or
    slightly smaller at the right hand side of the pages.
  4. No underlinings or abbreviations except as shown in the examples.
  5. Photographs should be glossy finish and not too small.
  6. The Style Manual, Commonwealth Government Printing Office, Canberra (1966) and
    subsequent editions will be the guide for this Journal.
  7. Diagrams will be on plain white paper drawn with india ink. Any lettering is to be
    ‘professional style’ or lightly penciled.
  8. Dates must be written “1 January 1975” except In tables and figures where they may
    be abbreviated.
  9. The 24 -hour clock will be used, times being written 06:30, 18:30 for 6.30am and
    6.30pm respectively.
  10. Mr, Mrs, Dr are not to be followed by a full stop.
    In text, numbers one to ten are spelt; numbers of five figures or more should be
    grouped in threes and spaced by a thin gap. Commas should not be used as
    thousands markers.
  11. References to other articles should be shown in the text-‘…B.W.Finch and M.D.Bruce
    (1974) stated…’and under heading.
    Finch, B.W. & M.D.Bruce. 1974. The status of the Blue Petrel in Australian waters
    Aust. Birds 9:32-35
  12. Acknowlegements to other individuals should not include Christian names or initials.Volume 23,No.1 September 1989
    P.E. Roberts Tribute to the Retiring Editor – T. Lindsey 1
    S. Marchant and Nesting of the Australian Grebe, Tachybaptus novaehollandiae 2
    P.J. Fullagar &
    C.C. Davey
    A.K. Morris The birds of Botany Bay National Park NSW 7
    Erratum Noteable records from Cocoparra NP NSW 21
    R. Pogany An observation of a Yellow Chat in northwest NSW 22
    E.S. Hoskin Response of a juvenile Horsfield’s Bronze -Cuckoo to human 23
    imitation of an adult’s call
    A.K. Morris Book Review: Where To Find Birds In Australia by John Bransbury 23
    Registered by Australia Post- Publication No. NBH0790
    Printed by Drummoyne Printing, 56 Thomopson Street, Drummoyne. 81 1888