Vol. 3 No. 4-text

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Price 250. Published by the Gould League Birdwatcher
Vol.3. No.4 1st January, 1969.
Patron: ALEC H. CHISHOLM 0.D.E., F.R.Z.S.
Hon. Secretary and Editor: L. COURTNEY HAINES.
10 Loquat Valley Road, Bayview.
observations Committee: K.A. HINDWOOD and A.R. McGILL.
Field^ day Organiser: G. DIBLEY
18 Russell Street, Oatley. (57-6298)
Art Adviser: E.S. HOSKIN.
Photographic Adviser: NORMAN CHAFFER.
Assistant Secretary: R. COOKE.
The following notes by Messrs. Hinduood, McGill and myself
discuss the five dotterels found nesting in AustraJia. 2J1 five
species breed in N.S.W.

  • EDITOR –
    The Australian Dotterel is a distinctive bird of the inland
    regions of the Continent. It is found, for the most part, with-
    in, the limits of the 20″ rainfall belt and is, perhaps, commoner
    in those areas which receive an annual rainfall of about 10″ or
    less. In other words it is largely a desert form well adapted
    to an arid and semi -arid environment.
    In South Australia (Eyre Peninsula and Nullabor Plain) and
    in Western Australia (North-west Cape) it occurs, or has occured,
    in near -coastal localities, so the alternate name of Inland Dott-
    erel that is sometimes used is not entirely e. 3..sfactory.
    In interesting occurrence, well outside the usual range of
    the species, is that of an immature bird collected at Alloway
    Park, near Bathurst, N.S:V., on February 2, 1905 (specimen No,
    0,21.168, Imstralian EuEcum, Sydney). Bathurot licewest of the
    Great Di-idfng Range about 100 miles from the corm Sydne,BIRDS – 26 – January 1, 1969.
    Breeding takes place when conditions are suitable and often
    after rain and has been recorded for every month except January
    and February, the hottest and driest period of the year. Nests
    are slight depressions in the ground and may be ringed with a
    ridge of sandy soil or, perhaps, small stems of plants, pebbles
    or pieces of sheeps’ dung. Two or three eggs form a normal clut-
    ch, though up to five have been recorded. The ground colour,
    which varies from cream to reddish -buff is overlaid with blackish
    brown and grey spots, blotches and streaks. Average measurements
    are 37 mm, by 26 mm. J. Neil McGill has stated (South 4ustrnlian
    Ornithologist, 5,1920, p.51) that the eggs when laid are of a gr-
    eenish colour but change. to yellowish -brown after a few days.
    When leaving its nest the Australian Dotterel will often
    cover its eggs with small Wigs, pellets of hard Mud, grass stems
    or earth. One observer (R.T. Littlejohns, Emu, 45, p.98) has
    noted that the birds were not inclined to brood during warm or
    hot weather but on cold or wet days soon.returned to the nest.
    after being disturbed. Littlejohns observed that the eggs at a
    particular nest were almost completely concealed by earth mixed
    with short grass stems. The covering of the eggs is done quickly
    with the feet. One nesting bird watched by C.E. Bryant (Emu,
    39,1940, p.155) turned its back on the intruder and commenced an
    exceedingly speedy “dance”, rising slightly off its feet as it
    used them alternatively in scratching the sand over the eggs.
    The Kittlitz Sand- Plover of Tropical Africa and also the
    Egyptian Plover cover their eggs with sand, as does the Kentish
    Plover (our Red -capped Dotterel) in those parts but not elsewhere
    throughout its extensive range, as far as is known. The habit
    probably serves the double purpose. of protection from the heat of
    the sun and concealment from predators. Apart from the above –
    mentioned plovers other species, such as the Little Grebe and the
    Ruffed Grouse, cover their eggs, the former with aquatic vegeta-
    tion and the latter with leaves.
    Australian Dotterels eat seeds, insects and their larvae and
    some vegetable matter. Monty Schraeder of Cunnamulla, Q., has
    an injured bird which lives on millet “with greens sometimes”.
    Doubtless the birds rest during the heat of the day prefering to
    feed in the mornings and evenings. A relatively largo eye indic-
    ates that the species is active at night, a fact noted by Monty
    Schroeder and also by McGilp who watched, in the headlights of
    his car, many birds at work on a thick patch of grasshoppers.BIRDS – 27 – January 1, 1969.
    Hundreds of Australian Dotterels have been seen coming in to a
    stock tank to drink at dusk (McCilp, Emu, 22, 1923, p.240).
    The AustraJjan Dotterel has the typical plover- like habit o
    bobing its head and it practices injury feigning when its eggs
    or young are in danger. It runs with speed and flies swiftly.
    Recently -hatched downy young are speckled blackish -brown an
    buff above and have pale buff underparts and their mottled appea
    ranee makes them look like little clods of earth.
    The haunts of the Australian Dotterel are open sandy plains,
    sQlt-bush and gibber country, pasture lands and ploughed fields.
    The opening up of mallee country for agricultural purposes has
    provided additional habitats for the species. Its presence in a
    particular district seems to be largely influenced by local con-
    ditions rather than by regular seasonal movements.
    The taxonomic position of the plover -like (in. -habits) Lust-
    mnlian Dotterel has been discussed in recent times by Walter J.
    Book (Emu, 63, 1964, p.383) and also by Joseph R. Jehl, Jnr.who,
    in his paper (San Diego Society of Natural History, Memoir No.
    3, 1968) retained the species in the subfamily Cursoriinae (Cour
    sers) whereas Bock recommended that it be placed with the plove:
    ro,. HINDWOOD, Sydney, NSW.
    The Black -fronted Dotterel also called Sandpiper and Gutter
    Snipe, occurs throughout Australia and is usually found in pairs
    frequenting shingly banks of freshwater streams. This little
    plover is also to be found inhabiting the muddy foreshores of
    tidal weed -strewn backwaters and it was in a habitat such as thi
    I came first to know the Black -fronted Dotterel.
    Unlike the Red -capped species in which the male is munh
    more brightly plumaged than the female, the sexes of the Black –
    fronted Dotterel are very similar.
    In field habits and flight, the Black -fronted Dotterel dif-
    fers from other sand dotterels of the genus Charadrius and seems
    to be more closely allied tcythe Spurwing plovers and Lapwings.IRDS – 28 – January, 1, 1969.
    he nest too, is sometimes lined with grass and small sticks.
    ests of this kind Bear a resemblance to nests of the Spur wing
    d Banded Plovers.
    The eggs of the Black -fronted Dotterel, like all eggs of
    he family of birds Charadriidae, are very beautiful objects of
    ature. They are stone -coloured with markings of brown and laven-
    er neatly adorning the complete egg surface. then fresh, the eg-
    s have a hard porcelain appearance and in this way, differ great –
    from the eggs of the Red -capped Dotterel, the eggs of which
    reduce a soft pigmental effect to the eye. The clutch is usually
    hree in number, although I have found on occasions, clutches in
    hich the complement was obviously two.
    The breeding season is from September to December.
    The food of this dotterel is mainly aquatic life; but frag-
    ents of beetles and skins of larvae of insects, some lepidopter-
    us, ants and also seeds have been found in stomachs examined.
  • L.C. Haines –
    IL species that always provides a measure of satisfaction to
    ield observers on the quieter reaches of coastal beaches in south
    -rn New South Wales is the Hooded Dotterel. It is the only one
    the five dotterels that breed in that State which solely occurs
    n beaches and tidal inlets. This is in contrast to the position
    south-western Australia, where the Hooded Dotterel is not ma-
    mmon on salt lakes far inland. It is widespread throughout most
    f southern Australia and Tasmania, extending north in Now South
    tales rarely as far as Sydney. On the numerous sand beaches south
    Jervis Bay one or more pairs appear to be resident. I have
    ound them at times in small flocks upwards of six birds, probably
    aridly parties following a successful breeding. Pairs take up
    heir territories in early Spring.
    The nest is merely a shallow hollow in the sand, well above
    he tide line, and it is usually placed beside a beach -drifted log
    r other object. This either serves as protection from beach
    valkers or strolling animals, or possibly to provide a ready loca-
    ion mark. Two or three eggs are generally laid being sandy- buff

coloration and are spotted and blotched with purple and blackBIRDS – 29 – January, 1, 1969.

markings. They are somewhat pointed, like all plover eggs, the
smaller end being turned inwards when in the nest. August to Jan
uary covers the breeding period.
The Hooded Dotterel is easily identified, as it is the only
sms11 plover with the head and throat all brownish -black, there
is a broad white nape -patch with a black border between it and
the brownish upper plumage. The legs are pinkish and the bill
with a black tip. The underparts are white, and in flight the
white rump shows a blackish centre. The young do not have the
black head and throat and need careful identification.
Birds permit a close approach, but usually run with quick st
rides ahead of an observer for some distance along the beach. Wh
the birds decide they have gone far_ enough they rise in flight
over the sea and quickly return to where they were first disturbe.
I have seen them on most south coast areas when patrolling from
Uiladlilla southwards, but only an a few occasions have I found the
nest. The total State population would be, however, small and
careful protection of this interesting bird is needed.
Lrnold R. McGill, NS
My earliest recollections of the Red- capped Dotterel date
back to the year 1937. In those far off days the back -waters of
Iron Cove Bay still retained stands of. mangroves, muddy water
channels and at low tide, fairly eXtensive sand and mud flats.
While homeward bound late one winter’s afternoon from a
swampside ramble. I noticed in the fading light and some little
distance out in the swamp, a small party of waders.
Despite the fact that I did not possess field -glasses, I
managed to write down in my note -book an “on the spot”, descript-
ion of the birds and observed in doing so, th,126 some were more
brightly marked about the head and face than were others in the
group. During my next visit to the bird gallery in the Australi
an Museum, the only reference “bird book” to which I had access
in those days, I eventually managed to locate some mounted speci-
mens in one of the glass cases, which anSnered very well indeed
to my field notes and 1 found my little plovers to be Re&-capped
Dotterels.BIRDS, . – 30 – January, 1, 1969.
Not very long after the above mentioned episode, the man –
‘trove swamps of Iron Cove Bay were totally destroyed in the name
civic progress and the complete area reclaimed.
Llthough White -fronted Chats, Little Grassbirds and Brown
Honeyeaters were forced to abandon the area and seek other suit-
able habitats further along the Parramatta River, conditions were
made ideal for Red -capped Dotterels. Lreas that were formally
mangrove, samphire and mud were converted into quite extensive
flats of white sand and shingle, dredged up from the bottom of th
adjoining bay. The dotterel population began to increase and it
was not long before they began to nest in the reclaimed areas.
Red capped Dotterels nest from August to Janu.rry and on th-
is dazzling white nesting habitat I located many nests. All eggs
examined were of what I now regard as the pale form; that is,
creamy- white eggs marked with light and darker brown spots and
pale lavender splotches. Eggs of this pigmentation I then reg-
arded as typical Red -capped Dotterels’ eggs. It was not until
some years later that I became aware of the fact that the Red-
capped Dotterel was capable of producing two other forms of eggs,
according to the immediate background and habitat in which the
nest depressions are placed.
It was also in this reclaimed swamp, that I located a true
clutch of three eggs. The normal is two and the only other reco-
rd I have of a clutch of three for the Red -cap is a true set
photographed many years ago by Michael Sharland. During more reo-
ent years, Douglas Gibson of Thirroul has found a clutch of four;
but this clutch was obviously the laying of two hens, there being
two of the pale form and two of a dark form all in the one nest
depression. Just how the two clutches came to be in the same
nest is a matter of conjecture.
The Red -capped Dotterel’s diet consists of small beetles
and beciiAe larvae. It mainly feeds at the water’s edge.
The young “Dowries” are able to swim quite well and I once
observed a wounded female which eluded capture by running into
the., water and swinning out into the’ bay.
.’17faxonimists:new:ragard the Red -capped Dotterel, Charadrius
(Leueoyolius) aloXaldrircUS4uficaeillus as a sub -species Hof theBLACK -FRONTED DOTTEREL – PHOTO – N. CHAFFER

  • PHOTO – N. CHAFFERBIRDS – 31 – January, 1,-156
    Kentish Plover, L.A. alexandrinus, a Palaearactic Species no lion!,
    ger found breeding in Britian. Four other sub -species of the
    typical race (The Kentish Plover) are known to ornithological sc-
    ience. They are :- Leucopolius alexandrinus dealbatus, South
    China to Japan. L.A. seebohmi, Ceylon. L.a. nivosus, North and
    South America and L.a. spatzi of Rio de, Oro.
    L.C. Haines
    In New South Wales the Red -kneed Dotterel is largely a bird
    of the inland swamps and lagoons. The presence of the species in
    coastal districts (that is, east of the Great Dividing Range)
    irregular and apparently the result of drought conditions causi-
    ng the birds to disperse to more suitable localities. Ln eatery
    coastal specimen was that collected by the Naturalist John Mac-
    Gillivray (1321-1867) near Grafton, Clarence River, in 1865,
    there is also a specimen, dated 1866, and another undated skin
    from the Clarence River: both are in the Australian Museum coll-
    A.R. McGill discussed (Emu, vol.4.3, 1944,pp.225-8) the st-
    atus of the species in coastal south-eastern Australia, and later
    Hindwood and McGill (Birds of Sydney, 1958,1).37) summarised the
    records for the Sydney district. Between June 1943, when first
    noted in the area, and April 1958, from one to 12 Red -kneed
    Dotterels were observed in the Hawkesbury swamps.some 30 miles
    west of Sydney. Another coastal record of the time was that for
    a bird seen at Tuggerah Lakes, north of Sydney, in December 1958
    by the Late Captain and Mrs Hutcheson.
    Several years then passed before the next recorded “invas-
    ion” between June and December 1965, from one to 6 birds were
    seen either at Homebush Bay (close to Sydney) or at Bushell’s
    Lagoon, Wilberforce, in the Hawkesbury district. It was at Bush
    el/1s Lagoon, on September 9, 1965 that the nest and four eggs
    of a pair.of Red -kneed Dotterels were found by E.S. Hoskin: as
    far as is known this is the only recorded nesting of the species
    in coastal New South Wales.
    In 1966 single birds were observed both at Henebush Bay an
    Bushell’s Lagoon over the period April to September.
    The severe drought that affected much of inland New SouthBIRDS – 32 – January, 1, 1969.
    Wales (and other parts of Lustralia) in 1967 and early 1968, must
    have forced many Red -kneed Dotterels to move into coastal local-
    ities. What may be termed an influx of the species took place
    in December 1967 and January 1968 as the following records will
    indicate:- Mill Pond (Botany)1; Homebush Bay, 3; Maranlan (100
    miles s -w of Sydney), 13; Bushell’s Lagoon 211 (oil for December).
    L survey of the muddy margins of Bushell’s Lagoon on January 6,
    1968 revealed the presence of at least 50 Red- kneed Dotterels.
    Some ten days later 15 birds were noted along a portion only of
    the same lagoon. :part from one bird seen on the Mill Pond,
    Botany, in January none has since been reported form coastal are-
    as. Two visits were made to Bushell’s Lagoon in Lpril 1968, at
    which place more than 50 Red -kneed Dotterels were recorded in
    January, but none was seen. Widespread rains ended the inland
    drought in mid -May 1968.
    Ln organised survey of likely haunts in coastal New South
    Wales during the drought would have doubtless revealed the pres-
    ence of considerably more Red -kneed Dotterels than were recorded
    by the “chance” and intermittend observations outlined above, and
    which, apart from personal notes, have been kindly made available
    by several observers to whom thanks are extended.
    Hindwood, Lindfield, N.S..
    td RECORDS FROM J.,N. TO JUiVE. 196,8.
    LOTUS BIRD LONG NECK LLGOON: (7) 2-1-68, (1) 20-148. PITT0110
    SILLIT: (1) 29-1-68. B1ZERB L. ON: (3) 3-3-68, (5)27-47F,
    (3) 16-6-68.
    (60) 19-5-68. HOMEBUSH B- Y: (22) 4-6-68.
    (9) 2-1-68, (4) 19-5-68, (iv)
    E.ST.: (1) 3-2-68. aTIBR”Y BLY: (1) 10-2-68.
    12) 10-2-68.
    LLRGE SL.ND DOTTEREL QUIBRJ.a. 13_,Y: (z) 10-2-68.BIRDS – January, 1 , 1 969
    17 -1 -68 . COOKS RIVER EST .—:727) 3-2-68. OUIBRAY BAY: 5)
    NEI::0_,STIF,: (2) 13-1.-68 BUSHELLS LA.GOOT\TM ) 18-2-68, C.35 3-3-68.
    BAKERS LGOON: (10) 27-4-68. CATTAI a: LI-ID: (9) 25-4-68-1 (I )
    /7-713-1-68. S’,,11/IP : (-1) 3-2-68.
    WHITE-71-EADED STILT PITTOUN SWAT T : (4.) 2-1-68 (5) 19-5-68. ASH IS.
    NEWCASTLE: 13-1-68. HOME BUSH BAY: (30) 17-1-68. BUSI-WIS LAG- –
    00N: (-,L) BAKERS LAGOO.N7:7727-4-68. MARAYLYA SWAMP: (3)
    6-4-68. HOME BUSH BAY: T2) 26-5.-68, (20) 11-6-68. Pilo GRATHS HILL
    riY 10-2-68.
    GREATER KNOT STOGIZ91….aLG….STLL-;: (5) 13-1-68. QUIBRAY BAY: (1 )
    (60) 3-2-68, GUIB11.7Y B..11 KURNIJI: (46) 10-2-68.
    SH.,:_RP-TAILED S. .TTDP_U-)ER BUSHELLS LA,Gp ON: (9) 2-1-68. ASH IS. NEW-
    CASTLE : 0771-1 -68. HoMEnii7KY:-754) 17-1-68. 9UIBRZLY Bi1Y,
    Ku- RN- ELI]: (16)
    (42) 3-2-68, .–)UIBRAY 670717.7-2-68. HOMEBUSH B17777) 17-1 –
    68, (15) 31-5-68.
    ORTEMEAD : ) 7:1–687,7717 -1-68, (2) 18-2.-68. L.SH IS. NEWCASTLE
    73-7–1 HOMEBUSH B.1Y : (30) 17-1-68. CLTTLI SWAMP: (2)
    TURNSTONE ASH IS. NEWCASTLE: (2) 13-1.-68.
    10-2-68. DOLLS POINT : (1)
    STOCKTON, NEWCASTLE: (2) 13-1-68. QUIBRAY BAY: (1 )10-2-
    IS. (6) 13-1-68.
    7S7…:77Z 10-2-68. QUIBRAY BAY, KURTIELL: (90) 3-2-a. DOLLS POI-
    (1) 3-b8.
    NT : 14
    32) 10-2-68.
    (1) 17-1
    REEN BRINK L.S11 IS NEWCLSTLE: (1) 13-1-68. M.,112=1. aJLMP: (1)
    8,, 3) 18-2-68, (1) 64;68, (i) 25.4-68.
    SLNDPIPER IS NEWCLSTLE: (150) 13-1-68. gyIBRLY BIY: (2)

One occaskLnally reads in English magazines, “The Field” and
“Country Life”, letters to the Editor, concerning that interesting
ader of the woodlands, the Woodcock carrying its Downy young
between its thighs.
Mr. Tony Rose, Kuring-gai Chase National Park naturalist,
sends me the following interesting bird, -notes.: –
“.After being aemotilised from the Indian army, I worked in Nor-
folk, the home of the Stone -Curlew, also called Norfolk Plover
and locally, Thick -knee. Their eerie cry as they flew over at
night, I heard again a few years later at Gloucester, N.S.W.
Matt,- times I saw them on their breeding grounds on the Norfolk
heathland and have been decoyed, away from their nest by the old
broker wing trick. I saw one brooding with part of an egg- _-
shell in its.beak. Evidently they take the egg -shells away and
crush then by stamping on them. They then eat the little bits so
that no evidence is left of their nest.
Norfolk also introduced me to the Woodcock as a breeding bird.
Previously, I had only seen it in winter, when it arrives from
breeding grounds in Northern Europe,
I was honoured with a pair nesting in a spinney. The first sign
I had was while standing in a. ride of the main wood at dusk on
20th March, 1949. L. Woodcock flew over my head oilling, in the
peculiar courting flight called “roding”. I saw a young one on
May 16th and later flushed the old bird which flew in a labouring
manner just managing to clear the hedge after whloh it dropped
into a bean field. Rooks chased her until they saw me. Her le-
gs were hanging down carrying a young one between her thighs.
I had seen and seeing is believing, the much debated question of
the Woodcock carrying her young. The Rooks were my only witnes-
ses and I am sure they only gave chase to make the Woodcock drop
the youngster, upon which they would have at once pounced.”

  • Editor
    l’41, 1,D-OUTING TO H! /1 SKIMPS Etc,, November 6. 1968
    High winds, which fortunately moderated later in the day,BIRDq – 35 – January, .1;$ i 969.
    did not deter either birds or bird watchers, numbering sam’ e, ;22′
    people, under the expert guidance of Mr. Ernest Hoskin.
    Highlights at Bushelll_s Lagoon, near Wilberforce, were a
    White= -headed Stilt’s nest with four eggs, two young Black Ducks,
    which were banded by Mr Hoskin, two Sharp -tailed Sandpipers seen
    at close range, and a Stubble Quail.
    Water -birds, including over 100 Pelicans, were in abundance.
    Altogether )1/1 species were seen in the locality.
    Lunch eras eaten near the old church at Windsor where a Whit
    plumed Honeyeater and a Black -faced Cuckoo -Shrike were added to
    the list.
    Next stop was in open forest shale country near Scheyville
    where Mr. Hoskin’s mimicry of the calls of birds brought many
    species, including a ealte-throated Warbler and a Rufous Whistler
    right before our eyes. Two large lace lizards on the one tree we
    admired. On we went to Gattai Greek, near Murphy’s Bridge where
    we listened to the Bell -miners calling and also saw many other
    species including a lovely King Parrot.
    Finally the party went to Blue -Gum Creek near Annangrove in
    sandstone country where a nesting White -throated Warbler was
    Altogether the outing yeilded 86 species and was a reminder
    to Sydney bird -watchers how fortunate they are in having such a
    variety of habitats so close handy and so close together.
    FIELD OUTING TO LION ISLA2 D4. December 7. 1968.
    The day dawned fine and clear -perfect weather for island
    going – and. at 9a.m. a party of 35, including 30 members of the
    G.L.B.W. left Palm Beach for Lion Island. After landing safely
    on the small beach on the southern side of the Island members
    were introduced to Bill Lane (the leader of the party Alan Mor
    (representing the National Parks and Wildlife Service Harry
    Battam, Ray Lonnon, and Brian Speechley who were assisting with
    the banding. programme. Before splitting up into nmaller parties
    we were given a short, but informative, talk on the birds of Lion
    Island by Bill Lane who also discussed some of the results of the
    banding programme.
    The main species of interest found on the Island were the
    Little Penguin, Wedge-tailed Shearwater and the Sooty Shear-wate
    The penguins were breeding in good numbers among the rocks and
    boulders below the cliffs and young birds of all ages were seen.IRDS – 36 – January, 1, 1969.
    Some shearwaters were also breeding below the dIiffs but the Main
    ()Ionics appeared to be in the area surrounding the highest point
    of the island. Here, both species were nesting together and many
    of their burrows had been numbered in an attempt to gather informi-
    ation on the life histories of individual birds. Most of the bir-
    ds examined during the day had already been banded, one as long.
    ago as 1957 and some interesting information was thus obtained; in
    addition, several new birds were banded. Very few land- birds were
    seen and only Ravens and Yellow- faced Honeyeaters were present in
    any numbers.
    Before leaving most members took the opportunity of visiting
    the northern side of the Island where the sandstone cliffs have
    been weathered and eroded Into a series of most unusual patterns
    and shapes. In closing this report I would like to record the
    thanks of members to Bill Lane and. his helpors for a most interes
    -ing and enjoyable day. Li ;N ROGERS.
    Saturday. January (RATN-FOREST)
    Leaders: George and Marie Dibley.
    Meet at 9.30 a.m, east side of Waterfall station. We inten
    to walk down the Old Mill track from Waterfall to the
    Scientists’ hut site, through some good rain- forest. Carry
    morning tea.
    Some cars and those who do not want to walk down the track
    (which is a bit rough) will proceed down McKell Lve. and walk
    into the Scientists’ hut clearing where the rest of the party
    will meet up with them. Drivers of cars still parked at Water
    fall will be driven back to pick these up and will then return
    to the clearing for lunch. The afternoon will be spent in r
    forest along Bola Greek, cars being parked in Lady Carrington
    Members coming by public transport should catch the 8.23
    Cronnl l a train at Central and change at Sutherland to the Wate
    -fall train arriving at 9.23 s.m.
    Sunday, February 9, 1962 (Rain -forest)
    Leader: Peter Roberts.
    Localities, Mt. Tomah; Mt, Wilson; Mt. Irvine.
    MMoooott i0.30 a.m. at picnic ground at the top of Mt. Tomah
    near the Bell Road. Lunch at Mt. Wilson picnic ground. The
    afternoon will be spent at Mt, Irvine,