Vol. 25 No. 3-text

Vol. 25 No. 3
Journal of the
Volume 25, Number 3. March 1992
President P. Davie
Vice -President S. Fairbairn
Secretary R. Hill
Treasurer T. Florin
Minutes Secretary H. Biddle
Activities Officer A.O. Richards
Conservation Officer E. Karplus
Journal Editor A.K. Morris
Newsletter Editor T. Karplus
Records Officer R.M. Cooper
Other Committee Members D. Seims
H. Jones
The object of the club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian
birds and the habitats they occupy.
Annual subscription rates of the Club (due October each year) are:
Adult Member $25.00
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Manuscripts should be sent to the Editor at: Wombat St, Berkeley Vale NSW
March 1992
Volume 25, (3)
A number of foraging associations between species of waterbirds have been recorded. In
Maddock (1991) described an occurrence of association between the Royal Spoonbill
Platalea regia and the White-faced Heron Ardea novaehollandiae where the heron walked
close beside the spoonbill feeding in a farm dam, stabbing near its head at prey, apparently
disturbed by its action. Fraser (1974) reported Little Egrets Egretta garzetta associating
with the African Reed Cormorant Phalacrocorax, and Recher et al. (1983) described Little
Egrets feeding on prey disturbed by the Little Pied Cormorant P. melanoleucos and the Little
Black Cormorant P. sulcirostris at West Plains in the Northern Territory. Morris (1978)
reported association between the Little Egret and Sacred Ibis Threskiornis aetheopica while
Hobbs (1980) and Vestjens (1975) refer to its association with the Royal Spoonbill.
Page 61 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3Egret -Spoonbill Associations
During 1990 and 1991 observed eight foraging associations between the Royal
Spoonbill and egrets in wetlands along a section of approximately 20 km of road between
Glenoak and Raymond Terrace, north of Newcastle in the Williams River Valley (N.S.W.).
I travel this road at least twice daily, five times per week. Six incidents involved the Great
Egret Egretta alba, one involved a Little and Great Egret together, and one an Intermediate
E. intermedia and a Great Egret together. The number of spoonbills involved varied from
a single bird to a flock of 15 (Table).
Spoonbills forage while wading, swinging the head quickly from side to side with the
bill dabbling in the water, locating food by a tactile process. Egrets and the White-faced
Heron forage by wading or standing, making individual stabs at prey located by sight. In
each of the egret -spoonbill association incidents, the egret behaviour was very similar to
that described forthe White-faced Heron (Maddock, 1991), with the egrets snapping up prey
apparently disturbed by the spoonbill action, except that the egrets did not work quite as
close to the head of the Spoonbills as in the case of the heron and the foraging continued
over a larger, less confined area.
In the case of the incident with the Great and Little Egrets, the five spoonbills worked
progressively in a compact group in the shallows along the shore of the swamp with the
egrets moving close beside the offshore flank of the spoonbill flock stabbing at and capturing
prey. In the time I was watching, the group covered approximately 150 metres of shoreline.
In all the encounters with more than one spoonbill, the egrets spent most of their time at the
periphery of the spoonbill flock.
Foraging associations of egrets with Royal Spoonbills, Williams River Valley,
Date Location Number of Birds
Spoonbills Egrets
Great Inter Little
28 March 1990 Richardsons Swamp 5 1 1
2 May 1990 Seaham Swamp
1 1
16 May 1990 1. Dam north of Raymond 3

  1. Richardsons Swamp 3
    18 May 1990 Richardsons Swamp 13
    17 July 1990 Quarry Swamp 9 2
    21 October 1990 Water Hyacinth Swamp 1 1 1
    18 May 1991 Seaham Bridge, Williams
    1 1
    March 1992 Page 62DISCUSSION
    observed flocks of spoonbills feeding separately in the same swampy areas as all
    three species of egrets on frequent occasions, although have not made records of the
    occurrences. The egrets on these occasions did not take the opportunity to associate with
    the spoonbills. On many occasions have also noted a single Great Egret loafing on the
    shore of a wetland in company with a flock of spoonbills, possibly waiting for the spoonbills
    to start feeding.
    Lowe (1983) referred to sharing of feeding grounds by Royal Spoonbills and White-
    faced Herons, commenting that the two species have very contrasting feeding ecologies.
    The Royal Spoonbill’s process is tactile and feeds on a smaller range of prey species and
    smaller -sized organisms than the heron (Lowe, 1983).
    Although detailed knowledge of prey species of egrets and the White-faced Heron
    is relatively limited, aquatic invertebrates and fish are common items for the egrets and the
    heron (Marchant and Higgins, 1990), similar to the diet of Royal Spoonbill (Vestjens, 1975).
    Vestjens reported that fish composed 42% of volume, including Gambusia affinis, a species
    found to be a common item in Little and Intermediate Egret diet at Shortland, which is only
    about 25 km from the sites of the feeding events (Maddock, 1986, Baxter and Fairweather,
    The egrets and White-faced Heron appear to make opportunistic use of flocks of
    feeding spoonbills, probably catching prey species disturbed, but ignored by or escaping
    from them. did not record the number of stabs by the egrets in the direction of spoonbills,
    as distinct from those made away from them, nor the specific distances between the
    spoonbills and the egrets. In the absence of such data, there is the possibility that the
    species were simply aggregating around a particularly rich food supply. However, in the
    case of the White-faced Heron (Maddock, 1991) the association was very close and the
    heron was snapping up prey close to the spoonbill’s head. In each of the egret incidents
    cited, especially the association of the Great and Little Egret with the spoonbill on 28 March
    , 1990, the egrets were closely working with the spoonbills. In the case of the alternative
    explanation, the egrets would be just as likely to feed independently in the same area.
    Further detailed observations are needed to clarify the issue.
    Baxter, G.S. and P.G. Fairweather (1989). Comparison of the diets of nestling Cattle Egrets
    and Intermediate Egrets in the Hunter Valley, New South Wales. Aust. Wildl. Res.
    16(4), 395-404.
    Page 63 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3Connor, M.A. (1979). Feeding association between Little Egret and African Spoonbill.
    Ostrich 50(2), 118.
    Fraser, W. (1979). Feeding association between Little Egret and Reed Cormorant. Ostrich
    Supplement 9, 53-70.
    Hobbs, J.N. (1980). Little Egrets feeding in association with Spoonbills. Aust. Birds 15, 55.
    Lowe, K.W. (1983). Feeding behaviour and diet of the White-faced Heron Ardea
    novaehollandiae in Westernport Bay, Victoria. Corolla 7(5), 101-108.
    Maddock, M. (1991). Observations on the biology of the White-faced Heron Ardea
    novaehollandie. Corella 15(3), 79-86.
    Marchant, S. and P.J. Higgins (co-ords.) (1990). Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and
    Antarctic Birds. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
    Morris, F. (1978). Feeding association between Little Egret and Sacred Ibis. Emu 78, 164.
    Recher, H.F., R.T. Holmes, W.E. Davis and S. Morton (1983). Foraging behaviour of
    Australian herons. Colonial Waterbirds 6, 1-10.
    Vestjens, W.J.M. (1975). Feeding behaviour of spoonbills at Lake Cowal, N.S.W. Emu 75,
    Max Maddock, Department of Education, University of Newcastle, N.S.W. 2308 and the
    Wetlands Centre, Shortland, N.S.W., 2287.
    Pomatostomus ruficeps
    Cooperative breeding occurs where individuals other than parents contribute to the care of
    nestlings or fledglings or both (Ford et at 1988). It has been recorded in only some 222 of
    the approximately 9000 bird species of the world (Brown 1987). By world standards the
    incidence of cooperative breeding in Australian birds is high, particularly in eucalypt and
    semi -arid woodlands (Ford et at 1988).
    The Chestnut -crowned Babbler Pomatostomus ruficepsoccurs in the arid and semi-
    arid regions of south-eastern Australia (Blakers et al. 1984). It lives in flocks throughout the
    year. The closely related Grey -crowned Babbler P. temporalis, White-browed Babbler P.
    superciliosus and Hall’s Babbler P. halli are all known to breed cooperatively (Brown 1987).
    Hence cooperative breeding has been considered likely in the Chestnut -crowned Babbler
    (Dow 1980), but has not been confirmed.
    March 1992 Page 64During July and October 1991 I observed Chestnut -crowned Babblers about the
    north-western end of Peery Lake (30°43’S, 143°34’E) approximately 50 km east of White
    Cliffs. The area was severely drought -stricken at these times. Chestnut -crowned Babblers
    were common in the area and were the only babblers present.
    On 17July 1991 at 08:00 hrs observed a Chestnut -crowned Babbler nest at a height
    of 6m in an 8m tall River Red Gum Eucalyptus camaldulensis. The nest -tree was located
    in a sparse single line of River Red Gums adjacent to a dry creekbed. Four adults were
    feeding on sandy ground within 30m of the nest -tree. The birds were digging into the topsoil
    with their beaks and extracting worms or grubs up to 5 cm long. The birds were not
    individually marked but was able to note at least three individuals carrying food up and into
    the nest. As watched the birds made two or three successive trips up to the nest with food.
    The group then appeared to switch their activity. All four birds started to collect beakfuls of
    short dry grassy litter from the ground. This material was carried to a second nest at a height
    of 7m in a 9m River Red Gum about 30m farther along the same creek. I watched the birds
    for a further 15 minutes but they did not again carry food to the first nest.
    On 13 October 1991 observed another Chestnut -crowned Babbler nest about 3km
    from the above nests. This nest was built at a height of 8m in a 9m Whitewood Atalaya
    hemiglauca beside a shallow, dry drainage line. At 09:30 hrs six adult babblers were either
    in the nest -tree or foraging on the ground within 25m of the nest -tree. The babblers were
    not individually marked. However, I was able to distinguish at least four individuals carrying
    food up through the tree and into the nest. On one occasion four birds were waiting about
    lm below the nest before taking food into the nest. could clearly hear repeated begging
    calls of young birds in the nest when an adult approached. I watched the nest for some 15
    minutes during which time the birds continued to forage nearby and carry food to the nest.
    returned to the nest later in the same morning at 10:45 hrs. Six adults were feeding on the
    ground in a loose group within 40m of the nest. On several occasions one or two birds
    moved up through the nest -tree to the nest. One bird would hop about on top of the nest
    and then go in and out of the nest. On one occasion four adults went up to the nest for several
    minutes and went in and out of the nest in turn. Begging calls of young birds within the nest
    could again be heard at the approach of an adult but this time the babblers did not seem to
    carry any food to the nest. left the nest at 11:10 hrs.
    On 17 October at 10:10 hrs returned to the nest for some 15 minutes. No babblers
    approached the nest and no begging calls were heard. During the late afternoon of the same
    day Peter Smith watched the nest sporadically. On two occasions he noted a single bird
    carrying food into the nest.
    These observations indicate that birds in addition to the parents help feed young in
    the nest and that Chestnut -crowned Babblers do at least on occasions breed co-operatively.
    Page 65 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3REFERENCES
    Blakers, M., Davies, S.J.J.F. and P.N. Reilly (1984). The Atlas of Australian Birds.
    Melbourne: Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union. Melbourne University
    Brown, J.L. (1987). Helping and Communal Breeding in Birds. Princeton, New Jersey:
    Princeton University Press.
    Dow, D.D. (1980). Communally breeding Australian birds with an analysis of distributional
    and environmental factors. Emu 80, 121-140.
    Ford, H.A., Bell, H., Nias, R. and R. Noske (1988). The relationship between ecology and
    the incidence of cooperative breeding in Australian birds. Behay. EcoL SociobioL
    22, 239-249.
    Judy Smith, Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, N.S.W. 2109
    The aerial displays of the Australian Hobby Falco longipennis have been described
    previously by Czechura and Debus (1986) and Debus et aL (1991). At Armidale, NSW, on
    29 November 1991, I observed a slight variant of aerial courtship behaviour. At 16:00 hrs
    (standard time) a pair of Hobbies were in flight over the city. Loud and very rapid bursts of
    squeaky chittering were heard. Both birds were taking part in tight and swift aerobatics,
    interspersed with determined, powerful level flight for 300-400m, turning then returning.
    There was a noticeable size difference between the two. The “contact”, aerobatics and
    calling lasted for less than a minute (about 45 seconds), with both birds moving northwards.
    On parting, the larger bird (presumed female) travelled southwards in direct, level flight,
    disappearing from view after approximately 600m. The other bird was lost from sight.
    Czechura, G.V. and S.J.S. Debus (1986). The Australian Hobby Falco longipennis: a
    review. Aust. Bird Watcher 11, 185-207.
    Debus, S.J.S., A.J. Ley, S. Tremont and R. Tremont (1991). Breeding behaviour and diet
    of the Australian Hobby Falco longipennis in northern New South Wales. Aust.
    Bird Watcher 14, 123-137.
    S. Tremont, 1/5 Wigan Avenue, Armidale, NSW 2350
    WALES, 1987-1990
    S.J.S. DEBUS
    A survey was undertaken during 1987-1990 of diurnal raptors in the north-east corner of
    New South Wales (coast and escarpment), by means of spot counts over forest and
    transects along roads. Nine hundred and nineteen sightings were obtained, of 18 species.
    The most frequently seen species were Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus, Wedge-tailed
    Eagle Aquila audax, Australian Kestrel Falco cenchroides and Brahminy Kite Haliastur
    indus, with Accipiter species common in forest; least frequently seen were Square -tailed
    Kite Lophoictinia isura, Australian Hobby Falco longipennis and Spotted Harrier Circus
    assimilis, with no sightings of the Red Goshawk Erythrotriorchis radiatus.
    During 1987-1990 a search was conducted for the Red Goshawk Erythrotriorchis
    radiatus in north-east New South Wales (Debus 1991a and in press). During the course of
    that survey, records were kept of all other diurnal birds of prey encountered, with results to
    July 1988 included in an earlier report (Debus 1988). During 1990 records were also kept
    of diurnal raptors encountered during travel to or around forest owl survey sites in the same
    region. This paper reports on the results of those surveys, the rationale being twofold: (a)
    raptors are of increasing concern in the modern world because of their position at the top
    of food chains, and their value (and vulnerability) as environmental indicators; (b) this survey
    has set a baseline for future surveys of raptors in the region, as the area becomes more
    intensively developed.
    The area surveyed was that part of New South Wales north of 30030’S and east of
    1520E, predominantly the coast and escarpment. The survey methods have been
    described elsewhere (Debus 1988 and in press). Briefly, the data were collected in two
    ways: (a) systematic point -counts from vantage points over forest; (b) incidental records
    around survey and camp sites and during travel to and from survey sites. Some coastal
    forest sites were near rivers, estuaries, heathland and paperbark swamps. The methods
    thus sampled two raptor communities: that of extensive forest (including areas of coastal
    forest, scrub and heath), and that along roads mainly through urban and agricultural areas.
    Point -counts were undertaken for four hours per day, starting two or three hours after
    sunrise, on favourable days for soaring birds (fine, calm to moderate wind). Sites were fire
    lookout towers, scenic lookouts and other vantage points in state forests, national parks and
    nature reserves. Those visited to July 1988 are listed and mapped in Debus (1988).
    Additional sites in 1988-1990 were Antarctic Beech lookout and The Pinnacle in Border
    Ranges National Park, and eight sites in Bundjalung National Park (along Gap Road,
    Macaulay’s Lead and the RAAF bombing range). Some sites on the Tweed Range, and
    Braemar State Forest, were surveyed twice, and some sites in Bundjalung National Park
    Page 67 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3were surveyed two to five times. Ninety days were spent at 57 sites, with 248 hours of point
    counts at 51 sites. These were spread over the period September 1987 -March 1988; July
    and September -December 1988; May and July 1989; and March -June and August 1990.
    Travel to survey sites was from Armidale to Grafton via Dorrigo and Coffs Harbour,
    Nymboida or the Gibraltar Range; thence to coastal reserves, Mt Warning, and Burringbar,
    Nightcap, Tweed and Richmond Ranges via Casino or Ballina; thence return via Tenterfield
    or Gibraltar Range. Five such journeys were made in 1987, six in 1988 and seven in 1990.
    Distances and birds logged while commuting will be incorporated in the broader RAOU “Bird
    of Prey Watch” results when those data are published.
    Nine hundred and nineteen sightings were obtained of 18 species of diurnal raptor
    (see Table 1). This constitutes 75% of the Australian species.
    During point -counts in predominantly forested areas, the most frequently seen
    species were Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax, Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus,
    Brahminy Kite Haliastur indus and Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus. Species seen
    moderately frequently were the other Accipiterspecies, White -bellied Sea -Eagle Haliaeetus
    leucogaster and Swamp Harrier Circus approximans. The least frequently seen species
    were Pacific Baza Aviceda subcristata, Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura, Spotted
    Harrier Circus assimilis and Australian Kestrel Falco cenchroides, with no sightings of
    Australian Hobby Falco longipennis.
    During travel and other incidental observations, mainly in rural areas, the most
    frequently seen species were Whistling Kite, Kestrel, Wedge-tailed Eagle, Black -shouldered
    Kite Elanus notatus and Brahminy Kite. Species seen moderately frequently were Brown
    Falcon Falco berigora and White -bellied Sea -Eagle. The least frequently seen species
    were Square -tailed Kite, Spotted Harrier and Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus.
    Overall, the most frequent species were Whistling Kite and Wedge-tailed Eagle,
    followed by Kestrel and Brahminy Kite. Moderately frequent species were Black -shouldered
    Kite, Brown Goshawk, Sea -Eagle, Brown Falcon, Swamp Harrier and other Accipiter
    species. The least frequent were Square -tailed Kite, Australian Hobby and Spotted Harrier.
    Some of these differences relate to differences in detectability in the various habitats (forest
    versus open).
    The distribution of survey points did not allow densities to be calculated. However,
    several tentative conclusions can be drawn on the relative abundance of species of similar
    ecology and detectability. In the region, Whistling Kites were about twice as abundant as
    Brahminy Kites, and Wedge-tailed Eagles were about three times as numerous as White –
    bellied Sea -Eagles. Australian Kestrels were about twice as abundant as Brown Falcons,
    with Black -shouldered Kites falling in between. The three Accipiter species were similar to
    each other in abundance in forest, with Brown Goshawks being seen more often than Grey
    Goshawks Accipiter novaehollandiae in rural areas. The Swamp Harrier was about as
    March 1992 Page 68152° 153°
    I 29°
    Figure 1. Locations of raptor survey sites in north-east NSW
    Page 69 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3Table
    Number of sightings of diurnal raptors in north-east New South Wales 1987-1990, from 62
    four -hourly point -counts at 51 sites (total 248 hours) and incidental records from 18 return
    journeys Armidale to Grafton or Lismore districts.
    Species Point -counts Incidentals Total
    (travel etc,)
    Osprey Pandion haliaetus 7 5
    Black -shouldered Kite
    Elanus notatus 9 48 57
    Pacific Baza
    Aviceda subcristata 5 6 11
    Square -tailed Kite
    Lophoictinia isura 5 1 6
    Brahminy Kite Haliastur Indus 37 44 81
    Whistling Kite
    Haliastur sphenurus 64 110 174
    Brown Goshawk
    Accipiter fasciatus 37 22 59
    Collared Sparrowhawk
    Accipiter cirrocephalus 25 18 43
    Accipiter novaehollandiae 31 9 40
    White -bellied Sea -Eagle
    Haliaeetus leucogaster 28 25 53
    Wedge-tailed Eagle
    Aquila audax 111 60 171
    Little Eagle
    Hieraaetus morphnoides 10 4 14
    Spotted Harrier Circus assimilis 1 1 2
    Swamp Harrier
    Circus approximans 34 14 48
    Peregrine Falcon
    Falco peregrinus 9 2 11
    Australian Hobby
    Falco longipennis 0 3 3
    Brown Falcon Falco berigora 17 28 45
    Australian Kestrel
    Falco cenchroides 4 85 89
    Total 434 485 919
    March 1992 Page 70numerous as the Brown Falcon, and many times more numerous than the Spotted Harrier.
    The Osprey Pandion haliaetus was only one -fifth to one -seventh as numerous as the Sea –
    Eagle and Brahminy Kite respectively. Whistling and Brahminy Kites were respectively
    about 12 and six times as numerous as Little Eagles Hieraaetus morphnoides. The Red
    Goshawk, the primary object of the study, was not seen, suggesting that if present at all it
    is outnumbered by at least a factor of 40-60 by each Accipiter species. It is no less
    detectable than the secrective accipiters (see Debus 1991 and in press), i.e. it is genuinely
    Some of the species recorded are on Schedule 12, Part 2 of the National Parks and
    Wildlife Act, “vulnerable and rare fauna”, defined as having a small population in New South
    Wales. These are the Osprey, Pacific Baza, Square -tailed Kite, Brahminy Kite and
    Peregrine Falcon. Another, the White -bellied Sea -Eagle, is on Part 1 “fauna of special
    concern” because it is endangered in another state (South Australia). The Square -tailed
    Kite is considered threatened nationally (Brouwer & Garnett 1990). Three species were
    recently identified as in need of information on their status in New South Wales, namely
    Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrocephalus, Swamp Harrier and Brown Falcon (Morris
    1990). The results of this survey enable some comments to be made on these and other,
    mainly forest species. Sightings are given as number per hour of counts (n = 248 h), and
    number (%) of census sites at which the species was recorded (total = 51 sites).
    Seven sightings (0.03/hr) at seven sites (14%), all coastal and all north of the
    Clarence River; five additional sightings. Seen on most major estuaries north of Urunga.
    Details of several active nests and courting pairs are included in Clancy (in press). One nest
    was in a paperbark (Melaleuca) swampforest, and two were in coastal Blackbutt Eucalyptus
    pilularis (cf. Clancy 1989). Aerial displays, poorly described for the Australian population,
    are noted by Debus (1991b).
    Pacific Baza
    Five sightings (0.02/hr), at four sites (8%); six additional sightings. Wet and dry
    eucalypt forest, rainforest edge; urban trees in winter. Scattered single birds at Cascade,
    Kangaroo River State Forest, Bundjalung National Park, Inner Pocket Nature Reserve,
    Minyon Falls, Mullumbimby and Coffs Harbour, and pairs at Banyabba State Forest and
    Middle Pocket. Notes on foraging and aerial displays are given by Debus (1991c,d).
    Square -tailed Kite
    Five sightings (0.02/hr) at four sites (8%). Mainly dry eucalypt forest. Single birds
    at Clouds Creek State Forest, Kangaroo River State Forest, Gibraltar Range escarpment
    (bottom), and a pair at Braemar State Forest, all October -December 1987. All sightings
    were from vantage points over the forest canopy, except a subsequent sighting of one of
    the Braemar Forest birds along the road to Myrtle Creek. Such observation points,
    particularly fire lookout towers, enabled sightings of birds which may have otherwise gone
    undetected as they often kept low to the tree canopy. One bird circled below the observation
    Page 71 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3point (Braemar fire -tower).
    Collectively, these sightings suggest a population in the drier eucalypt forests of the
    Dividing Range foothills west of Dorrigo-Grafton-Casino. obtained further sightings of
    single birds at Port Macquarie (urban fringe and Macquarie Nature Reserve) in April 1991,
    Born Born State Forest near Grafton (Spotted Gum Eucalyptus henry’) and Lansdowne
    State Forest near Taree (Blackbutt forest), both in August 1991. A bird was also reported
    at Woombah, at the southern end of Bundjalung National Park (per G. Holmes). These
    observations, along with other recent records, confirm that in New South Wales and other
    eastern states the Square -tailed Kite is predominantly a species of forests and woodlands
    from the coast to the inland slopes of the Dividing Range (cf. Debus & Czechura 1989, 1992;
    Debus & Silveira 1989; Debus 1991e; Cooper 1990, 1991).
    Recent records (Cooper 1990, 1991) also confirm the species’ established pattern
    of spring -summer breeding migrant to New South Wales, with winter absences more
    marked in the south (Debus & Silveira 1989). Breeding has been confirmed for the study
    area: a pair nested near Grafton in summer 1991, and an old record of “Black -breasted
    Buzzards” [Hamirostra melanosternon] nesting near Nymboida may be referable to the
    Square -tailed Kite (per G. Clancy). Reports of Little Eagles breeding at Red Rock (now
    Yuraygir) National Park, with “large rufous young” in the nest (FOC annual bird reports, early
    1970s), may also be referable to the Square -tailed Kite. R. Noske and G. Clancy (pers.
    comm.) have observed a pair of Kites at Red Rock, which seems unlikely breeding habitat
    for Little Eagles; during this survey obtained few coastal Little Eagle records and none
    breeding. Clearly, there is a need for large raptors in the study area (and elsewhere) to be
    critically examined for the presence of Square -tailed Kites, and for any confirmed nests to
    be protected by buffer zones of undisturbed habitat. An active but unsuccessful nest was
    found outside the study area, on the North-west Slopes, in November 1991 (Debus et al.
    The pair at the Braemar fire -tower foraged all over Braemar and Ellangowan State
    Forests and beyond, covering an area about 8 x 6 km or c. 50 sq. km. One bird was carrying
    small, unidentified prey which it ate at a perch. The male (?), mobbed in flight by a Noisy
    Friarbird Philemon corniculatus, faced over its shoulder and called at its pursuer with open
    bill and a soft, low whining of c. 1 note per second: aw-aw-aw.
    Brahminy Kite
    Thirty-seven sightings (0.15/hr) at 11 sites (22%), all coastal, north of the Clarence
    River. Forty-four additional sightings, on beaches, estuaries, rivers and over coastal
    agricultural land north of Urunga, particularly north of the Clarence.
    The number of sightings would suggest that at present this species is moderately
    abundant and secure in northern New South Wales. However, only one active and
    successful nest was seen, in paperbark swamp forest, a threatened habitat (see JTCW
    Planning 1986). Given the pace of coastal development in northern New South Wales, this
    species probably should be retained on Schedule 12, Part 2. see no reason to doubt that
    March 1992 Page 72the adult Brahminy Kite in the Watling drawings (Hindwood 1970, Pearce 1989) came from
    the Sydney district around 1790, the corollary of which is that the species’ range has
    contracted northwards in New South Wales since European settlement. I have not seen
    it south of the Manning River (adult in June 1991) despite surveys in the Myall Lakes region,
    and it is now very rarely seen in the Newcastle region (last record 1944: Morris 1975). The
    reasons are probably urbanisation, estuarine pollution and habitat destruction but the
    causes of its decline remain to be investigated properly.
    The single fledgling from the nest, in early December, was much darker on the
    upperparts and had a bolder underwing pattern than is illustrated in bird guides for juveniles
    of this species. Perhaps the fresh blackish brown quickly fades. The plumage of several
    other immature birds suggested that Brahminy Kites start moulting into adult -like (though
    faintly brown -washed) plumage during their first year. Two or three birds seen in the field
    in autumn -winter were very dull, “dirty” versions of the adult: off-white streaked or smudged
    brown on the head and breast; rufous on the belly and undertail; brown on the upperparts,
    with a hint of chestnut across the shoulders; and rufous on the underwing coverts. They still
    had the juvenile flight and tail feathers and most wing coverts. They resembled the
    “subadult” illustrated in Morris (1976), and the photograph on p. 58 of Newton et al. (1990,
    incorrectly captioned “Whistling Kite”) which I interpret as a late first -year bird. A captive
    first- year bird (from south-east Queensland) was in adult -like, though faintly brown -washed,
    plumage on the head and body in its first winter, with juvenile remiges, rectrices and greater
    wing coverts (colour photos: P. Frater). It appears that juvenile Brahminy Kites undergo a
    head and body moult in their first autumn, and moult their wing and tail feathers at the end
    of their first year or early in their second year. Fleay (in Debus & Czechura 1989) stated that
    they acquire adult plumage at the end of theirfirst year. However, well-fed captive birds may
    moult more rapidly and completely than wild birds. Further information on age criteria is
    needed, as the ability to recognise age classes may help to determine population
    composition and trends. It is of concern that there is so little information on the Brahminy
    Kite in Australia.
    Thefledgling was similarto its parents in wing and tail proportions, and was therefore
    probably a week or two out of the nest. Over two mornings 2-4 December, it soared for a
    few minutes to a height of c. 50 m (twice treetop height) over the paperbarks containing its
    nest. On two occasions it soared alone, and on two occasions it soared with an adult;
    between bouts it perched near the nest.
    Brown Goshawk
    Thirty-seven sightings (0.15/hr) at 23 sites (45%). Widely distributed in dry eucalypt
    forest (particularly) and over wet forest; also coastal forest. Twenty-two additional sightings
    included some birds in open areas.
    Collared Sparrowhawk
    Twenty-five sightings (0.1/hr) at 14 sites (27%). Well distributed through the study
    area, in dry eucalypt forest. The 18 additional sightings were mainly from coastal forest and
    scrub. Observations at Bundjalung National Park suggest that the birds live and breed in
    Page 73 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3paperbark swamp forest and riverine Blackbutt, and forage out over Banksia dune scrub
    and heath primarily for White-cheeked Honeyeaters Phylidonyris nigra The number of
    records, and observations of breeding behaviour, suggest that the species is a moderately
    common breeding resident in coastal open forest, with records for most months in the
    region. One breeding pair hunted 1-1.5 km from the nest.
    Grey Goshawk
    Thirty-one sightings (0.13/hr) at 18 sites (35%). Well distributed through the
    western, rugged part of the study area, in wet eucalypt forest and rainforest in national parks
    and state forests. The nine additional sightings were also from wet forest. Observations
    at some sites, particularly Mt Warning, Nightcap Range and Tweed Range, suggest
    remarkably high densities in certain areas of subtropical rainforest. For instance, five
    individuals were seen simultaneously from Mountain Bar lookout on the Tweed Range
    (Debus 1988), with neighbouring pairs being perhaps 1-2 km apart. Of approximately 50
    Grey Goshawk sightings in northern New South Wales and south-east Queensland, three
    were of the white morph; the ratio in the study area is therefore approximately 15:1 in favour
    of the grey morph.
    Red Goshawk
    The negative survey results and the paucity of recent sightings, compared with its
    historical status, suggest that this bird is now virtually extinct as a breeding species in New
    South Wales (Debus 1988, 1991a and in press). Nevertheless, it was an unexpected result
    that the last known pair in the state would disappear during the course of the survey. If this
    species is to persist in New South Wales, intervention may be required in the form of artificial
    augmentation of the wild population or even reintroduction (e.g. Olendorff et al. 1980,
    Barclay 1987). Aumann & Baker-Gabb (1991) have made recommendations relating to the
    New South Wales and Queensland situation, and these should be followed as a matter of
    White -bellied Sea -Eagle
    Twenty-eight sightings (0.11/hr) at 13 sites (25%), mostly coastal. Twenty-five
    additional sightings, from beaches, estuaries, rivers and contiguous coastal habitats. Still
    numerous, however only two active nests were seen, both in living trees: one in paperbark
    swamp forest and one in Blackbutt open forest, both in a national park. One nest was
    successful in one year (young fledged by early December) and was active in subsequent
    years; another contained one large nestling late in August. Given the likely scale of coastal
    development in the future, existing nests should be located and those outside reserves
    protected by buffer zones of undisturbed nesting habitat.
    The flying but still dependent young on 3 December begged to the adults with
    prolonged, wailing yelps, similar in quality to the adults’ honking call but more drawn-out and
    Wedge-tailed Eagle
    One hundred and eleven sightings (0.45/hr) at 40 sites (78%). Distributed throughout
    March 1992
    Page 74the study area, in rugged (especially dry) forested ranges and coastal forest. An adult bird
    was seen carrying a large lizard (small monitor Varanus sp. or Eastern Water Dragon
    Physignathus lesueurit) over dense coastal forest. Coastal parks such as Bundjalung and
    Yuraygir attract numbers of immature eagles.
    Spotted Harrier
    A single juvenile at one site in Bundjalung National Park (dry heath) on 3 December
  2. Rumoured by local bird -watchers to breed on the far north coast, but this remains to
    be documented properly. If correct, it would be a significant occurrence for a primarily inland
    and tropical species.
    Swamp Harrier
    Thirty-four sightings (0.14/hr) at 13 sites (25%), all coastal. Fourteen additional
    sightings, some over farmland (wet grassland, canefields). Sightings are strongly indicative
    of a resident breeding population on the north coast, but this awaits confirmation. The birds
    are present all year; adult birds have been seen performing courtship and advertisement
    display flights and territorial defence; recently fledged juveniles have been seen in
    December. have obtained similar circumstantial evidence in summer (December –
    January) at the Myall Lakes. However, nests are difficult to find in that habitat (wet coastal
    heath). The late E.L. Hyem found an active nest at Wallis Lake (B. Crisp pers. comm.).
    These records are north of the recorded breeding range in coastal eastern Australia
    (Blakers et al. 1984).
    Most sightings were over heath, but some were over paperbark and eucalypt forest;
    rufous individuals with barred wings and tail are superficially similar to the Red Goshawk and
    a potential cause of misidentifications.
    Peregrine Falcon
    Nine sightings (0.04/hr) at seven sites (14%), over forested ridges. Recorded three
    to four times more often than the Australian Hobby; safe, active cliff eyries were observed
    (one fledged two young); probably secure in the region. Its conservation status is of less
    concern than that of the Grey Falcon Falco hypoleucos (e.g. see Brouwer & Garnett 1990).
    Brown Falcon
    Seventeen sightings (0.07/hr) at 10 sites (20%). Dry open forest, particularly
    coastal. Twenty-eight additional sightings, mainly in open areas. Breeding on heath/open
    forest interface and foraging over dry heath on sandplain on the north coast, with two pairs
    about 10 km apart in Bundjalung National Park. One pair foraged 2 km from their nest.
    Perhaps the most important point to emerge from the survey, at least regarding
    methodology, is the value of stationary counts from vantage points overlooking forest. This
    method detected many forest hawks, including rare species such as the Square -tailed Kite,
    which may have gone undetected by the road transect method in such habitat. Point -counts
    are thus a necessary adjunct to road transects such as BOPWatch, if a more accurate
    Page 75 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3picture of the raptor community is to be obtained in forested or partly forested regions. The
    results would suggest that, for instance, the densities of Accipiter species often regarded
    as uncommon (Grey Goshawk, Collared Sparrowhawk) may be quite high in suitable
    habitat; the birds are obvious only when they soar and display over the forest.
    The raptor community on the far north coast of New South Wales is more diverse
    than the only two other raptor communities studied in coastal south-eastern Australia
    (Baker-Gabb 1984, Pastorelli 1984). If species formerly present but now absent or rare are
    included (Black -breasted Buzzard, Red Goshawk), the total for the present study area is 20
    species (83% of the Australian total), making the far north coast of New South Wales an
    exceptionally rich area for this group of birds. The continued destruction of coastal habitat,
    including important breeding habitat for the Osprey, Brahminy Kite and White -bellied Sea-
    Eagle (e.g. paperbark swamp forest), is therefore of concern if wildlife amenity is one of the
    values desired by the human community.
    I thank the Forestry Commission of NSW for permission to work in state forests and
    use fire lookout towers; Bob Moffatt (NPWS, Lismore) and the RAAF for facilitating work in
    Bundjalung National Park; and Peter Frater for his information and photographs of the
    Brahminy Kite. Rod Kavanagh, David James and two referees commented helpfully on a
    Aumann, T. & D.J. Baker-Gabb. 1991. The ecology and status of the Red Goshawk in
    northern Australia. RAOU Report 75.
    Baker-Gabb, D.J. 1984. The feeding ecology and behaviour of seven species of diurnal
    raptor overwintering in coastal Victoria. Aust. Wildl. Res. 11, 517-532.
    Barclay, J.H. 1987. Augmenting wild populations. In B.A. Giron-Pendelton, B.A. Millsap,
    K.W. Cline & D.M. Bird (Eds), Raptor Management Techniques Manual, 215-237.
    Washington DC: National Wildlife Federation.
    Blakers, M., S.J.J.F. Davies & P.N. Reilly. 1984. The Atlas of Australian Birds. Melbourne:
    Melbourne University Press.
    Brouwer, J. & S. Garnett. 1990. Threatened birds of Australia, an annotated list. RAOU
    Report 68.
    Clancy, G. 1989. A survey of breeding Ospreys Pandion haliaetus in north-eastern coastal
    New South Wales 1980 to 1982. Corella 13, 9-14.
    Clancy, G. In press. The conservation status of the Osprey in New South Wales. In Olsen,
    P.D. & J. Olsen (Eds), Proc. Australasian Raptor Assoc. 10th Anniv. Conference,
    Canberra 1989.
    Cooper, R.M. 1990. 1986 New South Wales bird report. Aust. Birds 23, 68-101.
    Cooper, R.M. 1991. 1987 New South Wales bird report. Aust. Birds 24, 49-72.
    Debus, S. 1988. Survey of the Red Goshawk in north-eastern New South Wales. Unpubl.
    report to NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1991a. An annotated list of New South Wales records of the Red Goshawk.
    Aust Birds 24, 72-89.
    March 1992 Page 76Debus, S. 1991b. Display of Osprey. Australasian Raptor Assoc. News 12, 56.
    Debus, S. 1991c. Urban foraging of a wintering Pacific Baza. Australasian Raptor Assoc.
    News 12, 9.
    Debus, S. 1991d. Aerial display of the Pacific Baza. Australasian Raptor Assoc. News 12,
    Debus, S.J.S. 1991e. The Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in South Australia. S. Aust.
    OrnithoL 31, 57-71.
    Debus, S.J.S. In press. The status of the Red Goshawk Erythrotriorchis radiatus in New
    South Wales. In Olsen, P.D. & J. Olsen (Eds), Proc. Australasian Raptor Assoc. 10th
    Anniv.Conference, Canberra 1989.
    Debus, S.J.S. & G.V. Czechura. 1989. The Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura : a review.
    Aust. Bird Watcher 13, 80-97.
    Debus, S.J.S. & G.V. Czechura. 1992. The Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in
    Queensland. Sunbird 22, in press.
    Debus, S.J.S. & C.E. Silveira. 1989. The Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in Victoria.
    Aust. Bird Watcher 13, 118-123.
    Debus, S.J.S., R.D. Earle, G.J. Millard & C.R. Parker. 1992. Breeding behaviour of a pair
    of Square -tailed Kites. Aust. Birds, in press.
    Hindwood, K.A. 1970. The “Watling” drawings, with incidental notes on the “Lambert” and
    the “Latham” drawings. Proc. Roy. ZooL Soc. NSW1968-1969, 16-32.
    JTCW Planning. 1986. North Ocean Shores regional environmental study: draft final report
    for Ocean Shores Development Corporation.
    Morris, A.K. 1975. The birds of Gosford, Wyong and Newcastle (County of Northumberland).
    Aust. Birds 9, 37-76.
    Morris, A.K. 1990. The 1989 bird report. NSW Field OrnithoL Club NewsL 118, 3.
    Morris, F.T. 1976. Birds of Prey of Australia, A Field Guide. Melbourne: Lansdowne.
    Newton, I., P. Olsen & T. Pyrzakowski. 1990. Birds of Prey. Sydney: Golden Press.
    Olendorff, R.R., R.S. Motroni & M.W. Call. 1980. Raptor management – the state of the art
    in 1980. US Dept of Interior: Bureau of Land Management Technical Note 345.
    Pastorelli, J. 1984. The ecology of a raptor guild in coastal New South Wales. BSc (Hons)
    thesis, University of New South Wales.
    Pearce, B. 1989. Australian Artists, Australian Birds. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.
    Debus, Zoology Department, University of New England, Armidale, NSW 2351
    Page 77 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3LITTLE TERNS FEEDING YOUNG ON FRESH WATER LAKE
    The Little Tern Sterna albifrons is known to nest on or near the eastern Australia coast (P.
    Smith, 1991 “The Biology and Management of Little Terns Sterna albifrons in New South
    Wales”, NPWS Sydney), although in other parts of the world they may be found nesting
    beside rivers and lakes far from the sea. They are rarely recorded feeding in freshwater
    lakes in Australia and there is little information on their feeding biology overall. Overseas
    the birds have been found feeding on freshwater items such as small fish, flies, gnats,
    beetles and ants, annelids and molluscs.
    It is therefore of interest to record that at 900 hrs on 6 January 1992 while carrying
    out a waterbird survey at Eastlakes Golf Course, near Botany, 14 Little Terns were observed
    on a fairway adjacent to the largest lake. was able to view the terns with 70mm scope at
    a distance of approximately 30m. The total count consisted of nine fledged young, two
    adults in breeding plumage and three non -breeding plumage birds.
    The adults were seen to catch small fish in the lake and feed some of the fledglings.
    Up to six terns were seen to be actively feeding by diving. The species of fish caught is
    unknown but they were approximately 30mm in length.
    This small group of terns could well have been from the nesting colony at Towra Spit,
    Towra Point Nature Reserve 9kms to the south where J. Pegler recorded 9 fledglings and
    50+ adults on 26 December 1991 (A.K. Morris and C.J. Chafer, 1991 NSWFOC Newsletter
    No. 128).
    Keith Egan, 1 Bowman Street, Mortlake, NSW 2223
    Although the staple diet of cockatoos, parrots and lorikeets (Order Psittaciformes) is
    food from native trees, some food is taken from introduced plants (Barker & Vestjens,
    1989). This report documents some recent records of Psittaciformes ingesting food
    from introduced trees and shrubs in the Illawarra region.
    On 26 June 1991, watched 22 Sulphur -crested Cockatoos (scientific bird names
    in Table 1) consuming nectar from the flowers of three Coral trees Erythrina x sykesii in
    Farrel Street, Balgownie. Three birds were observed intensely with 8×40 binoculars for
    15 minutes at 20 metres. They removed flowers from inflorescences by pulling with
    their bills gripped near the base of the calyx. They then chewed the calyx to squeeze
    nectar through the petals to the outside surface of the sepals and receptacle. I
    occasionally saw the hemispherical end of their tongues licking the damaged area of the
    corolla presumably to obtain nectar. Sequentially, flowers were processed in this
    manner, then dropped. When the tallest (11rn) tree with 14 birds was approached, the
    entire flock was disturbed and flew away. A random 10 m x 40 cm transect was
    mapped on the ground from the trunk of this tree to the extremity of its crown projection.
    In the sampled areas, there were 163 fresh flowers and two complete inflorescences
    (fallen floral density 41/m’). Some cockatoos chew plants to relieve boredom (Forshaw
    and Cooper 1981) but this possibility was excluded because all 22 birds diligently
    applied the same feeding technique throughout the observation period.
    Feeding records are shown in Table 1. Crimson Rosellas, Musk and Rainbow
    Lorikeets also fed on nectar from Coral trees Erythrina x sykesii in the manner described
    for Sulphur -crested Cockatoos. These four species were unable to pollinate Coral trees
    when feeding in the manner described. Even the brush -tipped tongue of the lorikeets
    (Churchill & Christensen 1970) is apparently too short to extract nectar from the open
    end of the Coral corolla. But the species which consumed the berries listed in Table 1
    appeared to swallow them intact, inflicting only superficial damage on the pericarp. The
    berry -eating species were seed dispersers. Forde (1986) and French (1990) concluded
    that most seeds eaten by Australian birds are passed intact and germinate. The
    frugivores listed were predators on the plants which provided their food.
    Some foods from introduced plants are well known in the diet of certain species,
    e.g. Cotoneaster berries Cotoneaster glancaphyllus for Crimson Rosellas and King
    Parrots, Hawthorn berries Crataegus monogyna for Gang -gang Cockatoos and nectar
    Page 79 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3n
    from Coral trees Erythrina spp. for Rainbow Lorikeets (Forshaw & Cooper 1981, Barker
    & Vestjens 1989). Some platycercid parrots are known to “chew flowers to extract
    nectar” (Paton 1986). But most of the foods tabulated do not appear to have been
    documented in the diet of the Psittaciformes.
    acknowledge the observers mentioned for their cooperation in drafting the
    report and confirming the observations.
    Barker, R.D. & W.J.M. Vestjens. 1989. The Food of Australian Birds, Vol.1. Non –
    Passerines. Melbourne: C.S.I.R.O., Parchment Press.
    Churchill, D.M. & P. Christensen. 1970. Observations on pollen harvesting by brush –
    tongued lorikeets. Aust. J. Zool. 18,427-437.
    Forde, N. 1986. Relationships between birds and fruits in temperate Australia. In The
    Dynamic Partnership, Birds and Plants in southern Australia, pp.42-58. Eds.
    H.A. Ford & D.C. Paton. South Australia: Government Printer.
    Forshaw, J.M. & W.T. Cooper. 1981. Australian Parrots, 2nd edn. rev. Melbourne:
    Landsdowne Editions,
    French, K. 1990. Evidence of frugivory by birds in montane and lowland forests in
    south-east Australia. Emu 90,185-189.
    Paton, D.C. 1986. Honeyeaters and their plants in south-eastern Australia. In The
    Dynamic Partnership, Birds and Plants in southern Australia, pp.9-19. Eds.
    H.A. Ford & D.C. Paton. South Australia: Government Printer.
    K.A. Wood, 7 Eastern Avenue, Mangerton. N.S.W. 2500
    Page 81 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3MASKED WOODSWALLOWS AND BIGNONIA EMU -BUSH:
    From 24-26 September 1991, a group of NSW Bird Atlassers camped at a swamp
    approximately two kilometres east of Adelaide Gate on the NSW/QLD border, 29°00’S
    142°36’E. According to the locals there had been no rain for 12 months, and the swamp was
    dry at this place although there was a retreating expanse of surface water in the Caryapundy
    Swamp 29°00’S 142°32’E.
    At the camp, vegetation consisted of Lign urn Muehlenbeckia florulenta, with Bignonia
    Emu -bush Eremophila bignoniiflora and Old Man Saltbush Atriplex nummularia making up
    most of the vegetation on strand dunes in the swamp. Flowering Bignonia Emu -bush was
    widespread in far N/W NSW at that time.
    About 0630 hrs on 25 September a flock of approximately 150 woodswallows was
    seen alternately flying and settling some distance away from my observation place on a
    dune. As the flock advanced, calling constantly, two species were identified: Masked
    Woodswallows Artamus personatus and White-browed Woodswallows A. supercilliosus,
    the former making up most of the flock. When the birds settled the volume and frequency
    of their calls brought to mind the excited behaviour of lorikeets at a honey flow.
    On close approach the food source was seen to be at the flowers of Bignonia Emu –
    bush. Through 8 x 40 binoculars Masked Woodswallows were observed inserting their bills
    and faces into the flowers. I did not observe any White-browed Woodswallows at the flowers
    of Bignonia Emu -bush, probably due to my concentration on one group of birds.
    Larkins (1983) described White-browed Woodswallows visiting Silky Oak Grevillea
    robusta inflorescence. Paton and Ford (1977) included Artamidae among birds that visit
    flowers occasionally and list Eremophila maculata as a flower visited by various bird species
    in South Australia.
    White E. maculata flowers are red, a colour which attracts birds, E. bignoniiflora
    flowers are a pale cream, spotted pale rusty red at the corolla mouth. Paton and Ford remark
    “The flowers of Eremophila are tubular and the anthers and stigma are at or near the
    opening of the corolla. When birds probe these flowers through the opening they inevitably
    brush against the anthers and stigmas”.
    March 1992 Page 82As the woodswallows moved frequently from place to place there was no time to
    establish whether the food was pollen, nectar or insects. However, from the position of the
    face pushed into the corolla, it appeared that the bill was probing the nectaries rather than
    the corolla mouth.
    considered the birds were feeding on nectar and picking up pollen on their feathers
    as described by Larkins (loc. cit.), in which case they would act as pollinators of E.
    bignoniiflora. It would also appear that flowering eremophila contributes to the support of
    woodswallows in arid areas during the north -south movements.
    It is interesting to note that Michael Maher (pers. comm.) has observed Masked
    Woodswallows feeding at Harlequin Fuchsia Bush Eremophila duttoni, on Nocoleche
    Nature Reserve, south of Wanaaring NSW, although it was uncertain as to whether the birds
    were attracted to nectar, pollen, or to the many insects attracted to the flowers.
    My specimen of Bignonia Emu -bush was identified by the herbarium of the Royal
    Botanic Gardens Sydney. am grateful to Ian McAllen and Michael Maher for discussion
    and suggestions relating to this paper.
    Larkins, D. (1983). White-browed Woodswallows and White -winged Trillers as nectar
    feeders and pollinators. Aust. Birds 18, 15-16.
    Paton, D. and H.A. Ford (1977). Pollination by birds of native plants in South Australia. Emu
    77, 73-85.
    Daniel Larkins, 225 Kissing Point Road, Turramurra, NSW 2074
    Page 83 Australian Birds Vol. 25 No. 3OBITUARY: JOHN WAUGH
    John Waugh died on 31 July 1991, of the cancer diagnosed early in the year.
    John was born in 1914. His early years were spent in the country. He grew up in
    Albury and his pre-warteaching careervariously found him at Mundarloon the Murrumbidgee,
    Ournie near the Murray, Weja between West Wyalong and Lake Cargelligo and finally at
    Cobar. In 1941, he enlisted in the RAAF. After training in Canada as a pilot, he served in the
    467 Squadron in Britain and flew 35 times into Germany and occupied Europe. He was
    awarded a D.F.C. for landing his plane one night with a bomb jammed in the bomb bay. After
    the war he resumed teaching in Sydney. He married in 1946 and had two children,
    Rosemary and John Edward. His wife Norma died in 1969. In 1984 he married Pauline
    Rodgers -Lee.
    John became an active birdwatcher following his retirement as a school principal in
  3. He was an enthusiastic and meticulous participant in many ornithological projects.
    During the NSWFOC wader survey of Botany Bay, 1976-79, he contributed 41 record
    sheets which included 16 from Towra Point and 5 from Pelican Point. Both areas were
    reached by foot.
    He was a very active contributor to the Atlas of Australian Birds, 1977-81, and
    attended many of its expeditions: to Tibooburra, Gregory River in the Gulf country, and the
    Northern Territory. The road maps to these camps were marked in 10′ grids to facilitate
    atlasing. John’s tenacity and bushcraft encouraged other more timid birdwatchers, one such
    being myself, to pursue elusive grasswrens over many a spinifex-covered escarpment.
    He contributed many articles to Australian Birds: “A Baird’s Sandpiper at Botany
    Bay” (1977 Aust. Birds12:32-35) coauthored with Jim Cook: “A Sighting of the Yellow Chat
    in the Northern Territory” (1978 Aust. Birds 13:38-39); and his five reports of bird counts on
    the Murrumbidgee River (1981, 1983, 1985, 1987, 1988).
    The combination of bird atlas expeditions, frequent visits to his son John Edward in
    the Northern Territory, and latterly extensive trips with his wife Pauline, resulted in his having
    enormous knowledge of where to find birds in Australia. John was infinitely generous in
    directing other birdwatchers to worthwhile locations. He provided many people with
    notebooks guiding them to the best birding and camping sites on their route.
    John is mourned by his numerous friends. Our sympathy goes to his wife Pauline,
    his children Rosemary and John Edward and their families.
    Joy Pegler
    March 1992 Page 84NOTICE TO CONTRIBUTORS
    Contributors are requested to observe the following points when submitting articles and
    notes for publication.
  4. Species, names, and the order in which they occur are to be in accordance with “Handlist
    of Birds in New South Wales”. A.K. Morris, A.R. McGill and G. Holmes 1981 Dubbo:
  5. Articles or notes should be type written if possible and submitted in duplicate. Double
    spacing is required.
  6. Margins of not less than 25mm width at the left hand side and top, with similar or slightly
    smaller at the right hand side of pages.
  7. No underlinings and no abbreviations except as shown in the examples.
  8. Photographs should be glossy finish and not too small.
  9. The Style Manual, CommonwealthGovernment Printing Office, Canberra (1966) and
    subsequent editions will be the guide for this Journal.
  10. Diagrams should be on plain white paper drawn with india ink. Any lettering is to be
    ‘professional style’ or lightly pencilled.
  11. Dates must be written “1 January 1990” except in tables and figures where they may be
  12. The 24 hour clock will be used, times being written 06:30, 18:30 for 6:30am and 6:30pm
  13. Mr, Mrs, Dr are not to be followed by a full stop.
  14. In text, numbers one to ten are spelt; numbers of five figures or more should be grouped
    in threes and spaced by a thin gap. Commas should not be used as thousands markers.
  15. References to other articles should be shown in the text – ‘…B.W. Finch and M.D. Bruce
    (1974) stated…’ and under heading
    Finch, B.W. and M.D. Bruce. 1974. The Status of the Blue Petrel in Australian Waters Aust.
    Birds 9, 32-35
  16. Acknowledgements to other individuals should include Christian names or initials.Volume 25, No.3 March 1992
    Maddock M. Foraging Association between Royal Spoonbills, Egrets
    and the White-faced Heron 61
    Smith J. Cooperative Breeding in the Chestnut -crowned //babbler
    Pomatostomus ruficeps 64
    Tremont S. Aerial Courtship of Australian Hobbies 66
    Debus S.J.S. A Survey of Diurnal Raptors in North-east NSW, 1987-90 67
    Egan K. Little Terns Feeding Young on Fresh Water Lake 78
    Wood K.A. Cockatoos, Parrots and Lorikeets Eating Food from
    Introduced Trees and Shrubs in the Illawarra Region 79
    Larkins D. Masked Woodswallows and Bignonia Emu -bush:
    An Interesting Relationship 82
    Pegler J. Obituary: John Waugh 84
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