Vol. 30 No. 2-text

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Journal of the
The object of the Club is to promote the study and conservation of Australian birds and
the habitats they occupy.
President Elisabeth Karplus
Vice -President Stuart Fairbairn
Secretary Penny Drake -Brockman
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Australian Birds is published quarterly.Original articles and short notes on
birds are invited, especially those relating to field observations in New South Wales.
Line drawings and good quality photographs are welcome.
Please refer to Advice to Contributors, inside back cover.
Editor Peter Roberts
Production Stuart Fairbairn
Cover Picture: “Wedgetails of the mountains”. Wedgetailed Eagles, immature and adult.
Painting Steve Tredinnick
Oriental Plover
The picture on the back cover of Volume 30, Part 1, was incorrectly captioned as
Caspian Plover. The photograph, by Tony Palliser, depicts the Oriental Plover
Charadrius veredus that was reported on page 82 of Volume 29.
Please address manuscripts to the Editor at:
33 Carlyle Rd LINDFIELD, 2070
ISSN 0311-8150
Printed by The Village Scribe, 56 Thompson Street, Drummoyne 2047Journal of the
VOLUME 29 (1995/96)
Hon. Editor: Peter Roberts
Burton, A 63
Daly, G. 40
Debus, S.J.S. 44, 62
Evison, S 40
Fairbaim, S (No.2)
Gosper, C.R. 33
Gosper, D.G. 33, 54
Jones, B. 10
Larkins, D 13
Maddock, M
Morris, A.K. 63
Pearson -Smith, K 13
Does not include incidental references, or entries in Annual Bird Report
Cuckoo, Channel -billed
Dotterel, Red -capped
Egret, Cattle
Ground Parrot
Gull, Silver
Kite, Square -tailed 41, 44, 62
Magpie, Australian
Myna, Common
Owl, Sooty
Oystercatcher, Pied
Parrot, Ground
Plover, Red -capped
Pigeon, Crested
Tern, Caspian
Tern, Crested
Tern, Fairy
Tern, Little
Volume 30 No.2 May 1997
Zoology Department, University of New England, ARMIDALE 2351
A survey of raptors was conducted in Jervis Bay National Park for approximately a week in
each month of May, August, September and October 1995, by means of point counts, transects and
ground searches (diurnal species) and nocturnal listening, playback of calls and spotlighting (owls).
Eleven diurnal and four nocturnal species were identified, the number of individuals or breeding
pairs determined or estimated: Black -shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris (2+ birds), Square -tailed
Kite Lophoictinia isura (1 bird), Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus (7+ pairs), White -bellied
Sea- Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster (5+ pairs), Swamp Harrier Circus approximans (3+ birds), Brown
Goshawk Accipiterfasciatus (9+ pairs), Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae (2 birds), Collared
Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrhocephalus (3+ pairs), Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax (1 pair), Little
Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides (1 bird), Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus (1, possibly 2 pairs),
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides (5 birds), Powerful Owl Ninox strenua (8 occupied territories,
4 confirmed pairs), Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae (50+ pairs), Masked Owl Tyto
novaehollandiae (1 bird), Barn Owl Tyto alba (3+ birds). Of these, the Square -tailed Kite, Powerful
Owl and Masked Owl are threatened in New South Wales and considered rare nationally; the
survey produced the first Park records of the Square -tailed Kite and Masked Owl. The locations or
predicted locations of nests of sensitive species were identified: Whistling Kite (3 nests), Sea- Eagle
(5 nests), Peregrine Falcon (1 nest), Powerful Owl (4 nesting areas). Several nest sites require
special management, by virtue of their location near areas of high human use: White -bellied Sea –
Eagle (1 nest), Peregrine Falcon (1 nest, if subject to disturbance), and Powerful Owl (3 nesting
Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 29INTRODUCTION
Several uncommon, threatened or otherwise sensitive species of diurnal and
nocturnal birds of prey were known to occur in the Bherwerre Peninsula section of the
federally owned Jervis Bay National Park (Disney 1979; Sonter 1980, 1982; Park records),
but no quantified survey of their populations and distribution had been undertaken. Such
information was required in order for the Australian Nature Conservation Agency to
conduct an appropriate management program designed to conserve these species. This
paper presents the results of a project whose aims included establishing the abundance
and nesting locations of raptors in Jervis Bay National Park. The project scope included
the conduct of a field survey to establish a data set providing measures of abundance and
locations of nest sites (where feasible).
The federal Jervis Bay National Park occupies c. 7360 ha between Bowen Island
and Jervis Bay in the east and St Georges Basin/Sussex Inlet in the west. It is south of
Nowra (34°54’S, 150°35’E) on the New South Wales South Coast, and adjoins the NSW
Jervis Bay National Park administered by the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service.
About half the study area is forested, mainly with blackbutt Eucalyptus pilularis and
other dry open forest or woodland, and the remainder mostly wet and dry heath, all on
sandy infertile substrate. There are small pockets of depauperate rainforest in a few
sheltered gullies, and scattered fresh wetlands (lakes and sedge swamps). The littoral
margins are variously bayside, seaward (cliffs and beaches) and estuarine. The Park is
almost bisected by the naval college (HMAS Creswell) and associated Jervis Bay Village,
and the adjoining extensive clearing of the naval airfield. For further details, see papers
in Cho et al. (1995).
The main area surveyed was the Bherwerre Peninsula. Survey activities were
conducted in four blocks: 8-12 May, 1-6 August, 31 August -6 September and 10-16
October 1995. The spread of survey effort was designed to cover the spread of laying
dates of the various species, in order to maximise the likelihood of finding active nests.
Two main methods were used to determine the populations and distributions of
diurnal raptors: standardised point -counts from vantage points as previously described
(Debus 1993a), and transects on roads and tracks (walking in forest, walking and slow
driving in heathland, with opportunistic sightings while driving through forest). Scans
from vantage points were generally of four hours’ duration, starting 2-3 hours after sunrise,
but were modified by weather, results and time available. Transect distances and durations
were determined by track length and layout, terrain and habitat (i.e. feasibility in the time
30 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997available). Ground searches were conducted in areas where the other methods indicated
the likely presence of active nests; these were of variable (unquantified) duration
determined by the time required to find the nest. Much daytime survey effort from August
to October was devoted to searches for White -bellied Sea -Eagle nests. A survey by boat,
to scan the sea cliffs for Peregrine Falcon nests, was conducted on one morning (0900-
1030 h, Bowen Island to St Georges Head and return, 12 October). Other survey activities
are summarised in Table 1, except for driving transects through forest which were
unquantified and opportunistic in nature while commuting. Additionally, an inspection
was made of Beecroft Peninsula on 6 September, particularly around the lighthouse on
Point Perpendicular, for two hours from midday.
Owls were surveyed by means of a standard procedure (Debus 1995) of listening
for 15 minutes, playback of pre-recorded calls, stationary spotlight -sweeping, then listening
for 10 minutes for a response at each point, with slow spotlight -driving between points
km apart on a transect. The 27 survey points were in groups of 3-4 per transect (an
evening’s work) on sections of road or track. Opportunistic sightings were made while
commuting between or from transects. All survey points were in forest or woodland,
with the aim of surveying each point at least twice for the threatened species; most sites
were surveyed three times each in total. Calls broadcast were Barking Owl, Masked Owl,
Sooty Owl and Powerful Owl in May and August, with Sooty Owl broadcast only in the
most likely habitat (i.e. mesic understorey) in August. Thereafter only Boobook and
Powerful Owl were broadcast, except at new sites where Barking and Masked were also
broadcast. This strategy was adopted because Boobooks were vocal and responsive only
from late August onwards, and additional sites were surveyed in September and October.
Generally, Powerful Owl playback was not used a third time at sites because it was assumed
that by September or October fledglings and their parents would be audible, and their
nests could be located without the possible stress of playback. However, a trial was
conducted on the response of three pairs of Powerful Owls to repeated exposure to playback
(once per survey trip over three trips at monthly or greater intervals). Limited daytime
searches for Powerful Owl roosts/nests at the anticipated fledging stage were conducted
in the three potentially most sensitive locations. Survey effort was concentrated on the
threatened and uncommon species, because Boobooks were recorded at every survey site
after a single round of playback surveys for that species.
Conclusions from the survey are presented in the following annotated list of species,
with casual records from the existing database of wildlife sightings by Park staff (database' records), and other sightings communicated verbally by Park staff ( reported’ ) during the
survey, discussed as appropriate. Taxonomy, sequence and nomenclature follow Christidis
Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 31Table 1. Surveys for diurnal raptors in Jervis Bay National Park, 1995.
Site Date Start Duration
time (h)
Scans from vantage points:
Fire tower 2.8 0930 4
11.10 1000 4
15.10 0750 4
Bherwerre Trig 3.8 0920 4
Murrays Hill 13.10 1345
Ruined lighthouse 10.5 1430 0.5
4.8 1130 2
Brooks Lookout 10.5 1000
4.8 0910 2
Swamp, Murrays Beach Rd 4.8 1610
West tower, Navy Range 13.10 0800 4
South tower, Navy Range 14.10 0800 4
St Georges Basin, Ellmoos Rd 12.5 0830 6
Walking transects:
Governor Head-Murrays Hill 9.5 1330 2 (return)
12.10 1430
Telegraph Creek circuit 9.5 1600
Blacks Waterhole-Brooks LO 10.5 1000
Brooks LO -Steamers Beach 10.5 1100 1.5 (return)
Bristol Point-Murrays Beach 11.5 0800 3.5 (return)
Murrays Beach -lighthouse 11.5 1300 0.5
Stony Ck Rd -Jervis Bay Rd 3.8 1440 1.5 (return)
Forest off Ellmoos Road 12.5 1400 (return)
Flat Rock Creek 12.10 1330 0.5
32 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997& Boles (1994). Abundance is presented as the estimated number of individuals or breeding
pairs in the Park, rather than as densities which were not feasible to determine. Threatened
species (NSW and nationally) are asterisked. Federal legislation (Endangered Species
Protection Act 1992) recognises the categories ‘Endangered’ and ‘Vulnerable’, but none
of the raptors detected in the Park is so listed. Garnett (1993) also recognises the categories
Rare' and 'Insufficiently Known'; categories for some species have been amended by Collar et al. (1994). New South Wales legislation (Threatened Species Conservation Act 1995) also recognises Vulnerable and Endangered categories. Diurnal raptors Several species previously known from the Park (perhaps mainly as vagrants) were not detected during the survey, namely the Osprey Pandion haliaetus, Spotted Harrier Circus assimilis, Brown Falcon Falco berigora, Australian Hobby Falco longipennis and Black Falcon Falco subniger. Of these, only the Brown Falcon was on the Park database (seen near ruined lighthouse). This result suggests that those species are infrequent visitors to the Park. One species (Square -tailed Kite) was added to the Park list as a result of the survey. Black- shouldered Kite Elanus axillaris Individuals seen at west runway tower on Navy range, Wreck Bay/Jervis Bay Roads intersection, and Jervis Bay Road between Scottish Rocks and Hole in the Wall (immature), all in October. A minimum of two birds in the Park, using open areas. Also database record for Bowen Island and other sightings for the Village Road corner on Jervis Bay Road (M. Fortescue pers. comm.). *Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura Nationally Rare (Garnett 1993), amended to Vulnerable (Collar et al. 1994); Vulnerable in NSW. A single, apparently adult bird, observed from the south runway tower in the Navy range on 14 October; the first Park record. The bird was first seen foraging over eucalypt forest just north of Wreck Bay Village, then worked across the southern end of the south runway on the Navy range and was lost as it foraged low over heathland just south of the reservoirs on Wreck Bay Road. A single sighting is inconclusive, other than being consistent with the seasonal occurrence of this species in southern New South Wales (spring -summer breeding migrant; Debus et al. 1993). This and a previous record for Trowal Bay, Hyams Beach' (Morris & Burton 1993) may indicate a breeding pair near the western half of the Park, a possibility supported by recent breeding records Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 33for the NSW South Coast around Nowra (Daly & Evison 1996) and Merimbula (Eades 1995). Whistling Kite Haliastur sphenurus Many sightings around most shorelines of the Park, including St Georges Basin, Sussex Inlet, Creswell, Murrays Beach to Snapper Point, ruined lighthouse, Steamers Beach, Cave Beach, Blacks Waterhole, Lake McKenzie, and northern half of Navy range. Occupied nests along Ellmoos Road (active in May) and near Murrays Beach (active in September), and a third probably near Sussex Inlet, from the behaviour of that pair. The two known and third suspected breeding pairs, with a fourth reported at Creswell, probably represent a fraction of the true breeding population, as there were pair's also around Lake McKenzie, Blacks Waterhole, and the swamp on the Navy range. A realistic estimate may be 7+ pairs and a 'floating' population of perhaps a further 3+ birds. Blacks Waterhole appeared to be a roosting site for three birds. Also two birds seen on Beecroft Peninsula. White -bellied Sea- Eagle Haliaeetus leucogaster Five adult pairs in the Park, with active nests of four of these confirmed in September- October and a fifth pair probably in remote forest beside Sussex Inlet. An adult pair defending the Steamers Beach area against other Sea- Eagles may represent a sixth pair, possibly nesting on the inaccessible hillside above the beach although this could not be confirmed. A further pair around Creswell, nesting outside the Park. The known pairs in May had one (one pair) or two juveniles (two pairs) still with them from the 1994 breeding season. Two other pairs also reportedly raised two young each in 1994. Immature birds were seen at Cave Beach, Ikuka, Stony Creek, near Steamers Beach and at Blacks Waterhole where two were roosting. There was a 'floating' population of about seven juvenile/immature birds in May which declined to about four birds in the breeding season, presumably as they dispersed or were expelled from breeding territories. Also four adults and two juveniles seen on Beecroft Peninsula. The numbers of adult pairs and young raised in 1994 indicate a high density and healthy breeding population. Swamp Harrier Circus approximans Not seen in May. Individuals, of all age and sex classes, seen throughout open and wetland parts of the Park in August to October. Most sightings were of single birds, with one sighting of an adult male and a female or immature bird together. In some cases the birds' behaviour suggested that they were itinerant individuals on passage, as would be consistent with a return spring migration southwards to breed (e.g. Marchant & Higgins 1993). For instance, some birds soared up and set off on a long glide out of sight south - 34 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997westwards along Bherwerre Beach towards Sussex Inlet; others were seen at a given location only once despite repeated attempts to observe harriers at such sites. No display flights or other indications or evidence of breeding in the Park were detected. Without knowing whether they were resident or itinerant birds, the estimated population was 3 in September and 3+ in each of August and October; if a high turnover of birds was involved then up to 11+ individuals occurred in the Park over the three months. Also an adult male on Beecroft Peninsula in September. Reported to breed in wetland vegetation beside the Beecroft Peninsula road, outside ANCA-controlled land (per Park staff). The few database records fit the above pattern, with birds seen at some of the same sites as in the survey and in the same seasonal period, including two birds (reportedly a pair’) outside the Park near Hyams Beach.
Water levels in wetlands (Lakes Windermere and McKenzie, Blacks Waterhole,
Ryans Swamp) were low during the survey. It is possible that in wet years pairs breed on
these wetlands when water levels are high enough to inundate edge or emergent vegetation,
and thus provide safe nesting platforms.
Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus
Single adult near Moes Rock in May; pair at swamp on Jervis Bay Road in May and
September, Bherwerre Trig in August, and apparently nesting in forest off Ellmoos Road
in September. Single adults seen widely in forested parts of the Park in the breeding
months (August -October): Greenpatch (displaying), around the fire tower, southern Navy
range, near Brooks Lookout, and several times in the Snapper Point-Murrays Beach area.
These may represent nine resident pairs, probably an underestimate of the total Park
population of this common but secretive species. The single database record may represent
one of these territories.
Grey Goshawk Accipiter novaehollandiae
Two birds seen in the Park, uncertain whether a mated pair: adult female in the
Ryans Swamp/lower Cave Beach Road/western Boorarla Fire Trail area, soaring and
displaying in September -October, suggestive of a resident territorial bird; male soaring
up from the vegetated slope behind Steamers Beach, also in September. A database
record also for Steamers Beach, February 1995; uncertain whether the same bird.
Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrhocephalus
Single adults observed near Murrays Hill and Murrays Beach in May, near swamp
off Jervis Bay Road east in August, Blacks Waterhole (possible pair) in September; active
Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 35nest near Botanic Gardens in October. At least one, possibly three breeding pairs in the
Park; probably an underestimate given the secretive nature of this species.
Wedge-tailed Eagle Aquila audax
An adult pair seen widely in the western half of the Park, ranging from the fire
tower west halfway to Sussex Inlet, south-east to Wreck Bay, north-east beyond the Navy
range towards the Village, and north beyond Lake Windermere. Pair reported in past
years with two juveniles on Bherwerre Beach and on Cave Beach Road (R. Dalgleish
pers. comm.), and database records for juveniles over Botanic Gardens. Apparently only
one resident breeding pair in the Park.
Little Eagle Hieraaetus morphnoides
Single bird seen in October, over the northern part of the Navy range; the only Park
record during the survey. Probably an occasional visitor to open, rabbit -infested areas of
the Park.
Peregrine Pala) Falco peregrinus
Active eyrie with pair in attendance on sea cliff in October; the site is in a cavern on
a dangerous section of cliff unlikely to be used by climbers. Otherwise, a sighting of a
single bird near St Georges Head (also October) and recent prey remains on the Blacks
Harbour shoreline (September). The presence of more than a single pair in the Park
could not be confirmed. An earlier report of a pair occupying a cliff at Steamers Beach
(Sonter 1980), and the survey records for the St Georges Head area, may indicate the
existence of a second pair. Also a pair reportedly nesting on cliffs on Beecroft Peninsula;
eyrie site undetermined but apparently on a dangerous cliff unsuitable for climbing.
Nankeen Kestrel Falco cenchroides
Singles observed on Bowen Island in May; swamp on Murrays Beach Road and at
Blacks Waterhole in September; over clifftop and heathland at Devils Elbow and on
south runway in Navy range in October. Presumably different birds and therefore up to
five birds in the Park, using open areas. Also four birds on Beecroft Peninsula.
The Barking Owl Ninox connivens is known from the Park, but was not detected
during the survey; the only record concerns a single bird calling at Greenpatch on one
36 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997occasion some years earlier (F. }Cristo pers. comm.). The Sooty Owl Tyto tenebricosa
was not detected during the survey, nor was any extensive suitable habitat identified.
These results suggest that the Barking Owl is an occasional visitor, and the Sooty Owl
probably does not occur in the Park. One species (Masked Owl) was added to the Park
list as a result of the survey.
*Powerful Owl Ninox strenua
Nationally Rare (Garnett 1993), amended to Vulnerable (Collar et al. 1994);
Vulnerable in NSW.
Pairs were detected at four sites, and single birds were detected at four others (one
male, three females). Males answer playback less frequently than do females (Debus
1995), therefore males could have been present in some or all of these other territories as
well. The existence of neighbouring pairs was determined by near -simultaneous responses
to playback on the same night; in one case a single bird was calling while the neighbouring
pair was duetting. A database record at one of the sites where a single owl was detected,
together with the bird’s strong defence of the site in 1995, suggests a separate territory
from that occupied by a pair nearby. The estimated total is eight occupied territories in
the Park. Database records reveal that some of these are established pairs. There were
indications of a ninth territory in bushland around Creswell, just outside the Park: a juvenile
found dead on the golf course in 1992 (database record), a database record in 1994, and
a weathered (old) pellet found near the southern corner of the golf course in October

  1. No nest hollows were found nor evidence of fledgling owls obtained in the
    September -October surveys; successful breeding therefore could not be confirmed.
    However, the weather was unfavourable during some nocturnal searches.
    The calling centres of neighbouring pairs were 2 km apart (eastern half of Park,
    three cases) and within 1.5 km (central part of Park, fourth pair and neighbouring female).
    If a further single bird (southern part of Park) represented an eighth territory, then that
    would be a second case of neighbours within 1.5 km. On the basis of the number of
    territories and the area of suitable forest (c. 4000 ha), Powerful Owl density may be one
    occupied territory per c. 500 ha of forest in the Park. On present knowledge the Park has
    an exceptional density for the NSW South Coast, comparable with areas of high Powerful
    Owl density in northern NSW (Debus unpubl. data; cf. Kavanagh & Bamkin 1995,
    Kavanagh et al. 1995).
    Repeat playback trials suggested a decline in responsiveness through the year, with
    some birds that responded strongly in May (laying or pre -lay) responding less vigorously
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 37or not at all in August -September. Responding birds were less readily seen (i.e. more
    reluctant to approach) by September.
    The pellet contained remains of common ringtail possum Pseudocheirus peregrinus.
    A roosting owl was seen holding a ringtail in daylight (D. & L. Sutton pers. comm.), an
    owl was seen with a freshly caught ringtail at night (database record), and an owl was
    seen with a freshly caught flying -fox Pteropus sp. at night (M. Fortescue pers. comm.).
    The Park was found to support moderate densities of several prey species of the Owl (e.g.
    Debus & Chafer 1994), namely common brushtail possum Trichosurus vulpecula, sugar
    glider Petaurus breviceps, common ringtail possum and greater glider Petauroides volans,
    with flying -foxes reportedly common seasonally. There were pockets of high greater
    glider density in the better -developed forest. This high density and diversity of prey
    species, and the habitat attributes permitting such, explain the high owl density. [It is
    noted that the yellow -bellied glider Petaurus australis, a minor prey species, was not
    detected although said to occur at Greenpatch (Chafer 1992); this vocal species’ distinctive
    calls were not heard during the survey although it often responds to playback of Powerful
    Owl calls (pers. 01)4]
    The Park’s owl population is contiguous with a regional Powerful Owl breeding
    population in Currambene State Forest (Braithwaite et al. 1995) and the wider Shoalhaven
    area (Chafer 1992). A database record for Bowen Island may represent a dispersing
    immature from one of the Park territories; to get there it must have flown c. 500 m across
    open water.
    Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae
    Widespread throughout the Park. From the end of August, heard from every owl
    site surveyed with several pairs along each of Ellmoos Road, Cave Beach Road, Jervis
    Bay Road (Greenpatch to Scottish Rocks), and Stony Creek Road, and in the Creswell,
    Telegraph Creek, Steamers carpark and upper Stony Creek areas; also recorded around
    Blacks Waterhole and Summercloud carpark. Pairs were detected at 15 sites (including
    nesting in Greenpatch camping area), with vocal birds in spring at 19 other sites probably
    representing pairs or occupied territories. An estimated 35 pairs or territories were detected
    in the Park (including sightings of birds), making it easily the most abundant diurnal or
    nocturnal raptor in the Park. Extrapolation to the total area of potentially suitable habitat
    gives a more realistic estimate of 50+ pairs. Some neighbouring pairs were 500 m to 1
    km apart, with sometimes two or three pairs audible from a survey point, indicating a
    high breeding density. Behavioural observations on the park’s Boobooks are provided
    by Debus (1996a).
    38 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997*Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae
    Subspecies novaehollandiae nationally Rare (Garnett 1993), though probably better
    listed as Insufficiently Known (Debus 1993b); Vulnerable in NSW.
    A single large, dark -plumaged bird seen at close range (<20 m) when it was attracted
    to playback of calls in May; the first Park record of this species. The bird did not call or
    behave territorially, and may have been an itinerant, dispersing individual. There were
    no further encounters, despite surveying each of the 27 owl sites twice for Masked Owls
    over the four months of the survey. The species is known from the nearby Currambene
    State Forest (Braithwaite et al. 1995).
    Barn Owl Tyto alba
    A single bird heard on Ellmoos Road in open land (cleared former pine plantation)
    in May, and three birds seen together on Wreck Bay Road beside the Navy range in
    September, in open land. Database records also for Jervis Bay Road between Village
    corner/airfield area and Greenpatch fit this pattern. Also a bird roosting on Bowen Island
    in a large Moreton Bay fig Ficus macrophylla which has since been removed (M. Fortescue
    pers. comm.).
    Eleven diurnal raptor species were detected, with an additional five species in
    Park records and/or recorded by Disney (1979) and Sonter (1980, 1982) taking the total
    to 16. Owing to the restricted survey area and modified survey methods, the results are
    not directly comparable with a broadscale survey of diurnal raptors in north-eastern NSW
    (Debus 1992), except in terms of species richness and approximate relative abundance.
    Almost as many species were recorded at Jervis Bay as in the northern NSW study (18
    species). Similarly, the Whistling Kite, Sea -Eagle, Brown Goshawk, Kestrel and Swamp
    Harrier were among the most frequently seen, and the Square- tailed Kite the least frequently
    seen, at Jervis Bay. A notable difference was the low number of Wedge-tailed Eagles at
    Jervis Bay; other differences are explained by the absence of Torresian species so far
    south in NSW. A special feature of the Park is the dense, successfully breeding Sea –
    Eagle population.
    Four owl species were detected, with a Park record of an additional species taking
    the total to five. The only notable absence was the Sooty Owl, probably because there is
    no extensive suitable habitat in the Park; the other NSW owl (Grass Owl Tyto capensis) is
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 39a Torresian species unlikely to occur so far south. The Park is notable for its extraordinary
    Boobook density, and for its Powerful Owl population.
    The high raptor and owl diversity, and high densities of some significant or
    threatened species, place the relatively small Jervis Bay National Park on a par with
    extensive areas of NSW coast and hinterland (cf. Debus 1992, 1995; Kavanagh et al.
    1995). However, with increasing urbanisation in the Park hinterland threatening to isolate
    the Bherwerre Peninsula from contiguous forest areas to the west, and with possible
    consequences also for water quality in St Georges Basin and Jervis Bay, the situation
    may deteriorate in the future. Therefore, several species may require management to
    maintain their populations and breeding success.
    Square -tailed Kite
    The status of this species in the Park is uncertain, and local nest sites are unknown;
    the local population appears to be small and birds may only visit the Park occasionally.
    Nest sites are likely to be outside the Park, in forest on richer soil on private land or State
    Forest (pers. obs.). The species will forage and nest in disturbed areas provided that there
    is extensive forest habitat with high passerine populations (e.g. Marchant & Higgins 1993;
    Debus 1996b). It is desirable to determine the local breeding status and nesting location
    (if any) of this species; until this is done it is not possible to delineate buffer zones around
    nest sites.
    White -bellied Sea- Eagle
    Most of the Park’s pairs nest in remote, rugged, densely forested parts where their
    nests were difficult and time-consuming to find. Indeed, the nest of one pair was not
    found in the time available and the existence of a further suspected pair and nest could
    not be confirmed, owing to the inaccessible terrain. Most nests can therefore be regarded
    as safe from disturbance. The only exception is the pair nesting beside one of the public
    roads, but even that nest is safe (e.g. it produced two young in 1994) so long as its existence
    is unknown to Park users and the public.
    At present there is no need for management of the nest sites of most pairs, other
    than to keep the nest locations confidential and refrain from activities or disclosures which
    reveal the nest locations to the public. The roadside nest presents a potential management
    issue. At present it would seem sufficient to monitor the site and its fledging success
    40 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997discreetly without drawing public attention to it, and to delineate a buffer zone around it
    within which no disturbance is permitted, so as to maintain the nest’s inconspicuousness
    from the road.
    Increased pollution of Jervis Bay and St Georges Basin waters, from agricultural
    and urban run-off and sewage in the hinterland, may become an issue for the Sea -Eagle in
    the future, unless the effects of increased clearing and urbanisation are closely monitored
    and controlled.
    Peregrine Falcon
    There is potential for human disturbance to nesting cliffs in the breeding season, by
    climbers (including rock fishermen) causing breeding failure and possible long-term
    abandonment of productive sites. However, the identified nest site in the Park is in a cleft
    on a vertical sea cliff, accessible neither from the overhanging clifftop nor from the water.
    It is also sufficiently high above the waterline not to be disturbed by people in boats.
    Furthermore, the nest was not obvious and proved difficult to locate; the pair was also
    confiding and not disturbed by human traffic when roosting on a cliff beside a track (M.
    Fortescue pers. comm.). If a second pair breeds in the Park, it is likely to be in a similarly
    remote, obscure and inaccessible site on the sea cliffs.
    The inaccessibility of the pair’s eyrie means that no management is required, other
    than to keep the location confidential and refrain from activities or disclosures that reveal
    its location to the public. If there is pressure from rock -climbers, then the section of cliff
    could be closed to climbers during the breeding season (August to December). Until it is
    known whether there is a second pair inhabiting the cliffs, no recommendations are
    possible. Inspection of the cliffline suggests that a second eyrie will be similarly remote
    and inaccessible, and that active management will not be necessary. However, if an eyrie
    is discovered and there is pressure from climbers then the relevant section of cliff should
    be closed during the breeding season.
    Powerful Owl
    The high population density, and persistence of known pairs, suggest that Park use
    and management have not adversely affected this species to date (cf. successful breeding
    in the heavily used Royal National Park, Sydney: Chafer 1992). It appears that most of
    the pairs nest in remote forested parts of the Park seldom visited by humans. In any case,
    pairs habituate to human activity to the extent of nesting in picnic and camping areas
    (Debus & Chafer 1994) and indeed the owls forage successfully around Greenpatch
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 41(database records). Further clearing and construction activities in Creswell, particularly
    on well -wooded parts of the golf course and in adjoining forest on the southern side, have
    the potential to adversely affect any Powerful Owls in the surrounding area.
    Nests remain undiscovered (probably their best protection); the remoteness of the
    Park pairs’ predicted nesting areas means that no active management is required. However,
    the locations of nesting areas were identified with reasonable accuracy and it is possible
    to delimit conservative buffer zones around predicted nest sites, within which disturbance
    should be excluded.
    It is impractical to recommend a buffer zone for the Botanic Gardens pair because
    of the nature of human activities there, and because the owls are likely to have selected a
    nest site that avoids human disturbance. Disturbance to the owls in the Creswell area
    could be minimised if naval developments in Creswell avoid disturbance to forest cover
    around the southern margins of the golf course, and preserve existing trees on the golf
    course as far as practicable.
    The long-term viability of the Park population may depend partly on the persistence
    of a substantial bushland corridor linking Bherwerre Peninsula with forested areas flanking
    Jervis Bay, such as Tomerong and Currambene State Forests. Off- park habitat issues are
    outside ANCA control, although some co-operation from relevant NSW government
    agencies over habitat continuity may be possible. Loss of forest cover on private land
    may isolate the Park population and hinder recolonisation by the owls after catastrophic
    events such as severe wildfire.
    Masked Owl
    There is no indication of a significant or breeding population in the Park, which
    may be marginal habitat for this species (i.e. forest with dense shrub layer, on infertile
    substrate). There is potential for mortalities from collisions with barbed-wire fences and
    with motor vehicles (Debus & Rose 1994), particularly if traffic volume increases.
    On present knowledge of this species’ occurrence and status in the Park, no specific
    recommendations are possible. The two factors that may be relevant to the survival of
    individuals, namely barbed-wire fencing (to deter trespassers) around naval facilities and
    the speed of nocturnal traffic on public roads, are assumed to be largely outside ANCA
    42 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
    This project was commissioned and funded by ANCA (through officers’ Hilary
    Sullivan and Felix Schlager), which also provided a vehicle and accommodation. Thanks
    are due to the many Park staff at Jervis Bay who assisted with the practical aspects of the
    survey. Special mention must be made of Martin Fortescue and Ford !Cristo who generally
    oversaw the project and provided logistical support, maps, transport, database and other
    information, accommodation arrangements etc., and commented on the draft report on
    which this paper is based; Les Clack and Rohan Dalgleish who provided transport to and
    from Nowra; Matt Hudson for a research permit and other assistance; and Jim Williams
    and Alex Carter who facilitated survey work by boat. I gratefully acknowledge the facilities
    of the University of Canberra field station and its caretaker Jim Ryecroft, and the assistance
    of Park staff at the Jervis Bay Visitor Centre; also the co-operation of Navy personnel at
    Creswell, the airfield and Beecroft Peninsula, and ANCA staff at Beecroft. It was a
    pleasure to have Park staff and other members of the local community on some of the owl
    surveys, and I appreciate the time Les Clack put into organising their participation. I also
    gratefully acknowledge the logistical support of the Zoology Department, University of
    New England.
    Braithwaite, L.W., Austin, M.P. & Catling, P.C. 1995, ‘Forest and woodland communities’, in Cho et al.,
    Chafer, C.J. 1992, ‘Observations of the Powerful Owl Ninox strenua in the Illawarra and Shoalhaven
    regions of New South Wales’, Aust. Bird Watcher 14, 289-300.
    Cho, G., Georges, A., Stoutjesdijk, R. & Longmore, R. (eds) 1995, ‘Jervis Bay, a place of cultural,
    scientific and educational value’, Kowari 5.
    Christidis, L. & Boles, W.E. 1994, The Taxonomy and Species of Birds of Australia and its Territories,
    RAOU Monograph 2, Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
    Collar, N.J., Crosby, M.J. & Stattersfield, A.J. 1994, Birds to Watch 2. The World List of Threatened
    Birds, BirdLife International, Cambridge.
    Daly, G. & Evison, S. 1996, ‘Observations on the Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in the Shoalhaven
    district’, Aust. Birds 29, 40-43.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1992, ‘A survey of diurnal raptors in north-east New South Wales 1987-1990’, Aust. Birds
    25, 67-77.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1993a, ‘The status of the Red Goshawk Erythrotriorchis radiatus in New South Wales’, in
    Olsen, P.D. (ed.), Australian Raptor Studies, Australasian Raptor Association, RAOU, Melbourne.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1993b, ‘The mainland Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae: a review’, Aust. Bird Watcher 15,
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 43Debus, S.J.S. 1995, ‘Surveys of large forest owls in northern New South Wales: methodology, calling
    behaviour and owl responses’, Corella 19, 38-50.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1996a, ‘Mating behaviour of the Southern Boobook Ninox novaeseelandiae’, Aust. Bird
    Watcher 16, 300-301.
    Debus, S.J.S. 1996b, ‘Further observations on the Square -tailed Kite’, Aust. Birds 29, 44-53; 62.
    Debus, S.J.S. & Chafer, C.J. 1994, ‘The Powerful Owl Ninox strenua in New South Wales’, Aust. Birds 28
    suppl., 21-38.
    Debus, S.J.S. & Rose, A.B. 1994, ‘The Masked Owl Tyto novaehollandiae in New South Wales’, Aust.
    Birds 28 suppl., 40-64.
    Debus, S.J.S., McAllan, I.A.W. & Morris, A.K. 1993, ‘The Square -tailed Kite Lophoictinia isura in New
    South Wales’, Aust. Birds 26, 104-118.
    Disney, H.J. de S. 1979, ‘Royal Australasian Ornithologists Union Pilot Atlas Scheme’, Corella 2 suppl.,
    Eades, D.W. 1995, ‘Twitchers’ Corner’, Wingspan 5(1), 39-40.
    Gamett, S. (ed.). 1993, Threatened and Extinct Birds ofA ustralia, rev. edn, Royal Australasian
    Ornithologists Union, Melbourne.
    Kavanagh, R.P. & Bamkin, K.L. 1995, ‘Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and mammals in relation to
    the logging mosaic in south-eastern New South Wales, Australia’, Biol. Conservation 71, 41-53.
    Kavanagh, R.P., Debus, S.J.S., Tweedie, T. & Webster, R. 1995, ‘Distribution of nocturnal forest birds and
    mammals in north-eastern New South Wales: relationships with environmental variables and
    management history’, Wildl. Res. 22, 359-377.
    Marchant, S. & Higgins, P.J. (eds) 1993, Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic Birds, vol. 2,
    Oxford University Press, Melbourne.
    Morris, A.K. & Burton, A. 1993, ‘New South Wales annual bird report 1991’, Aust. Birds 27, 29-76.
    Sonter, C. 1980, ‘Birds of the Bherwerre Peninsula, Jervis Bay, ACT’, Canberra Bird Notes 5(3), 3-23.
    Sonter, C. 1982, ‘Additions to the birds of the Bherwerre Peninsula, Jervis Bay, ACT’, Canberra Bird
    Notes 7, 99.
    About the Author
    Stephen Debus works in the Zoology Department at the University ofNew England.
    He spends much of his time conducting faunal surveys contracted to the Department by
    government and industry.
    44 Debus: Raptors of Jervis Bay May 1997PREDATION BY THE PIED CURRAWONG AT A NEST OF THE
    7 Eastern Ave, MANGERTON 2500
    Because nest predation occurs in a matter of seconds (Poiani 1991), the act itself is
    difficult to observe and workers have been forced to study the subject by alternative
    methods. A technique that has become popular involves the use of cameras focussed on
    artificial nests and eggs, with automatic triggering of the shutter by the predator (see
    Major 1991 and references). In October 1996, a pair of Spotted Turtle -Doves Streptopelia
    chinensis built a nest in vegetation growing on a pergola attached to the house at the
    above address. Over a period of 27 days, three attempts at nest predation by the Pied
    Currawong Strepera graculina were witnessed, one of which was successful. As each of
    these attempts was made under different circumstances, they provide some understanding
    of the searching strategies used by Currawongs.
    The status of the nest was monitored almost daily for 20 consecutive days following
    21 October 1996 (Figure 1) after which it was removed and disassembled. It was located
    over a tee joint in the timber members of the pergola, 2.4 m above ground and 2.2 m from
    an outside wall of the kitchen.Port St. John’s climber
    Ivy Hedera helix were intertwined over the beams, providing 400 mm of vertical foliage
    cover and concealing the nest from above. It was, however, visible from below at certain
    angles and close range (<2 m). The entire pergola could be discretely viewed with the
    naked eye from above and below through upstairs and downstairs windows of the house
    One of us (KAW) first became aware of the nest at 0600 h on 21 October when a
    Turtle -Dove was seen cooing next to it. Construction had just begun as it then comprised
    only three or four twigs. Next morning it was noticeably larger and one of the breeding
    pair delivered 8-10 nest items in a 15 minute observation period. All of these items were
    collected from the ground within a 30 m radius of the nest.
    The first attempt at predation was witnessed from a downstairs window. At 0645 h
    on 23 October, KAW was watching the doves in a courtship chase on the pergola when a
    Pied Currawong landed on an exposed beam near X (Figure 2) and began searching for
    the nest. The Currawong moved its head up and down looking at different angles through
    the vegetation in the direction of the nest. A Turtle -Dove attacked the Currawong from
    behind, making brief contact with fluttering wings and a half-hearted peck, but the
    Currawong only shifted its position and perched on a beam slightly closer to the nest. The
    Currawong continued searching. At one instant, it lowered its head below the level of the
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 45beams and peered slightly upwards at the underside of the vegetation. At 0647 h, it flew
    about a metre and landed in the vegetation at the nest. Seeing that no eggs were present,
    it picked up a twig of nest material in the bill and flew back to a beam near X then
    dropped the twig onto the patio below.
    Incubation commenced on 26 October but the number of eggs was not counted. At
    1521 h on 27 October, a Turtle -Dove was incubating two white eggs. On 29 October, the
    nest was inspected nine times throughout the day and on each occasion, two eggs were
    present but no Turtle -Dove was in attendance. We concluded that the nest was abandoned.
    Being aware, however, that these circumstances provided an opportunity to obtain more
    information about nest predation, we continued to monitor the status of the abandoned
    nest. Both eggs were noted as present but not being incubated for at least five days after
    29 October (until 1735 h on 3 November).
    Successful predation was witnessed from an upstairs window on 5 November. At
    approximately 1545 h, MFW saw a Pied Currawong on the pergola at X peering into the
    covering vines towards the nest.Within 10-15 seconds the bird flew to the nest and
    rummaged about under the vines then reappeared with an egg in the bill and flew back to
    position X on the pergola. The Currawong then placed the egg in a groove on the beam
    and began to eat it. The egg was fractured with the bill and some of the white or yolk
    swallowed by tilting the head backwards. All of the egg shell was crushed and devoured
    in stages. Pieces of egg shell have been found previously in regurgitated pellets of the
    Pied Currawong at Thornleigh (Buchanan 1989). The time taken to raid the nest and eat
    the egg was about 60-90 seconds. At 1810 h, KAW inspected the site and found that the
    nest was still intact, that both eggs were missing and that there was an area of remnant
    egg white and yolk, about 80-100 mm diameter, on the beam at X.
    On 16 November at 1235 h, yet another attempt at nest predation was seen from an
    upstairs window. KAW saw a Currawong fly towards the house, land on a pergola beam
    near X, then immediately begin looking into the vegetation where the nest was previously
    located. The vegetation that previously surrounded the nest was searched for about 15-20
    seconds then the Currawong flew away.
    These observations pose some difficult questions such as why the nest was
    abandoned and when the second (or first) egg was taken? However, there are more
    important questions that relate to predatory behaviour of Pied Currawongs (see O’Brien
    et al. 1990) . How did the Currawong know to concentrate its searching effort near X and
    did the same bird make all three raids?
    In attempting to answer these questions, we first advise that we cannot recall seeing
    any nest predator or nest on the pergola during the last 14 years of residence in the house.
    Accordingly, we suggest that the first Currawong raid was prompted by the sight of
    some breeding activity by the Turtle -Doves near X. Indeed, we propose that the first
    46 Wood & Wilson : Predation of Doves’ nest May 1997Currawong suspected that there was a nest near X either because it had seen a Turtle –
    Dove carrying materials to the nest or because it had seen the Doves courting nearby. We
    further suggest that the Currawong was searching for nests rather than eggs,’as the first
    raid yielded no quarry. Currawongs may have developed “search images” for nests, a
    kind of perceptual tuning that increases delectability of prey (see Guildford & Deaconess
    Additionally, we suggest that the second and third raids were made by the same
    Pied Currawong as made the first raid. The reasons for this suggestion are (1) that we saw
    no activities of the Turtle -Doves that provided clues to the nest location in the seven days
    preceding the second raid or in 18 days before the third raid and (2) that both of these
    raids were so brief and focused that they seemed to imply prior knowledge. Such predatory
    behaviour is not consistent with random searching. Accordingly, we propose that the first
    Pied Currawong to visit the nest remembered its location.
    Only the marking of individual birds will provide evidence that Currawongs “map”
    and remember possible locations of prey. Nevertheless, unmarked birds are known to
    revisit caches of food for up to 24 hours after storage (Prawiradilaga 1994). Moreover, it
    is possible that the same Pied Currawong took each of four nestlings from a nest of Red –
    whiskered Bulbuls Pyconotus jocosus at Wollongong on successive days in summer 1986
    (Emery 1988). However, not all nests are revisited. Wood (1988) carefully monitored a
    nest of Red -whiskered Bulbuls at the above address in 1987 and saw only one of three
    nestlings taken by a Pied Currawong. Of the remaining two young, one died in the nest
    and the other probably survived to fledging. Breeding Pied Currawongs become very
    familiar with landmarks in their foraging range because they have a protracted breeding
    season of c.16 weeks (Recher 1976, KAW unpubl data). They are therefore more likely
    to revisit nest sites in search of prey than non -breeding birds (floaters) that randomly pass
    through breeding areas. Breeding Currawongs might therefore have a higher searching
    efficiency than floaters. Further studies on predatory behaviour should mark individuals
    and determine their breeding status.
    Buchanan, R. 1989, ‘Pied Currawongs (Strepera graculina): their diet and role in weed dispersal in
    suburban Sydney, New South Wales’, Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 111: 241-255.
    Emery, W. 1988, ‘Currawongs versus bulbuls- third time lucky’, IBOC Newsletter No. 115: 4.
    Guildford, T., & Deaconess, M. 1987, ‘Search images not proven: a reappraisal of recent evidence’, Animal
    Behaviour 35: 1838-1845.
    Major, R. E. 1991, ‘Identification of nest predators by photography, dummy eggs and adhesive tape’, Auk
    108: 190-195.
    O’Brien, W. J., Browman, H. I. & Evans, B. I. 1990, ‘Search strategies of foraging animals’, American
    Scientist 78: 152-160.
    Poiani, A. 1991, ‘Laughing Kookaburra robs Bell Miner nest’, Corella 15: 87.
    Prawiradilaga, M. 1994, ‘Caching behaviour of breeding Pied Currawongs Strepera graculina’, Aust Bird
    Watcher 15: 275-276.
    Recher, H. F. 1976, ‘Reproductive behaviour of a pair of Pied Currawongs’, Emu 76: 224-226.
    Wood, K. A. 1988, ‘Behaviour of Pied Currawongs’, IBOC Newsletter No.115: 4.
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 47Figure 1. Time line showing dates when the Spotted Turtle -Dove nest was inspected
    (circles), the breeding status determined and dates when predation by a Pied
    Currawong was either successful (SP) or intended (IP).
    0Oct8ober8 19096 808000N ovember 1996
    8(D® 0 0 8
    24 .
    -t- -i
    A 1 A A
    IP I SP IP
    courtshie & incubation nest abandoned
    nest-bouldong .1
    nest removed
    Figure 2; Assembled photographs taken on 9 November 1996, showing approximate
    scale of the pergola and Spotted Turtle -Dove nest (arrow) after the covering
    vegetation was removed. Position X is referred to in text.
    48 Wood & Wilson : Predation of Doves’ nest May 1997A NEST OF THE SPOTTED TURTLE -DOVE
    K. A. WOOD
    7 Eastern Ave, MANGERTON 2500
    It is well known that the Spotted Turtle -Dove Streptopelia chinensis builds a nest
    comprised of a thin platform of twigs and rootlets (Pizzey 1983, Crome & Shields 1992)
    but there are no known descriptions of the individual components. Such descriptons are
    useful for determining plant preferences, conspecific variability and energy budgets in
    the nest -building phase of breeding. In November 1996, I took the opportunity to remove
    and dismember a nest after it was predated by a Pied Currawong Strepera graculina (see
    Wood & Wilson 1997).
    When dismantled, 61 pieces of dead plant materials were counted (Table 1). Grass
    rootlets, small twigs and fallen leaves from Pinus radiata comprised nearly 70 per cent of
    items by number. The only identified native plants were five twigs from a Turpentine tree
    Syncarpia glomulifera and three leaves from a Silky Oak Grevillea robusta.
    The nest was very similar to that shown in a photo by Roy P. Cooper ( Hindwood
    1960). However, none of the components were encrusted together with droppings as is
    usual for the species (Frith 1982), perhaps because the nest was predated before it reached
    the nestling phase. Similar data on other nests would contribute to our knowledge of this
    introduced species.
    Crome, F. & Shields, J. 1992, Parrots and Pigeons of Australia, Collins Angus & Robertson, Pymble
    Frith, H. J. 1982, Pigeons and Doves of Australia, Rigby, Adelaide.
    Hindwood, K. A. 1960, ‘Nesting habits of the Indian Turtle -Dove’, Aust. Bird Watcher 1: 115
    Pizzey, G. 1983, A Field Guide to the Birds of Australia, Collins, Sydney.
    Wood, K.A. & Wilson, M.F. 1997″Predation by the Pied Currawong at nest of the Spotted Turtle -Dove.
    Australian Birds, 30: 45.
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 49Table 1. Nesting materials used by the Spotted Turtle- Dove in a nest at Mangerton,
    Plant item Number Diameter Length (mm)
    Grass rootlets 14 mm 8×100-140, 5×160-200,
    Small twigs 12 mm 4×50-80, 4×100,
    Non -trifurcated leaves
    from Pinus radiata tree 12 mm 6×100-200, 3×260,
    Twigs from turpentine
    tree Syncarpia glomulifera 5 2-3 mm 3×140, 2×220-240
    Grass leaves 4 mm 3×100-120, 1×280
    Vine tendrils 4 1.5 mm 2×250, 1×300, 1×340
    Trifurcated leaves from
    Pinus radiata tree 4 mm 3×220-260, lx100
    Leaves from silky oak
    tree Grevillea robusta 3 flat lx100, 2×140
    Leaf from climbing
    English ivy Hedera helix flat 80
    Buffalo grass runner
    Stenotaphrum secundatum 1.5 mm 140
    Leaf stem from Jacaranda
    mimosifolia tree 2 mm 180
    Total 61
    50 Wood Nest of Spotted Turtle- Dove May 1997
    OF NSW
    69 Lake Heights Rd, Lake Heights, 2502
    Russill & Russill (1996) reported an observation of the Spectacled Monarch
    Monacha trivirgatus at Nowra in 1973. They also drew attention to a few other records
    from the Illawarra region of NSW listed in Gibson (1998) and a previous [undated] record
    from Ulladulla reported in Morris et al (1981). Gibson (1998) recorded the Monarch as
    being a rare vagrant to the region, however since that publication there have been several
    further observations. The Illawarra Bird Observers Club has been compiling unusual
    observations from the Illawarra region since 1983. A check of that database showed that
    there are ten other verified observations of the Spectacled Monarch in the Illawarra since
  2. These are listed in Table 1.
    The sighting from Ulladulla is of doubtful provence, no date or observer being
    associated with the record ( A.K.Morris pers. Comm.). Thus the record from Abrahams
    Bosom Reserve near Jervis Bay appears to be the most southerly validated NSW record.
    The above reports for the Illawarra region are all from, or adjacent to, moist forested
    areas, typical of the species’ preferred habitat in more northerly locations. Never the less
    eleven records in a 23 year period would suggest the species is at least an irregular visitor
    to the southern region of NSW.
    Australian Birds Vol 30 No.2 51Table 1. Records of the Spectacled Monarch in the Illawarra/Shoalhaven region of
    Date #birds Location Eastings* Northings Observers
    Feb 1973 1 Nowra 277000 6139000 N.& J. Russill
    16 Nov1975 Dapto escarpment 292000 6182000 B. Fairs &
    J. Kershaw
    10 Feb 1980 2 Balgownie (garden) 304500 6192000 W.Emery,
    20 Nov1980 Balgownie (garden) 304500 6192000 W.Emery,
    17 Oct 1981 Barren Grounds NR 292000 6160000 R&B Stokes,
    16 Dec1982 I Mt Brisbane 300000 6190000 K. Mills
    10 Nov1985 Bass Point 307000 6169500 C.J.Chafer,
    11 Oct 1986 1 Bass Point 307000 6169500 C.J.Chafer
    10 Oct 1995 2 Balgownie (garden) 304500 6192000 R.Hanks
    21 Mar1996 Abrahams Bosom Res 300000 6120000 J. Wallis,
    20 Sep1996 Balgownie (garden) 304500 6192000 W.Emery
    Easting and Northing coordinates (to closest km) are from Zone 56 of the
    Australian Map Grid
    Gibson, J.D. 1989, The Birds of the County of Camden, IBOC, Wollongong.
    Morris, A.K., McGill, A.R & Holmes,G. 1981, Handlist of Birds in NSW, NSW FOC, Sydney.
    Russill, N. & Russill, J. 1996, ‘Spectacled Monarch at Nowra’, Aust Birds 30 16.
    52 Chafer: Spectacled Monarch in the Illawarra/Shoalhaven Region May 1997Advice to contributors
    Manuscripts should be typed with double spacing and wide margins at top and sides, and
    submitted initially as an original and two duplicates. Tables and figures must be in the form of
    reproducable hard copy, having due regard to the journal page size and format. If extensive re-
    typing or drafting is required publication may be delayed or prevented. Photographs should be
    submitted as glossy black and white prints of size and contrast suitable for reproduction.
    Upon acceptance, it is most helpful if the final manuscripts of substantial articles can be
    submitted in word processor format. The editor will advise details of acceptable formats.
    Contributions are considered on the understanding that they are not being offered for publication
    Authors are advised to consult a current issue of Australian Birds as a guide to style and
    punctuation, which conform in general to the Commonwealth Style Manual.
    Spelling follows the Macquarie Dictionary. In particular:
    dates are written as ‘1 January 1990’, but may be abbreviated in tables and figures;
    the 24 hour clock is used with Eastern Standard Time, e.g.
    0630 for 6.30 am and 1830 for 6.30 pm. Daylight Saving time should
    be corrected to EST;
    in the text, single -digit numbers are spelt out; 10 000 and larger numbers are
    printed with a space (not a comma) separating the thousands;
    English names of bird species (but not group names) are written with an initial capital
    for each separate word.
    Scientific names of bird species and their classification should follow Christidis & Boles
    1994, The Taxonomy and Species of Birds ofA ustralia and its Territories,
    RAOU Monograph 2.
    References to books appear in the form
    Marchant, S. & Higgins, P.J.(eds) 1990, Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic
    Birds, Vol. 1, OUP, Melbourne.
    and to journals as
    Morris, A.K., Tyler, V., Tyler, M., Mannes, H.& Dalby, J.1990, ‘A waterbird survey of the
    Parramatter River wetlands, Sydney’, Aust Birds, 23:3, pp. 44-64.
    These are cited in the text as Marchant & Higgins (1990) or (Morris et al. 1990), respectively.Volume 30 No 2 AUSTRALIAN BIRDS May 1997
    S.J.S. Debus A survey of the Raptors of Jervis Bay National Park 29
    K.A.Wood & M.F.Wilson Predation by the Pied Currawong at a nest of the
    Spotted Turtle -Dove 45
    K.A.Wood A nest of the Spotted Turtle -Dove 49
    Chris J.Chafer Spectacled Monarch in the Illawarra/Shoalhaven
    Region of NSW 51